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THE last letter written to me by DR FURNESS on August 10, 
1912, three days before his death, contains, in reference to this 
his final work, words far fitter than any I might write to serve 
as an introduction to the present volume. Thus he wrote: 'All 
the Commentary is ready for the printer, and Preface almost 
ready. The Source of the Plot, and Date of Composition, all 
finished and type-written. I've many a time gone to press when 
I've been not nearly as ready as I am now with Cym.' I have 
considered it best to present the volume as left by its Editor, and 
have, therefore, not ventured to supply the articles on Stage His- 
tory of the Play, Actors' Interpretations, or the List of Books con- 
sulted. The Index indispensable to these volumes has been com- 
piled by Dr Benson B. Charles, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

- H. H. F., JR. 

October, 1913 


'THIS play has many just sentiments, some natural dialogues, and 
some pleasing scenes, but they are obtained at the expense of much 

'To remark the folly of the fiction, the absurdity of the conduct, the 
confusion of the names and manners of different times, and the impos- 
sibility of the events in any system of life were to waste criticism upon 
unresisting imbecility, upon faults too evident for detection, and too 
gross for aggravation.' Time was when my youthful eyes were dazzled 
by the charms of Imogen, that my only comment on this note by Dr 
Johnson was irrepressible laughter, so stately was it in its language, 
so patronising in its tone, and so purblind in its appreciation of one 
whose name Dr Johnson could never, never have imagined would be 
pronounced 'the greatest in all literature.' Time brings in its revenges, 
however, and if grizzling hair the brain doth clear, what clarifying 
results may not be expected from hair snow-white? It is even so. 
Laughter died away into a smile, the smile lapsed into a sad brow, 
and the wrinkled brow into a vague assent. Ay, Dr Johnson was 
right in his estimate of this play of Cymbeline, the sweetest, tender- 
est, profoundest of almost all the immortal galaxy. 

If, then, this play be open to such a criticism as Dr Johnson's, 
which by one eminent critic* has been pronounced 'true' and even 
'moderate,' whence comes then this deterioration? It can be only 
indirectly due to advancing years. Although forty-six years of age 
can hardly inaugurate physical or intellectual senility, yet into that 
span there may have been compressed an emotional life far outspan- 
ning the Psalmist's threescore years and ten. Indeed, it is not difficult 
to fancy that at this period there may have crept into Shakespeare's 
study of imagination a certain weariness of soul in contemplating in 
review the vast throng of his dream-children. What possible joy can 
thrill the human breast that he has not experienced and revealed? 
What pain or anguish, remorse or guilt that can rack the soul has he 
not vicariously borne? And now a sufficing harvest of fame is his, 

* See Shakespeare, by Walter Raleigh, 1909, p. 142. 



and honest wealth, accompanied by honour, love, obedience, and 
troops of friends. Thus at last, safe moored within a waveless bay, 
what more has life to offer? 

But inaction is not rest, and I can most reverently fancy that 
he is once more allured by the joy of creation when by chance there 
falls in his way the old, old story of a husband convinced, through 
villainy, of his wife's infidelity. Thereupon there begins to live and 
breathe before him the heavenly Imogen, fair as Miranda, in colour 
warmer than Hermione. The woman tempted him and he fell, 
to the infinite happiness of all. 

For a secondary plot anything will do, only let its scene and time 
be remote enough to allow free scope in manners and customs. 
Holinshed, the faithful old standby, will quickly enough furnish all 
that is needed. As for the tedious drudgery of the minor char- 
acters, is there not many a friend who will assume all this portion 
of the task? When my fancy thus works I do not forget what en- 
thusiastic Leonard Digges, who must have been one of Shakespeare's 
ardent young admirers, says on this very subject, that Shakespeare 
does not 

Tlagiari-like from others gleane, 
Nor begges he from each witty friend a Scene 
To peece his Acts with, all that he doth write, 
Is pure his owne, plot, language exquisite.' 

We of this day, however, know better, and love Shakespeare with a 
truer respect than even his warm-hearted friend. There are scenes 
on scenes in many of the Plays which no love for Shakespeare can be 
so blind as not to see that they could never have been written by him. 
'That some portions' [of Troilus and Cressida], says Dyce,* 'particu- 
larly towards the end, are from the pen of a very inferior dramatist 
is unquestionable.' SPEDDING has conclusively proved that there is 
a joint authorship Shakespeare and Fletcher in Henry the Eighth.] 
FLEAY has shown that only a portion of Timon is by Shakespeare, J 
and Tennyson maintained the same in regard to Pericles. Thus, 
then, I believe that Cymbeline grew, the joint work of two minds; and 
in studying it the uncritical position is forced on us of claiming for 
Shakespeare all that is good and abandoning to the unknown assist- 

* Works, vol. vi, p. 2. 

f Shakespeare Society Transactions, 1874, p. i. 

J See op. cit., p. 130. See op. cit., p. 252. 


ant all that is weak or trivial, or, in short, all that Dr Johnson con- 

Regarded broadly, I believe that the Imogen love story and all that 
immediately touched it interested Shakespeare deeply; the Cymbeline 
portion was turned over to the assistant, who at times grew vainglor- 
ious and inserted here and there, even on the ground sacred to Imogen, 
lines and sentiments that shine by their dulness. Nay, one whole 
character was, I think, confided to him. It is Belarius who bored 
Shakespeare. To rehabilitate that hoary scoundrel was not (I may 
not say) too great a task for Shakespeare, but one that would divert 
him from fairer and more entrancing subjects. He, therefore, per- 
mitted his fellow-craftsman to convert into a sanctimonious braggart 
a man who, for a personal affront, committed a crime against human- 
ity as black as may be found, and an act of treachery against the State 
so foul that death by torture would have been, for that era, the sole 
amends. This treason Belarius did not commit unwittingly. He 
knew it was treason and acknowledged it.* And he knew well enough 
that in stealing the King's sons he crushed a father's heart, and the 
more agonising the father's tears, the more highly he exulted in his 
success. f And finally, as the lowest abysm of his baseness, he has 
the brazen effrontery to demand of Cymbeline payment in cash for 
his sons' board during all the years they have been stolen. \ To 
be sure, he adds that he will return the money as soon as it is paid. 
Not he. Once a thief, always a thief. He is not for an instant to 
be trusted. 

Of course, I would not be understood as asserting that Shakespeare 
had no part or lot in the Holinshed scenes. Here and there through- 
out our course, first on one side and then on the other, we feel the un- 
erring noiseless stroke that keeps the canoe headed straight for the 

In the Fifth Act a masque is given, which from Pope's day to the 
present is regarded by a large majority of editors and critics as an 
intrusive insertion by some hand not Shakespeare's. STEEVENS 
termed it 'contemptible nonsense.' Although this eminent editor 
may not be far wrong on the present occasion, we cannot but remember 
that he it was that asserted that the 'strongest act of Parliament that 
'could be framed would fail to compel' us to read the Sonnets. STAUN- 
TON called it 'pitiful mummery,' and there is many another uncompli- 
mentary remark by eminent critics. In discussing his treatment of 

* Act V, sc. v, line 411. t Act V, sc. v, lines 411-413. 

J Act V, sc. v, line 386. 


the Text, Pope, in his excellent Preface, explains that 'some suspected 
'passages which are excessively bad and which seem interpolations 
'by being so inserted that one can entirely omit them without any 
'chasm, or deficiency in the context, are degraded to the bottom of 
'the page.' To this degradation to the foot of his page Pope has 
subjected the whole of this 'excessively bad' masque. If an audacious 
hand has thus dared to thrust its fingers into one of Shakespeare's 
wonderful scenes, and interpolate nigh a hundred lines, may we not 
suspect that no sense of sacrilege would restrain it from similar inter- 
polations elsewhere? I do not say it is always the same hand, but it 
is a hand which had a faith in its own cunning greater than in Shake- 
speare's. And it is these intrusions, sometimes inane and sometimes 
silly, which in the aggregate possibly prompted some of the allusions 
in Dr Johnson's criticism. 

No consideration for the solemnity of hour or for consistency of 
character restrains the interpolator, who had evidently a knack for 
rhyming, and liked a jingle at the end of a scene. For instance, in the 
Sixth Scene of the First Act, when the desperate character of the 
Queen is for the first time fully revealed to us in all its enormity, and 
there are dark intimations that Imogen is to be killed by poison, she 
sounds Pisanio to see if she can make him her accomplice, and leaves 
him with the ominous expression, uttered with penetrating signifi- 
cance, 'Think on my words!' After the door has closed behind her 
Pisanio says, with equal significance, 'And shall do!' and we receive 
instant relief in this assurance that he sees through her evil designs, and 
will remain staunch and true to Imogen and to Posthumus. And then 
comes in the interloper with his jarring tag: 

'But when to my good lord, I prove untrue 
I'll choke myself; there's all I'll do for you. 1 

Were this play a comedy, these lines would be well enough. They 
superfluously make assurance double sure. But the atmosphere is as 
tragic up to the very last scene as any downright tragedies; there is 
not a comic character in it, and to give a comic turn to any speech of 
Pisanio, on whose weary, faithful shoulders so much of the tragedy 
rests, is, as it seems to me, utterly unShakespearian. 

Again, it is rather too late a day to urge the truth to themselves of 
all of Shakespeare's characters; they are always perfectly consistent; 
they may in fleeting expressions bear the impress of Elizabethan times, 
as Imogen in her intensest agony may refer to ^Eneas and to Sinon, 


whose faithful stories were told in the pictured tapestries of her child- 
hood, and whose names instinctively now rise to her lips as best ex- 
pressing her breaking heart. But what I mean is that Shakespeare 
does not put ethical problems of life into the mouth of a born fool or 
stupid dolt. Yet, mark the following passage, and say, if you can, 
that Shakespeare ever could have wished us to believe that an 'ass' 
like Cloten who cannot take two from twenty, for his heart and leave 
eighteen could have moralised the time and the effect of saint- 
seducing gold: 

'Cloten. If she be up, I'll speak with her: if not 
Let her lie still and dream : by your leave, ho. 
I know her women are about her: what 
If I do line one of their hands, 'tis gold 
Which buys admittance (oft it doth) yea, and makes 
Diana's rangers false themselves, yield up 
Their deer to the' stand 0' tti stealer: and 'tis gold 
Which makes the true-man kilVd, and saves the thief. 
Nay sometimes hangs both Thief, and true-man: what 
Can it not do and undo? I will make 
One of her women lawyer to me, for 
I yet not understand the case my selfe. 
By your leave.'- -II, iii, 70-82. 

There are instances, possibly even more gross than this, where 
sentiments utterly foreign to their characters or to their experience 
in life are ascribed to the speakers. Thus, in the exquisite lament over 
Imogen by young Arviragus, whose thoughts dwell on the flower-like 
beauty of his lovely sister, and he tells of pale primroses, and the 
azured harebells, and the leafy eglantine with which he could cover 
her, and then 

'the ruddock would 

With charitable bill (0 bill sore-shaming 
Those rich-left heirs that let their fathers lie 
Without a monument}.' IV, ii, 292, etc. 

Had the interpolator no wit, manners, nor modesty to put such a simile 
into the mouth of a sorrowing youth who had been from his swathing 
clothes housed in a rock? And, as though unwilling that Arviragus 
should be solitary in the use of impossible allusions, the interpolator 



gives to Guiderius a reference which is quite as foreign to any possible 
knowledge that the mountain-bred youth could have acquired. It 
is in the same scene a few lines further on, where the younger brother 
proposes to sing the Dirge, although their voices have got the mannish 
crack. (Would Shakespeare have made this mistake? Guiderius 
was now twenty-three and Arviragus twenty-one. If it be urged that 
the only youths in the company at the Globe at that time capable 
of playing the parts of these two brothers had the 'mannish crack/ 
I can only say that this is to set a limit to Shakespeare's resources in 
framing palliations for such deficiencies, which I for one refuse to set. 
He probably encountered the same deficiency in Twelfth Night, where 
the song that Viola should sing was most adroitly shifted to the 
skill of Feste.) Guiderius, however, refuses to attempt to sing, but 

'I'll weepe and word it with thee, 

For notes of sorrow, out of tune, are worse 

Than Priests and Fanes that lie.' 

Apart from the absurdity (of which Shakespeare could never, never, 
never have been guilty) that a false note in music betokened false 
sorrow, what could Guiderius have known of priests, be they truthful 
or lying? Or what of fanes, either hallowed or fictitious, when he had 
never seen a church? Not of such are Shakespeare's oversights made. 
Amid these surreptitious interpolations it is refreshing to come 
across one which openly proclaims itself a quotation. Why there 
should be this spasmodic honesty it is not easy to divine. Though 
the favour be small, yet we should be grateful. In the Second Scene 
of the Fourth Act, Imogen, broken in heart and body, begs Belarius 
and the two youths to set forth on their daily hunt without regard to 
her, for she is Very sick'; they must not stay behind on her account, 
society is no comfort to one not sociable, and then, with an exquisite 
attempt at self-forgetting cheerfulness, she adds, 'I am not very sick 
since I can reason of it.' Each of the youths in turn protest their 
love and devotion to the fascinating boy. The elder, Guiderius, as- 
serts that he loves him as much as his own father, Belarius. The 
younger, Arviragus, of a temperament more poetic and sentimental 
than his brother, goes further and says that he loves him better than 
his father. 

'O noble strain!' muses Belarius aside, 
worthiness of nature! breed of greatness! 


"Cowards father cowards and base things sire base; 
"Nature hath meal and bran, contempt and grace. 
I'm not their father; yet who this should be 
Doth miracle itself, loved before me. 
. 'Tis the ninth hour of morn.' 

The inverted commas here mark the honest man. Let us not tarnish 
his virtue by the suggestion that to shift elsewhere the paternity of 
such commonplace twaddle is not devoid of shrewdness. This mode of 
indicating a quotation, which, I believe, has not been here retained 
in the text of any modern edition, is to be found occasionally in the 
Folio. Mr SIMPSON, in his excellent and observant little book on 
Shakespearian Punctuation, has noted four or five examples of it. 

The insanabile emendandi coccethes is not alleviated, however, by 
any inverted commas; a recrudescence of the ailment, aggravated by 
an attack of rhyme, at times befalls on most inopportune occasions, 
even while Imogen is speaking. Thus, in the scene just quoted, a few 
lines further on, Imogen says aside: 

These are kind creatures! Gods, what lies I have heard! 

Our courtiers say all's savage but at court; 

Experience, O, thou disprovest report! 

Th> imperious seas breed monsters, for the dish 

Poor tributary rivers as sweet fish. 

I am sick still, heart-sick. Pisanio, 

I'll now taste thy drug.' 

Scant wonder that the poor child was sick. 

Not even an occasion more serious than this, nay, even more solemn, 
could restrain the interpolator's sacrilegious hands. Again, in this 
same scene, as Belarius and Guiderius are returning to the cave they 
hear the plaintive sighing of the 'solemn music' of an ^Eolian harp, 
and Belarius exclaims, 

'My ingenious instrument! 
Hark, Polydore, it sounds! But what occasion 
Hath Cadwal now to give it motion? Hark! 

Guiderius. Is he at home? 

Belarius. He went from hence even now. 

Guiderius. What does he mean? since death of my dear'st Mother 
It did not speak before. All solemn things 


Should answer solemn accidents. The matter? 
Triumphs for nothing and lamenting toys 
Is jollity for apes and grief for boys. 
Is Cadwal mad?' 

After such exhibitions of pressing in where angels tread, can we be 
surprised that a jingling tag, with the monotonous rhyme of 'must' 
and 'dust,' is appended to three of the stanzas of 'The Dirge'? After 
the first stanza is there, in the assertion that 'golden lads and girls 
'all must like chimney-sweepers come to dust,' a feeble jocosity in- 
tended in the reference to the dust of the chimney-sweeper's bag? No 
suggestion is too trifling or too bad. And any one who would believe 
that Shakespeare could have written the lack-luster line 'All lovers 
'young, all lovers mus? will believe anything. Unquestionably the 
author of the word 'consign,' in the phrase 'consign to thee,' would have 
been most grateful to Dr Johnson for devising a meaning for it; he 
knew of none himself. 

Rhymes occurring in blank verse are suspicious, especially if pom- 
pously enunciating a commonplace. Thus, 

' 'Imogen. Your life, good master, 
Must shuffle for itself. 

Lucius. The boy disdains me, 
He leaves me, scorns me; Briefly die their joys, 
That place them in the truth of girls and boys. 
Why stands he so perplex'd?'- -V, v, 125, etc. 

The omission of the lines in italics leaves a hardly perceptible gap in 
the metre. 

In the following passage I mistrust the concluding lines. It is in 
the First Scene of the last Act, a scene whereof it is impossible to 
exaggerate the dramatic importance. We meet Posthumus for the 
first time since lachimo's triumph and since his unpardonable 
distrust of Imogen and brutal commands to Pisanio. And although 
we have not seen him, yet every fresh sorrow that has befallen Imogen 
has quickened our hot anger against the cause of it. Now, however, 
as we draw towards a serene close of the tragedy, more lenient feelings 
towards Posthumus must be the harbingers of peace. We must see the 
devotion of a love so triumphant that every thought of sin is cast 
away and the object of it accepted by the throned gods. There 
must be the revelation of a repentance so profound that its only expia- 



tion is death; every phrase, every word must stamp this high resolve; 
and every phrase, every word that does not bear this stamp weakens 
the impression and blurs our sympathy. 

"Tis enough 

That, Britain, I have killed thy mistress-piece, 
I'll give no wound to thee. Therefore, good heavens, 
Hear patiently my purpose; I'll disrobe myself 
Of these Italian weeds, and suit myself 
As does a Britain peasant; so I'll fight 
Against the part I come with; so I'll die 
For thee, Imogen, even for whom my life 
Is, every breath, a death; and this, unknown, 
Pitied nor hated, to the face of peril 
Myself I'll dedicate. Let me make men know 
More valour in me than my habits show. 
Gods, put the strength o' the Leonati in me! 
To shame the guise of the world, I will begin 
The fashion less without and more within.' 

Can anything allay the good precedence more effectually than these 
last four or five lines? It was not then, it appears, to die unknown and 
unpitied for Imogen's dear sake that he put on a peasant's dress, but 
to show off and make people stare. This braggart poseur would be 
dressed as a beggar and fight like a lion. Instead of seeking death, he 
would give it, and, by thus winning so much cheap admiration, he 
he, whose every breath was death for Imogen's sake, would Heaven 
save the mark! set the fashion of bad clothes to offset good fighting! 

The last line of the Fourth Scene of the Second Act jars in the 
reading, and seems to me an excrescence of the interpolator: 

'Posthumus. I'll write against them 
Detest them, curse them; yet 'tis greater skill 
In a true hate, to pray they have their will; 
The very devils cannot plague them better.' 

Were this a solitary example, it would not be worth the mention. 
It is given here for cumulative effect. 

I doubt the genuineness of the whole of the following passage. Its 
metaphors are forced and involved, and in the reference to 'winds that 
'sailors rail at' there is an allusion that no inland, mountain-bred youth 
would ever dream of: 



'Arvir. Nobly he yokes 
A smiling with a sigh; as if the sigh 
Was what it was, for not being such a smile; 
The smile mocking the sigh, that it would fly 
From so divine a temple, to commix 
With winds that sailors rail at. 

Guid. I do note 

That grief and patience rooted in him both, 
Mingle their spurs together. 

Arvir. Grow patience! 
And let the stinking elder, grief, untwine 
His perishing root with the increasing vine. 

BeL It is great morning Come away!' IV, ii, 70, etc. 

Finally, the last scene of all has been most highly extolled for the 
marvelous dramatic skill wherewith all the characters, without any 
violation of probability, are brought together and all dramatic knots 
are untied. The scene is not, however, flawless. There are, I think, 
two passages where the trail of the interpolator may be traced. One 
is where the Soothsayer is called in to explain the 'label' which the 
interpolator had left on Posthumus's bosom; the label and its explana- 
tion are merely vapid; and as they are compressed within forty lines 
they may be stoically endured. 

The other passage, however, involves a fault not so readily condoned, 
although in both cases the sovereign'st remedy is omission. If what 
Dr Johnson said of Henry the Eighth be true, that 'the genius of Shake- 
'speare comes in and goes out with Katherine,' it may be asserted, I 
think, with equal truth that in the present play this same genius comes 
in and goes out with Imogen. While she is before us we have eyes and 
ears and hearts and thoughts only for her. And as, in this last scene, 
we approach the crisis of her fate and mark her heaving breast, with 
her whole soul sitting in those eyes which are fastened on lachimo, and 
every feature glowing in the triumph of a mystery now solved, and hear 
once more the tones of that dear voice, agonised yet heavenly, and, with 
her, we are smitten to the earth by that blind hand, who of us, who has 
ever felt what it is to love or be loved, but knows that with the first 
glimmer of returning consciousness there is the one sole impulse to 
spring into those arms, now stretched in staggering welcome, with the 
glad cry that here again was love as firm as earth's rocky base? In- 
stead of this, what has the wretched interpolator given us? With 
reviving consciousness Imogen begins an unseemly squabble with 



Pisanio! About a drug! It made her ill! Then poor old doddering 
Cornelius must needs be brought forward, and must tell again in prosy 
words what he had told us all once before, even to the very same refer- 
ence to 'cats and dogs'! All this while poor Posthumus has nothing 
to do but shift first on one foot and then on the other, and listen open- 
eyed to Imogen's quarrel about some mysterious poison. When at 
last Pisanio's and Cornelius's explanation has satisfied Imogen, and 
the curiosity of Belarius and Guiderius and Arviragus is allayed about 
the boy Fidele, then Imogen arises and, it is to be hoped, after care- 
fully dusting her clothes (I marvel that the interpolator did not insert 
this tidy act as a stage direction), she turns at last to Posthumus. 

Oxen and wainropes cannot hail me to the conviction that the pass- 
ages which I have specified in the foregoing pages are Shakespeare's. 
Whose they are I care neither to know nor even to surmise. I know 
only that they are not Shakespeare's. 

From the earliest editorial days, the days of Pope, as I have already 
remarked, gross inequalities have been recognised in this play. To 
account for them it has been suggested in modern days that it was 
written by Shakespeare at different periods of his life, begun in youth, 
possibly, and revised in his maturer prime. Let those believe it who 
list. For myself, by no stretch of imagination can I picture Shake- 
speare young enough (and we know him in pretty early youth in 
Venus and Adonis and in Lucrece) to be so devoid of dramatic instinct, 
so barren of poesy as to intermingle within the limit of a single play 
such heights of poetry and depths of 'unresisting imbecility.' 

In the course of conversation between two Gentlemen at the open- 
ing of the play it is stated that Imogen is 'wedded' to Posthumus, and 
again that the latter is banished because he had 'married' Imogen. 
And Imogen herself in the next scene says, 'a Wedded-Lady, That hath 
her Husband banish'd: O that Husband,' and further, in the last Act, 
exclaims to Posthumus, 'why did you throw your w r edded lady from 
you?' If Imogen were thus irrevocably married, how is it that the 
Queen plots to force her son Cloten on Imogen as a husband, and Cloten 
himself woos her to be his wife? How can she be married to another 
while Posthumus is alive? He is merely banished. But does not the 
Queen here supply a solution to the problem? She says in effect that 
Pisanio as long as he lives will be a witness, or a 'remembrancer/ 
possibly the only witness, to the 'handfasting' between Posthumus and 
Imogen. Their marriage was not then complete. It was merely a 
'trothplight,' and, not having been blest by Holy Church, was not irre- 


vocable, certainly not if royal influence be brought to bear. When 
Cloten (II, iii.) woos Imogen, not once did she appeal to the insuper- 
able barrier of her marriage. That the Handfasting was to her a 
ceremony as holy as marriage itself is evident by her calling Cloten 
a 'profane fellow' when he had asserted that her pretended contract 
with Posthumus was no contract, at least among royalties, as he says, 
although among the common people a self-figured knot, such as a 
'handfast' is, might be deemed an impediment. Among the legal 
depositions taken for the violation of Trothplight, printed by Furnivall 
in his Essay on Child-Marriages, &c. (E. E. T. Soc., p. Ixxx, foot-note, 
1897), there is one which sets forth the ceremony of hand-fasting: 
'22 July, 1563, ... the said Gilberte, holding Margery bie the hand, 
said, "I Gilberte, take the, Margery, to be my wedded wief." & the 
said, Margery, said likewise, she holding the said Gilberte by the hand, 
and they witnes, seynge them handfast and trought-plightid, thought 
it ynoughe; but Gilberte would be more sure, and sware upon a boke 
which the dark, at the instance of the said Gilberte, send for, and 
the said Margery and Gilberte sware upon the boke: & the said Mar- 
gery swore she would neuer wedd any other man but the said Gilberte. 
and after that, they kissed, and so went into the clarkes house, and 
Dined together after.' 

In the chronology of these plays, a subject which cannot add 
anything to their inherent charm, and wherein I am by nature inca- 
pacitated to take more than a tepid interest, it is conceded, with an 
unusual degree of unanimity, that The Winter's Tale, The Tempest, 
and the present play are among the latest written by Shakespeare. 
So different are they from the Comedies, the Tragedies, and the 
Historical Plays, in substance and in form, that they have been placed 
in a class by themselves and styled the 'Romantic Plays,' or 'the 
Romances.' In the distinguishing characteristic of their form, such as 
involved and elliptical sentences, condensed thought, and somewhat 
erratic versification, Cymbeline is held to be most pronounced, and, of 
the three, it is also considered the earliest. To account for these in- 
equalities, or differences in style from preceding plays, various causes 
have been assigned, riper years with a broader outlook on life and a 
profounder philosophy, or it has been supposed that the play was left 
unfinished and another and inferior hand had completed it; again, 
that it had been begun many years earlier, abandoned, and finished 
later,* without erasing the youthful passages. These causes may be 
all well found. They do not, however, satisfy me. I do not object to 

* See Appendix, p. 445. 



accepting the condensed and elliptical sentences as an indication of 
the wisdom of the years which bring the philosophic calm, but it is 
impossible to believe that Shakespeare would have uttered in any 
year of his life such trivial improprieties as I have specified above. 
As to the fable and its dramatic treatment, there is, so it is alleged, 
a divergence between the Romantic Plays (and Cymbeline in particular) 
and Shakespeare's earlier plays so wide that it can be accounted for, so 
it is maintained, only on the supposition that it is due to some external 
influence. This influence is to be found, so it has been stoutly and 
very ably argued,* in the tragi-comedy of Philaster, by Beaumont and 
Fletcher, which was acted some time before 1610, at The Globe 
Theatre, by 'his Majestie's Servants,' that is, before Shakespeare's 
own audience and by his own company. For the preceding seven or 
eight years the town had been abundantly supplied with Comedies, 
Tragedies, and Historical Plays, and here was now a play, built on 
different and novel lines, which achieved an instant and extraordinary 
success. There was in it but very slight development of character, 
almost none at all, it might be said; the close of each Act left the au- 
dience at a fever-heat; the heavens grew darker and darker until no ray 
of light seemed possible, when of a sudden in the final Act the sun shone 
out from a cloudless sky; and through it all from first to last there 
gleamed and glinted a sweet idyllic devotion forgetful of self and 
lost in love. The sight of such a dramatic treatment, seeking 
mainly immediate effect, coupled with a very, very close approach 
to tragedy, and stamped with the instant approval of the public, 
must give a professional dramatist pause if he wished to do his 
duty to his employers. To Shakespeare it gave such a pause, and 
the result was so it is urged Cymbeline. 

Those who dislike the thought that Shakespeare was an imitator, so 
glibly and speedily, must appeal to chronology to decide the priority 
in the case of the two dramas, only to be met with chagrin. For 
neither play can the date be decided with certainty, and for both the 
only authoritative external date is the year 1610. Dr Forman saw 
Cymbeline acted 'at the glob' in i6io;f and in a book called Scourge 
of Folly, by John Davies, of Hereford, whereof the solitary date is that 
it was entered at the Stationers' Register October 8, i6io,J there is a 
wretched epigram on 'Love lies ableeding,' etc., addressed 'to the 
Well Deserving Mr. John Fletcher.' Thus chronology, in one of the 

* See The Influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on Shakespeare, by Ashley H. 
Thorndike, Ph.D., 1901 Appendix, p. 443. 

t See Appendix, p. 445. J See Appendix, p. 443. 



few cases where it is of importance, deserts us altogether, and we 
must abandon any attempt to decide whether or not Shakespeare, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, imitated the twin poets. In this dilemma 
may not those who wish to claim priority for Shakespeare appeal, I t will 
not say to the past history of the respective poets, because those who 
uphold Philaster as the original maintain that Cymbeline is composed 
on new lines, but to the power, originality, and ultimate success of the 
two dramas. This last point is capable of a proof more undeniable 
than the two others. Philaster would not to-day draw an audience 
for its inherent charm; its fable is forgotten; its very name is unknown. 
Were it even put upon the stage it is doubtful whether or not the 
exquisite charm of Euphrasia would avail to make a hero tolerable 
who could wound, almost unto death, two women who idolised him. 
The temptation is irresistible to refer here, maugre its inappropriate- 
ness, to the most, most touching lines of Euphrasia, who in trying to 
allay Philaster's repentence for having wounded her (killed her, as he 
believes) soothes him with the words: 

'Alas, my lord, my life is not a thing 
Worthy your noble thoughts! 'tis not a life, 
'Tis but a piece of childhood thrown away.'* 

It is no wish of mine to say one word in dispraise of Philaster. It 
is a noble drama, the first, according to Dry den, to bring Beaumont 
and Fletcher into fame, and it continued, for more than a hundred 
years, to be highly popular. The causes, however, of its present eclipse 
are not far to seek. 

I have spoken of public success as a test of superiority, and if of 
superiority, then, possibly, of priority, to which those may appeal w r ho 
are anxious to believe that Philaster followed Cymbeline. Personally, 
however, I am not of those who have any anxiety on this score. 
Shakespeare so towers above all other dramatists in his pride of place 
that no questions of priority or of imitation or of plagiarism reach him. 
Secure in this faith, we can afford to listen with interest to whatever may 
be urged in favour of the humbler circle about him. 'Shakespeare,' 
says HAZLITT, 'towered above his fellows, "in shape and gesture 
proudly eminent," but he was one of a race of giants, the tallest, the 
'strongest, the most graceful and beautiful of them; but it was a com- 
'mon and a noble brood. 'f DYCE quotes this sentence, with the 

* Philaster, V, ii, 14. 

t Lectures on the Dram. Lit. of the Age of Elizabeth, p. 12, ed. 1840. 


following comment: 'A falser remark, I conceive, has seldom been 
'made by critic. Shakespeare is not only immeasurably superior to 
'the dramatists of his time in creative power, in insight into the human 
'heart, and in profound thought, but he is, moreover, utterly unlike 
'them in almost every respect, unlike them in his method of develop- 
ing character, in his diction, in his versification.'* 

Whatever betide at the hand of the jade Chronology, or of any 
iconoclast, no wave of anxiety for Shakespeare need roll across our 
peaceful breast. And here I am so forcibly reminded of a passage 
in one of SYDNEY SMITH'S Lectures that I cannot forebear quoting it; 
longissimo intervallo, be it understood, from any frivolous disrespect 
on my part; it is in his Lecture On the Faculties of Animals, as compared 
with those of Men: 'I confess I feel myself so much at my ease about 
'the superiority of mankind, I have such a marked and decided 
'contempt for the understanding of every baboon I have yet seen,- 
'I feel so sure that the blue ape with a tail will never rival us in poetry, 
'painting, and music, that I see no reason whatever why justice 
'may not be done to the few fragments of soul and tatters of under- 
'standing which they may really possess. I have sometimes, per- 
'haps, felt a little uneasy at Exeter 'Change, from contrasting the 
'monkeys with the 'prentice boys who are teasing them; but a few 
'pages of Locke or a few lines of Milton have always restored me to 
'tranquillity, and convinced me that the superiority of man had 
'nothing to fear.' 

Be it not supposed that Shakespeare is to be held as flawless, that 
he is utterly hors de concours, even in his eminent domain of knowledge 
of human nature. Yet even here we must be cautious. May it not 
be urged that human nature has not been forever the same? When 
every atom in the world around us is in a state of flux, is our nature a 
solitary exception? When all else is shifting, are we alone stable? Our 
education has been in vain if we have not departed widely from the 
nature of our forebears. When Imogen, in her hour of keenest anguish, 
with her heart torn by ineffable torture, appeals to ^Eneas as a proto- 
type of Posthumus, and finds a parallel to his perfidy only in the false 
tears of Sinon, are we, forsooth, to pronounce her classical allusions 
as untrue to human nature and condemn her distraction as mock he- 
roics? Is it not merely because our childhood has not been passed in 
halls and chambers where every picture on the tapestried walls portrays 
some classical story, which becomes ineradicable in our minds, and 
recurs to us forever after as the fittest expressions of our deepest 

* Works of Shakespeare, vol. i, p. 130, 1866, 2d ed. 


emotions? Possibly the criticism which denounces Shakespeare's 
inveterate love of playing on words may have a better show of justice. 
When Lady Macbeth says that if Duncan bleed she must 'gild the 
'faces of the grooms withal, For it must seem their gilt,' does she here 
intentionally make a pun? I think not. But even if she did, the 
w r orst that can be urged is that a pun was to Shakespeare, in Dr John- 
son's words, the fatal Cleopatra, for which he lost the world and was 
content to lose it. It is one of his idiosyncrasies and we must put up 
with it. Has he not himself taught us that a friend should bear a 
friend's infirmities? 


Dramatis Perfonae 

CYMBELINE, King of Britain. 2 

Cloten, Son to tJic Queen by a former Husband. 

i. As first given by Rowe. Om. Ff. 

2. Cymbeline] The original of this character in history is Cunobelinus. 
There is, however, as Professor T. F. Tout says (Diet, of Nat. Biog., s. v.), 'nothing 
but the name in common between the historical and the poetical King, for the plot 
of Cymbeline is only partially derived from the legendary history of Cunobelinus 
that Shakespeare found in Holinshed's Chronicle [see Appendix, Source of the Plot], 
and that even has no claim to historic truth.' Inasmuch as Shakespeare wrote 
dramas and not histories, historic truth was of small moment either to him or to 
his audience or is it to us, here and now. HERTZBERG (Inlrod., p. 298) observes 
that the name is first found as ' Cinobellinus ' in Suetonius (Caligula, 44), and that 
during his reign Christ was born. Moreover, Hertzberg considers it worthy of 
Italics that 'not a single extant author has stated that Cymbeline carried on war 
with the Romans, except Shakespeare. 1 Dramatic purposes are adequately served 
when, by the use of a primitive name, our thoughts are transferred to primitive 
times, and an atmosphere is thereby created half real and half legendary, wherein 
we are prepared to accept characters and events beyond the scope of our ordinary 
life. ED. BOSWELL-STONE (p. 6): Holinshed's Chronicles contain all the his- 
torical or pseudo-historical matter which appears in Shakespeare's Tragedy of 
Cymbeline. The historic Cunobelinus, son of Tasciovanus, w r as a King of the 
Britons, whose capital was Camulodunum (Colchester). In A. D. 40 Cunobelin's 
son, Adminius, whom he had banished, made a submission to Caligula which the 
Emperor affected to regard as equivalent to a surrender of the whole island, but 
nothing was then done to assert the imperial authority. Cunobelin was dead 
when, in A. D. 43, Aulus Plautius was sent by Claudius to subdue Britain; and 
the Romans were opposed by the late king's sons, Togodumnus and the renowned 
Caractacus. These are the sole authentic particulars relating to Cunobelin, 
besides the evidence derived from his coins. ULRICI (ii, 170): Cymbeline, 
the husband, father, and king, who is more or less directly affected by the 
complications in the lives of all the others, hence, as it were, the point where 
all the radii of the wide circle meet, and from which they in the first instance 
proceed, and upon whom everything turns, although he himself appears the 
least active, he forms the quiescent centre of the action, and in his undutiful 
lassitude and passiveness regulates the fortunes of all, but is ultimately obliged 
to take all their fortunes upon himself. The drama very justly, therefore, bears 
his name. 

3. Cloten] If Shakespeare derived a portion of the plot of the present play 


(A Gentleman in love with the 4 
Leonatus Posthumus, < Princess, and privately Mar- 

l ried to her. 6 

5, 6. Leonatus Posthumus. her] Posthumus, a o&/e gentleman, Husband to 
Imogen. Cap. 

from Holinshed's Historic of England, which Hertzberg, however, denies, it is 
possible that he also read the brief history prefixed to the Description of Britaine, 
by Harrison, at least that portion which refers to the same Epoch. If this be so, 
he must have noted (p. 117, col. a, line 73, ed. 1587) that after the death of Ferrex 
and Porrex, 'Cloten, by all writers, . . . was the next inheritour of the whole 
Empire. . . . But after the death of this Cloten, his sonne Dunwallo Mulmutius 
made warre vpon these foure kings. ... In token of which victories he caused 
himselfe to be crowned with a crown of gold, the verie first of that metall (if anie 
at all were before in vse) that was worne among the kings of this nation.' (See 
in, i, 64-67, post.) Then, a few lines before this mention of Cloten, three times 
there occurs a reference to 'Morgan,' who was 'one of the heirs of Ebranke.' 
Again on the next page (118, b, line 67) we find, 'Marius, the sonne of Aruiragus, 
being king of all Britaine.' etc. RUGGLES (p. 28, note) finds certain resemblances 
between the person and character of Cloten and the description of Claudius by 
Suetonius [Cap. xxx, xxxiii, xxxiv.], but I cannot, I fear, accept them as suffi- 
ciently numerous or as close as to warrant more than a haphazard similar- 
ity in one or two details; both may have ^been devoted to games of chance, but 
assuredly Cloten could hardly have followed Claudius in writing a book on the 
subject. ED. 

5. Leonatus] This name, according to MALONE, followed by FLEAY (Manual, 
53), 'is from Sidney's Arcadia, which Shakespeare used for his Lear,' 'Leonato' 
is a character in Much Ado, where the scene is laid in Italy. In changing the scene 
to Britain and to Roman times, could not Shakespeare's 'small Latin' suffice to 
change 'Leonato' to 'Leonatus'? Is Sidney to have the sole right to select his 
own names? ED. 

5. Posthumus] In the Latin adjective the penult is, of course, short, but is it 
not conceivable that Shakespeare regarded it as compound of post and humus, 
vaguely connecting humus and burial, and, therefore, throughout the play places 
the accent on the second syllable; and had he not ample right to place it where he 
pleased? The Latin adjective maybe posthumus, and it will; the proper name is 
Posthumus. Just as the accent in The Tempest is Stephano, and in The Mer. of 
Ven. it is Stephano. RITSON asserted that in two lines the accent is correctly 
placed the first is I, i, 52: 'To his protection, cals him Posthumus Leonatus.' 
'Leonatus' may be left out of the scansion altogether, as a proper name (see 
Dyce's note on I, i, 52). The line must then be read with 'protection,' not as a 
trisyllable, as Ritson erroneously read it, but as a quadrisyllable. The ictus then 
falls in the penult of Posthumus. The second line is IV, ii, 400, where Imogen, in 
the agony of her belief that the headless corpse beside her is her husband's, shrieks: 
'Strooke the main top! Oh Posthumus, alas.' Here Ritson is right, if no allow- 
ance is to be made for Imogen's horror as the truth gradually dawns on her. 
CAPELL tried to mend the line by reading 'Posthumus, Oh,' but there really is 
no need; the slight pause before 'oh' is all sufficient to throw the accustomed 
accent on the dear name. The Anonymous author of A New Study of Shakespeare, 


Guiderius, ^ Disguifd under the Names of Polidore 7 
Arviragus, j a/id Cadwal, supposed sons to Bellarius. 

n . f A Banish? d Lord, disguifd under the name 
Bellarius, < 

of Morgan. io 

Philario, An Italian, Friend to Posthumus. 

7. Disguis'd] 
disguised Knt. 

Sons to 



Pol yd ore 

, Var. '73 et seq. 
Belarius Theob. et 


rrein a connection is traced between the plays and the Platonic philosophy 
through The Mysteries, suggests that 'in this name there may be a profound 
intention, connected with some masculine birth of lime, involved in the poet's art, 
some Posthumus birth of time.' What this portentous masculine birth may be 
I have been, with all diligence and a mind as open to conviction as Danae to the 
stars, unable to discover. The page is 338, and I trust that the undeterred zealous 
student may be more fortunate than the present ED. 

7. Polidore] STEEVENS, in a note on 'Paladour,' III, iii, 95, remarks: 'The 
old copy of the play (except here, where it may be only a blunder of the printer) 
calls the eldest son of Cymbeline, Polydore as often as the name occurs; and yet 
there are some who may ask whether it is not more likely that the printer should 
have blundered in the other places, than that he should have hit upon such an 
uncommon name as 'Paladour' in this first instance. Paladour was the ancient 
name for Shaftsbury. So in A meeting Dialogue-wise betweene Nature, the Phcenix, 
and the Turtle Done, by R. Chester, 1601: 'This noble King builded faire Caer- 
gucnt, Now cleped Winchester of worthie fame, And at Mount Paladour he built 
his Tent, That after-ages Shaftsburie hath to name.' [p. 27, ed. Grosart.] 
M ALONE: I believe Polydore is the true reading. In Holinshed, where is an ac- 
count of Cymbeline, Polydore (i. e., Polydore Virgil) is often quoted in the margin; 
and this probably suggested the name to Shakespeare. STEEVENS: The trans- 
lations of both Homer and Virgil would have afforded Shakespeare the name of 

8. Arviragus] HERTZBERG is the earliest, I think, to note that Juvenal (Sat., 
IV, 127) gives this as the name of a distinguished British soldier. The penult 
in Juvenal is short: 'Excidet Arviragus. Peregrina 'st bellua cernis,' but Shake- 
speare makes it long (see III, iii, 105). See note above on Cloten. 'The name 
Cadwal,' says Malone (III, iii, 95), 'is found in an ancient poem, entitled The 
strange Birth, honorable Coronation, and most vnhappie Death of famous Arthur 
King of Brytaine, by Robert Chester, 1601: "And foure Kings before him did 
abide, Angisell King of stout Albania, And Cadual King of Venedocia." [p. 50, 
ed. Grosart.] 

9. Bellarius] THUMMEL (Jahrbuch, xviii, 140) : When the enemy to his country 
is at hand, with Fatherland and King in danger, the leonine courage of aforetime 
breaks forth in this hoary headed Hero: 'Have with you, boys; If in your country 
wars you chance to die, That is my bed too, lads, and there I'll lie.' [IV, iv, 62.] 
Alongside of his boys he flings himself upon the foe and saves that Britain whereof 
the Throne had banished him. A through and through Germanic nature, defiant 
and gentle, of steel-tried courage and an affectionate heart withal! 

10. Morgan] See note on Cloten, above. 


lachimo, Friend to Philario. 12 

Caius Lucius, Ambassador from Rome. 

Pisanio, Servant to Posthumus. 

A French Gentleman, Friend to Philario. 1 5 

Cornelius, A Doctor, Servant to the Queen. 

14. Servant] Gentleman Cap. 

12. lachimo] MALONE: The name of Giacomo occurs in The Two Gentlemen of 
Venice, a novel, which immediately follows that of Rhomeo and Julietta in the 
second tome of Painter's Palace of Pleasure, 1567. GERVINUS (ii, 274) : This name 
sounds like a diminutive of I ago, and the bearer resembles him in his way of think- 
ing of men. THEO. ELZE (Jdhrbuch, xv, 260): lachimo, with the accent on the 
antepenult, belongs to that list of foreign names where, in English, the accent is 
changed, such as R6meo, Desdem6na, etc. In several plays where the scene is 
not laid in Italy, Shakespeare introduces Italian names. Of course, in Twelfth 
Night, where the scene is laid in Illyria, and in the Com. of Err., in Ephesus, we can 
understand the use of Italian names. But it is noteworthy that, on the other hand, 
in Meas.for Meas., where the scene is Vienna, we meet with Angelo, Escalus (de- 
rived from the French rendering of Scala, Escale), Claudio, Lucio, Bernadino, 
names which do not occur in the Novel whence the play is taken. Our wonder is 
still further aroused at rinding that Shakespeare does not scruple to introduce 
into Cymbeline, which belongs to primitive times, this peculiar name, lachimo, 
which clearly corresponds to the Italian Gioachmo. But when, however, we 
reflect that Rome and Italy are very properly the reason for this rather strange 
selection, no such reason will avail to explain the occurrence of Italian names in 
Hamlet, such as Bernardo, Francisco, Horatio, Baptista (as a woman's name), and 
even an Italianate Rynaldo (Old German Raginolt, that is Reinold, Italian 
Rinaldo). To be sure, this Italianising fashion in names is found in Shakespeare's 
predecessors, but what was the reason that moved Shakespeare to adopt this 
infantile custom, and expand it to an extreme? It could not have been, assuredly, 
mere homage to a poetic fashion; was it some special predilection for Italy and for 
what was Italian? And whence did it come? 

13. Caius Lucius] Holinshed might have suggested Lucius on more than one 
page, but HERTZBERG says (Introd., p. 295) that Shakespeare was not likely, of his 
own motion, to hit upon forming one name, Caius Lucius, out of two praenomens, 
against all ancient Roman custom. Hertzberg disbelieves in Holinshed as the 
original source of Cymbeline, but goes further back, to Holinshed's sources. But 
if he has suggested where the original erroneous combination, Caius Lucius, is to 
be found, it has escaped me. I cannot avoid the conviction that such a refine- 
ment of classical scholarship as Hertzberg demands was entirely unknown to 
Shakespeare, and that even if the oversight had been made known to him, he 
would probably have retained it. ED. 

16. Cornelius] BUCKNILL (p. 227): Cornelius was the name of the physician 
to Charles V, who gained European reputation by curing the Emperor of gout 
and general ill habit of body. It seems more probable, therefore, that Shakespeare 
adopted the name from this source, than from the more classic one of Cornelius 



Two Gentle men. 17 

Queen, Wife to Cymbeline. 

Imogen, Daughter to Cymbeline by a former Queen. 

Helen, Woman to Imogen. 20 

Lords, Ladies, Roman Senators, Tribunes, Ghosts, a 

17. Lords, of Cymbeline's Court, four; 

Gentlemen, of the same, two; Added by Cap 

tii'o Britain Captains, an Attendant, Messenger, and two \ 
Jailers. J 

21. Ghosts] Spirits, in the Vision, of Sicillius Leonatus, his Wife, and two Sons, 
Father, Mother, and Brothers to Posthumus: and Jupiter. Cap. 

19. Imogen] FLETCHER (p. 42): In bringing ourselves to feel, as well as under- 
stand, the character of anyone of Shakespeare's more ideal heroines, we should be- 
gin with considering the very form and sound of her name; for in them we shall 
commonly find the keynote, as it were, to the whole rich piece of harmony developed 
in her person, language, sentiments, and conduct. In the present instance, 
resolving to give in one delightful being, 'a local habitation and a name' to 'all the 
qualities that man Loves woman for, besides that hook of wiving, Fairness which 
strikes the eye,' resolving to give to that sweet ideal of feminine excellence all 
possible prominence and elevation, by combining it with, and making it proof 
against, the possession of the most exalted rank, it would seem as if the very re- 
volving in his mind of this intended quintessence of feminine beauty and dignity, 
physical, moral, and intellectual, had caused his inmost and most exquisite spirit to 
breathe out spontaneously the name of Imogen a word all nobleness and sweet- 
ness, all classic elegance and romantic charm. 'Sweet Imogen' ever and anon, 
throughout this drama, comes delicately on our ear, even as the softest note swept 
fitfully from an /Eolian lyre. And as 'her breathing perfumes the chamber,' 
even so does her spirit lend fragrance, and warmth, and purity, and elevation 
to the whole body of this nobly romantic play. [M ALONE observes that 'Holin- 
shed furnished Shakespeare with his name, which in the old black letter is scarcely 
distinguished from Innogen, the wife of Brute, King of Britain.' I do not wish to 
gainsay Malone's assertion, especially since he may have had before him the first 
edition of Holinshed, wherein the black letter may have been more obscure than 
in my copy, that of 1587, the second edition. The name occurs there only three 
times (Hist, of England, ii, p. 8, 6), and of these one is in large white letter; in all 
three the name is distinctly Innogen, a softened form of the Ignogen of Layamon's 
Brute. It seems hardly possible that Shakespeare could have obtained 'Imogen' 
from Holinshed. Moreover, Dr Simon Forman, in his account of a performance 
of this play which he witnessed during Shakespeare's lifetime, gives the name as 
unmistakeably Innogen: which is also the name of the wife of another Leonatus, 
or rather Leonato in Much Ado, who, albeit she does not afterward appear in the 
play, enters, according to the First Folio, in the very first scene. Verily, it seems 
that if Imogen be a misprint for Innogen, our debt for it is due to the compositors 
of the First Folio, in this particular play; the name is found nowhere else. The 
testimony of Forman is almost decisive in favour of Innogen; and with its sugges- 
tion of Innocence, it certainly has a charm, and a very great charm. But at 


Soothsayer, Captains, Soldiers, Messengers, and 22 
other Attendants. 

SCENE, for some Part of the first, second, and third Acts, 

lyes in Rome ; for the rest of the Play, in Britain. 25 

22. Soldiers] Soldiers, etc., a Dutch Gentleman, a Spanish Gentleman: Musi- 
cians; Cap. 

this late day, when from boyhood our heart-strings have been woven around 
Imogen, to turn to Innogen would make earth's base seem stubble. ED.] 


Aftus Primus. Sccena Prinia. 

Enter two Gentlemen. 

i. Gent. 

Ou do not meet a man but Frownes. 
Our bloods no more obey the Heauens 
Then our Courtiers : 
Still feeme, as do's the Kings. 


3. Scoena] Scaena F 2 . Scena F 3 F 4 . 

A Palace. Rowe. Cymbeline's 
Palace in Britain. Pope. A Part of the 
Royal Garden to Cymbeline's Palace. 
Capell. Britain. The Garden behind 
Cymbeline's Palace. Steevens. 

6-8. YOu... Courtiers] Two lines, end- 
ing: bloods. ..Courtiers Rowe et seq. 

6. do] doe F 2 . 

man] man, Warb. Johns. Cap. 
Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. Coll. 

Frownes.] frownes. F 2 . frowns. 
F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Han. frowns: 
Theob. et seq. 

7. Our bloods] Our blonds F 3 F 4 . than 
our looks Herr (p. 135). 

7. no more] Not more Walker, Huds. 
Heauens] heavens F 2 F 3 . Heavens 

F 4 . Heav'ns Rowe. 

8. Then] Than F 4 . 

Courtiers:] courtiers' Var. '73, 
Sta. courtiers', Var. 78, '85, Ran. 
Courtiers Tyrwhitt, Var. '21, Knt, Coll. 
Sing. Dyce, Cam. Wh. ii, Ingl. Dtn. 

9. Still] But Rowe, Pope, Warb. Han. 
feeme,] feeme Ff , Pope, Han. Knt, 

et seq. 

do's the Kings.] do the King's. 
Han. Sta. does the king. Tyrwhitt, 
Knt, Coll. Coll. (MS), Sing. Dyce, 
White, Del. Cam. Glo. Clarke, Huds. 
Dtn, Dowden, Herford, Rife, Gollancz, 

2. Cymbeline] COLERIDGE (p. 345): There is a great significancy in the names 
of Shakespeare's plays. In Twelfth Night, Mid. N. D., As You Like It, and Wint. 
Tale the total effect is produced by a co-ordination of the characters as in a wreath 
of flowers. But in Coriol., Lear, Rom. 6* Jul., Hamlet, Othello, &c., the effect arises 
from the subordination of all to one, either as the prominent person or the principal 
object. Cymbeline is the only exception; and even that has its advantages in 
preparing the audience for the chaos of time, place, and costume by throwing the 
date back into a fabulous King's reign. OHLE (p. 62): [Inasmuch as all critics 
are generally agreed in discerning a welding together, unusually artistic and 
skilful, of heterogeneous elements in this play] it seems to me that, in these cir- 
cumstances, it is not out of place to ask, as a preliminary question, what is the 


8 . TKE' TRACED IX Qfr [ACT i, sc. i. 

' ', ''''' 
: _, _ - _- ^ . 

" [2. Cymbeline] 

connecting thread, the woof, of it? The answer is not easy; it is clear enough that 
he who gives the title to the play is cast completely into the shade by Posthumus 
and Imogen. We must not, however, allow the hirvt ( lo pass unheeded which is 
supplied us even by the wrongful naming of the play by the poet. It is extremely 
probable that the bearer of the title r61e constituted the oldest and chiefest con- 
stituent of the piece; possibly, in the course of time he gradually lapsed into his 
present secondary position. - Accordingly, it woxJd follow readily enough from this 
sufficing reason that King Cynibclinc and his face represent, to use our former 
simile, the thread of the original treatment and the other characters the woof, 
that is, that they were subsequently added and became connected and interwoven 
with Cymbeline, until finally they overtopped and obscured him, the new and 
young gods have always suppressed the old. WHITE (p. 281) : We pronounce the 
name of this play Sim-be-leen; but its proper pronunciation is Kim-be-line. [For- 
man who heard the play ' at the glob ' in Shakespeare's day evidently did not there 
hear its 'proper pronunciation,' else, with his phonetic spelling, he would not have 
spelled it Cymbalin or Cimbalin, and, in one instance, Cambalin. ED.] 

3. Sccena Prim a] ECCLES: No circumstance appears which can be supposed 
to mark the particular time of the day when the action of this play commences. 

4. Enter . . .] BULLOCH (p. 267): One of these gentlemen must have been as 
ignorant of matters as if he had come from another country. The facts related 
must have been known to the poorest peasant, for they concerned the Bang's 
own family, and incidents that had lately taken place and with which people's 
ears were still tingling. In the play we have two Italians, a Roman, a Frenchman, 
etc. Why not have named the speakers a British Gentleman and a Foreigner? 
[See ECCLES, line 73, post.] 

5. i. Gent] DELIUS (Sh. Soc. Trans., '75-76, p. 213), in an Essay on Shake- 
speare* s Use of Narration, remarks that 'if Shakespeare had dramatised all the 
circumstances narrated by the First Gentleman he would have doubled the length 
of the play [which is true], but hardly have made it more interesting or artistic 
[which is doubtful].' 

7-9. our bloods . . . Kings] In hearing these lines on the stage, we find no 
difficulty; we at once gather from them that our moods are no more dependent on 
the state of the weather than courtiers are dependent on the state of the King's 
moods, as the Heavens affect us so the King affects his courtiers; the King frowns 
and immediately all his courtiers frown. It is almost a commonplace, and parallels 
may be found throughout literature ancient and modern. But when, in the 
closet, we analyse the lines as they stand in the Folio, the case is altered, and the 
passage, even to Dr Johnson, becomes ' so difficult that commentators may differ 
concerning it without animosity or shame.' The earliest editor to change the text 
was Sir Thomas Hanmer, who, as speaker of the House of Commons, may have 
acquired the art of reducing verbiage to conciseness, and, undeterred by the 
scholastic ductus liter arum, or the durior lectio, boldly, without comment, gave 
as the true text: 'Our looks No more obey the heart ev'n than our courtiers, But 
seem as do the King's.' This reading Dr Johnson befittingly pronounced 'licen- 
tious,' and added, 'but it makes the sense clear, and leaves the reader an easy 
passage.' WARBURTON sneered at it, however, by saying that it 'ventured too 
far' [this, from Warburton!]. He then proceeds to retain and improve the thought 
and sentiment by reading 'our brows No more obey the heavens,' etc., because it 

ACT i, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 9 

[7-9. Our bloods ... as do's the Kings] 

had just been asserted that everybody was frowning, and because ' though the 
blood may be affected with the weather, yet that affection is discovered not by 
change of colour, but by change of countenance.' This reason is so 'obscure and 
perplexed' that we may well agree with Dr Johnson in 'suspecting some injury 
of the press.' It may be worth while to note that the sagacious THEOBALD (Nichol's 
Illust., ii, 264) accepted Warburton's 'brows,' in his private correspondence with 
Warburton, and even suggested as an addition to the text 'they are courtiers,' 
because ' to say their brows were courtiers, in conformity with the King's, I think 
is not very hard; and may seem grounded on Alexander's courtiers affecting to be 
wry-necked.' He did not, however, adopt his friend's emendation in his edition, 
or even allude to it; we may, therefore, conclude that his added emendation was 
withdrawn. Dr JOHNSON, having criticised his predecessors, 'tells his own 
opinion,' which is, that the lines stand as they were originally written, and that a 
paraphrase, such as the licentious and abrupt expressions of our author too fre- 
quently require, will make emendation unnecessary. ' We do not meet a man but 
frowns; our bloods' our countenances, which, in popular speech, are said to be 
regulated by the temper of the blood, 'no more obey the laws of heav'n,' which 
direct us to appear what we really are, 'than our courtiers'; that is, than the 
'bloods of our courtiers'; but our bloods, like theirs, 'still seem, as doth the 
King's.' This paraphrase seems well nigh as 'obscure and perplexed' as that of 
Warburton. With both critics the main difficulty seems to lie in the interpretation 
of 'bloods.' In the meantime, or rather, in the same year with Johnson, HEATH, 
whose opinions are always respectable, put forth his paraphrase (p. 469), and for 
the first time interprets ' bloods ' correctly, as it seems to me. He thus paraphrases: 
'Every one you meet appears to be displeased and out of humour; the heavens 
have no more influence on our dispositions than they have on the courtiers. 
Both seem to be equally determined by the humour the King happens to be in. 
If he is cloudy, all are instantly cloudy too.' The punctuation seems to have 
misled Heath; the colon after 'courtiers' kept him apparently from seeing what 
I think is correct, that 'courtiers' is the nominative to 'seeme.' CAPELL accepted 
Heath's interpretation of 'bloods,' as referring to our dispositions, which are in- 
fluenced by the blood and this in turn by 'the heavens,' thus understood, and with 
making 'courtiers' a genitive, and an emphasis on 'our,' thereby importing 'of us 
who have no dependence on court,' 'the passage will be,' he says, 'sufficiently clear 
without further explaining.' In the following year, TYRWHITT proposed a reading, 
which by the omission of the 5 after 'Kings,' has been accepted more widely than 
any other. His reading is as follows: 'Our bloods No more obey the heavens than 
our courtiers Still seem, as does the King.' 'That is,' he adds, 'Still look as the 
King does'; or, as he expresses it a little differently afterwards, ' wear their 
faces to the bent of the King's looks.' The Text. Notes reveal how widely this 
reading has been followed. As for the omission of the final s in 'Kings,' all, who 
are familiar with the First Folio text, know how extremely common this intrusive 
letter is at the end of a word. SIDNEY WALKER (Crit., i, 233) has devoted a long 
article to this interpolation, and goes so far as to surmise that it may have arisen 
from some peculiarity of Shakespeare's handwriting. The chiefest difficulty in 
this passage has been solved, I think, by the conversion of 'Kings' into King; 
there are, however, other minor difficulties connected with several other words, as 
well as sundry emendations which must not be overlooked. COLERIDGE (p. 302) 


THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT i, sc. i. 

[7-9. Our bloods ... as do's the Kings] 

in his Lecture, delivered in 1818, says: 'I have sometimes thought that the 
word, "courtiers," was a misprint for countenances, arising from an anticipation, 
by foreglance of the compositor's eye, of the word "courtier" a few lines below. 
The written r is easily and often confounded with the written n. The compositor 
read the first syllable court, and his eye at the same time catching the word 
"courtier" lower down he completed the word without reconsulting the copy. 
It is not unlikely that Shakespeare intended first to express generally the same 
thought, which a little afterwards he repeats with a particular application to the 
persons meant; a common usage of the pronominal "our," where the speaker 
does not really mean to include himself; and the word "you" is an additional 
confirmation of the "our" being used, in this place, for men generally and in- 
definitely, just as "you do not meet" is the same as one does not meet. 1 [In propos- 
ing countenances, can it be that Coleridge overlooked the metre?] JOSEPH HUNTER 
(ii, 292) remarks that the punctuation of neither the old nor the modern editions 
can be right. 'The following regulation,' he adds, 'was suggested to me by Mr 
Bright: "our bloods No more obey the heavens then: our courtiers Still seem as 
does the King." BULLOCH (p. 266), to whom a little knowledge was apparently 
a dangerous thing, proposed to substitute for Shakespeare's text, the following of 
his own: ' You do not meet a " manly hail ! " but frowns. Our bloods no more obey 
the heaven's call Than do our courtiers; they Still seem as does the King.'- 
STAUNTON, admirable as was his fertility of invention, at times, sufflaminandus 
erat, offers the following, can it be termed an emendation? 'Tyrwhitt's reading 
is now generally followed, though no one perhaps ever believed or believes that this 
was what the poet wrote. It has been accepted because the editors had nothing 
better to offer. The real blot lies, we apprehend, in the words "Still seem as," 
which were probably misheard or misread by the compositor for still-seemers, 
i. e., ever dissemblers; and the meaning appears to be "our complexions do not 
more sympathise with the changes of the sky, than the looks of our courtiers (those 
perpetual simulators} do with the aspect of the King." The expression "seemers" 
occurs again in the same sense here attributed to it, in Meas.for Meas., I, iii, 53, 54.' 
There seems to be here a return to the spherical predominance that overshadowed 
Warburton and Johnson. Do our 'complexions sympathise with the changes of 
the sky'? Almost the last trace of this belief is discerned in a note by BOSWELL in 
the Variorum of 1821, as follows: 'This passage means, I think, "our bloods, or 
our constitutions, are not more regulated by the heavens, by every skyey influence, 
than our courtiers apparently are by the looks or disposition of the King; when he 
frowns, every man frowns." -WALKER (Crit., i, 72) thus criticises this note of 
Boswell: 'This explanation, to say nothing more, is irreconcilable with the 
words of the passage, which, to admit of it, ought to be "Not more obey," etc. 
But it suggested to me the former part of a conjectural emendation. I suspect 
that a line is wanting; e. g. (to illustrate my meaning), " our bloods Not more 
obey the heavens, than our courtiers [Mirror their master's looks: their counten- 
ances] Still seem, as doth the King's. " There are, as it seems to me, several in- 
stances in the Folio (several, considered collectively, though few compared with 
the number of lines) of single verses having dropt out; and the Folio is the only 
authority for Cymbeline. The similarity of termination, courtiers countenances, 
was the cause of the omission. This conjecture is merely thrown out as a may-be.' 
It may seem strange that Walker was not aware how closely he was anticipated by 

ACT i, sc. i.] CYMBELINE II 

2. Gent. But what's the matter ? 10 

i. His daughter, and the heire of's kingdome (whom 

10. what's] whats F 2 . hath] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. Warb. 

11. of's] ofs F 2 . of his Cap. Varr. Han. kingdom, whom. ..(a widow. ..mar- 
Mal. Ran. Steev. Varr. Knt, Ktly. ri'd) hath Cap. et seq. (subs.) 

11-13. kingdome (whom ... married) 

Coleridge, but we know that his library was scanty and he probably had never 
heard of Coleridge's criticism. What is, perhaps, a little more strange is that he 
refused to accept Boswell's 'No more' as 'Not more,' when later on (Crit., ii, 123) 
he has an article on 'No more apparently misprinted for not more,' and, among other 
examples, cites this present passage and even refers, without comment, to his 
previous note; but aliquando dormitat, etc. DYCE in his first edition adopted 
Tyrwhitt's emendation, without demur; but, in his second edition, having read, 
in the meantime, Walker's valuable criticisms, and finding that Walker suggested 
the loss of a line, that honest but vacillating editor asks, 'But does the emendation 
[Tyrwhitt's] now adopted set all right in this much-disputed passage?' WEL- 
LESLEY (p. 31) thinks that the chief difficulty lies in the word 'Heavens,' a mis- 
reading by the compositor for Queens, with the consequent false idea of obeying the 
heavens; taking into consideration the next two speeches of this First Gentleman, 
wherein 'the frowns, faces, looks, and outward sorrow of all, King, Queen, Courtiers, 
and Gentlemen,' are contrasted 'with their bloods, or inward heart,' Dr Wellesley 
believes that we shall arrive at a consistent meaning in this first speech if 'Heavens' 
be changed to Queens; that is, 'our bloods no more obey the Queens Than our 
courtiers; Still seem as does the Kings.' To VAUGHAN (iii, 327) the difficulty is 
centred in 'Courtiers,' which, by conversion into court eyes, gives 'a quite satis- 
factory sense,' and is withal, so he asserts, 'the slightest change that has been 
proposed, involving neither omission nor addition of the number of letters.'- 
KEIGHTLEY takes a broader and more liberal view than Vaughan and believes that 
what the Courtiers lack is not 'eyes' but 'faces,' and his text accordingly reads 
'our courtiers' faces'; in other respects retaining the Folio text. There remains 
the jejune task of citing, for I shall not quote them, passages which have been 
detected in various authors parallel in sentiment with the present passage. At 
best they show that Shakespeare was merely the child of his age and shared thoughts 
with many a fellow writer, a very needless revelation, and at worst it is a vain 
parade of reading on the part of the critic and half insinuates plagiarism on the 
part of Shakespeare. Of course I refer to sheer parallelisms from other writers. 
Passages identical in sentiment or similar in expression from Shakespeare's own 
writings, especially from the Sonnets, are always profitable. STEEVENS quotes 
from Greene's Never too Late, 1590, p. 22, ed. Grosart; M ALONE, from Ant. 6* 
Cleop., I, v, 64, ed. Var.; INGLEBY, from the Com. of Err., II, ii, 30-34; Greene's 
Menaphon, 1589, pages 23, 24, ed. Pearson; Chapman's Tragedie of Byron, p. 279, 
ed. Pearson. LAROCHE, in his French Trans., 1842, quotes from Racine's Britan- 
nicus, V, v. To the citations from Shakespeare, may be added, 2 Hen. IV: 
V, i, 73, and Tempest, II, i, 142. ED. 

ii. of's] This contraction should be of course retained, as it has been, I believe, 
by every editor since Collier, except Keightley. The same is emphatically true of 
'shall's' (III, ii, 303) instead of shall we, which, the Cowden-Clarkes say, is to be 
found only in the group of plays consisting of the present play, The Winters Tale, 
Coriolanus, and Timon. ED. 



[ACT i, sc. i. 

He purpos'd to his wiues fole Sonne, a Widdow 

That late he married) hath referr'd her felfe 

Vnto a poore, but worthy Gentleman. She's wedded, 

Her Husband banifh'd; me imprifon'd, all 

Is outward forrow, though I thinke the King 

Be touched at very heart. 

2 None but the King? 

i He that hath loft her too : fo is the Queene, 
That moft defir'd the Match. But not a Courtier, 
Although they weare their faces to the bent 
Of the Kings lookes, hath a heart that is not 




12. wiues] wives Ff. wife's Rowe. 

13. referred] Ff. affied or assur'd 
Lettsom ap. Walker (Crit. iii, 313). 

14. Vnto] To Cap. Walker (Crit. iii, 


She's] Shes F 2 . 

She's wedded] Separate line Pope, 
Theob. Warb. Johns. Var. '73. She's 
wed Steev. conj. Om. Mitford ap. 

14, 15. She's. ..all] One line Ktly. 

She's...imprifon'd] Separate 
line Han. Steev. conj. Ingl. 

wedded, . . .banijh'd;. . .imprif- 
on'd,] wedded... .banijh'd;. ..imprifon'd, 

F 3 F 4 , Rowe. wedded. ...banish'd;... im- 
prison'd. Pope, wedded;... banish'd;... 
imprisoned: Theob. et seq. (subs.) 

15,16. all Is] All's Han. Steev. conj. 

16. forrow,] Ff. Rowe,+, Coll. sor- 
row; Cap. et cet. 

1 8. 2] 2 Gent. Rowe. 

21, 22. Although... lookes] In paren- 
theses Pope, Theob. Warb. Han. Ktly. 

22. lookes} look Pope ii, Theob. 
Warb. Johns. Var. '73. 

hath] but hath Pope, Theob. 
Warb. Han. Huds. 

is not] is Pope ii, Theob. Warb. 
Han. Huds. 

13. referr'd] WALKER (Crit., iii, 313) asks 'what is "referr'd" here?' SCHMIDT 
(Lex.) answers that it is a 'Euphuism' which is 'explained by the speaker in the 
next words: "she's wedded.'" INGLEBY substitutes outright in the text pre- 
ferr'd, because 'Imogen had not "referr'd herself" to Posthumus, in the only sense 
"referr'd" can well have, but preferred or commended herself to the man she would 
marry.' But why may not 'referr'd' be here used in its derivative Latin sense, a 
use Shakespeare frequently employs? The King purpos'd to prefer Imogen, 
that is, to advance her to the position of wife to the Queen's son, for though she 
was his heir, she was as a woman inferior to a prince, but Imogen refused and 
referred herself unto Posthumus, that is, she drew back, she retreated to a station 
lower down. ED. 

22. hath a heart that is not] POPE (ed. i.) inserted a but before 'hath,' thereby 
anticipating WALKER (Crit., iii, 314), who conjectured it also, and remarked that 
'the common reading is absolutely unmetrical; and the proposed one, though 
more incorrect in point of grammar than Shakespeare's wont, is not perhaps 
without a parallel in him. Or is the error in "looks "? ' Pope in his ed. ii. amended 
the grammar by omitting 'not.' Is there, however, any defect needing change in 
the Folio? VAUGHAN (p. 330) says truly that '"Not a courtier hath a heart that 
is not glad" is correctly equivalent to "Every courtier hath a heart that is glad"; 
and therefore, the text of the Folio is certainly right.' 

ACT i, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 13 

Glad at the thing they fcowle at. 23 

2 And why fo? 

1 He that hath mifs'd the Princeffe, is a thing 25 
Too bad, for bad report : and he that hath her, 

(I meane, that married her, alacke good man, 

And therefore banifh'd) is a Creature, fuch, 

As to feeke through the Regions of the Earth 

For one, his like ; there would be fomething failing 30 

In him, that fhould compare. I do not thinke, 

So faire an Outward, and fuch ftuffe Within 

Endowes a man, but hee. 

2 You fpeake him farre. 34 

23. Glad at] Glad of Sta. conj. (Athe- 30. one, his like;] one, he like; F 2 F 3 . 
nseum, 14 June, '73). one, he likes; F 4 . one his like, Pope et 

the thing] the the thing F 3 . seq. 

fcowle] fcoule F 3 . jcowl F 4 . 33. but hee} but him Rowe,+, Var. 

24. why] wy F 2 . '73. 

27, 28. (I...banijh'd)] I...banistid 34. farre] F 2 . fair F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, 

Johns. Cam. Theob. ii. farr Theob. i. far Han. et 

27. man] man! Theob. et seq. seq. 

27. alacke good man] STAUNTON (Athenaum, 14 June, '73) thinks that Capell's 
punctuation, generally followed, which places this exclamation between dashes, 
and with an exclamation mark, appears to imply that 'Posthumus is to be com- 
miserated for having married Imogen!' We ought, therefore, to read, 'I mean that 
married her alack, good man, And therefore banish'd! HUDSON adopted 
the suggestion. 

31. In him, that should compare] INGLEBY: That is, in the case of him who 
should be selected to stand the comparison. 

33. but hee] For numberless examples of irregularities in the use of personal 
pronouns, see ABBOTT ( 205-243). 

34. farre] THEOBALD wisely followed Fr, and paraphrased it, 'You speak widely, 
with latitude, in his praises'; and then the other replies with great propriety, 'as 
widely as I speak of him, I extend him within the lists and compass of his own 
merit.' This true interpretation WARBURTON dogmatically asserted to be 'the 
most insufferable nonsense,' and proceeded to show that the passage should be 
read and pointed, 'I don't extend him, Sir; within himself Crush him,' &c., for 
the substance of his note, he was bravely ridiculed by Edwards (p. 223). War- 
burton's overbearing manner so intimidated poor Theobald, that in his second edi- 
tion he actually gave up 'far' without comment. Not so HANMER, who bravely 
adhered to 'far' in both his editions, but ignobly adopted Warburton's emenda- 
tion in the second line. Warburton's argument that 'extend,' ex m termini, 
signified 'the drawing out anything beyond its "lists and compass,"' so far pre- 
vailed with CAPELL, that he rashly followed Warburton's text, but repented in his 
Notes, p. 102, and gives what he calls 'the certain interpretation,' namely, 'admit- 
ting the extension, but asserting that,/ar as he may seem to have carry'd it, he has 
come short of what his real worth is; and has rather crush 'd it together, than un- 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. i. 

1 I do extend him (Sir) within himfelfe, 35 
Crufh him together, rather then vnfold 

His meafure duly. 

2 What's his name, and Birth ? 

i I cannot delue him to the roote : His Father 
Was call'd Sicillins, who did ioyne his Honor 40 

35. do] don't Han. Warb. Cap. 38. What's] whats F 2 . 

35, 36. (Sir) within himfelfe, Crujh] 40. ioyne] gain Wh. Jervis. Huds. 

Ff, Rowe, Pope, Cam. sir; within him- win Jervis ap. Dyce ii, Ingl. earn 

self Crush Han. Warb. Cap. sir, Anon. ap. Cam. 

within himself; Crush Theob. et cet. ioyne his] purchase Kinnear. joy 

35. within] which Ff. in Dowden conj. 

37. duly] dully Ff. fully Rowe. 

folded it duly' JOHNSON thus tersely expresses this meaning, 'I extend him within 
himself; my praise however extensive is within his merit.' And then asks, 'what is 
there in this which common language and common sense will not admit?' A 
writer, however, in the Critical Review, for February, 1766 (quoted by Eccles, p. 6), 
would not admit it. 'We know,' he says, 'that to extend, in a legal sense, is to 
value lands, goods, and tenements. If the reader carries this in his eye, Shake- 
speare's meaning, as it stands in the original, is as elegant and sensible, as Mr 
Johnson's is forced and unnatural.' Unquestionably, to extend has a legal mean- 
ing of to value, to assess, but did ever lawyer hear of extending lands or goods 
'within themselves.' It would be an enviable sight to see a writ of extent thus 
drawn up, or the puzzled face of the sheriff who received it! This note from 
The Critical Review would assuredly not have been recorded had not VAUGHAN 
(iii, 331), in our own day, supported it, and DOWDEN given it recognition. To me, 
the use of 'within himself puts all legal reference 'out of court,' and sustains the 
interpretation of Theobald, Heath, Capell, Dr Johnson, and of almost all subse- 
quent editors, as the true one. DOWDEN: 'If emendation be needed, perhaps 
joy in (as in Love's L. L., I, i, 104, "joyed in the glory") would be the simplest.' 
See 'to extend him,' I, v, 23. ED. 

40. ioyne] STEEVENS said that he did 'not understand what can be meant by 
"joining his honour against," etc., with, etc.' Perhaps our author wrote, 'join 
his banner,' And INGLEBY asserted that 'it cannot be right, on account of the 
opposed clause "But had his titles," etc.' The opposition is not, I think, be- 
tween 'Honor' and 'titles,' but between 'Cassibulan' and 'Tenantius.' Subse- 
quent editors have found here little or no difficulty. DEIGHTON says that 'the 
meaning seems to be that though Sicilius fought honourably with Cassibelan 
against the Romans, he did not obtain any recognition of his services in the way 
of titles, until later on he again served under Tenantius against the same enemies.' 
ROLFE thinks no change is really called for. WYATT believes that ' "join " yields 
good enough sense.' HERFORD paraphrases: 'brought his renowned soldiership 
to the service of Cassibelan.' DELIUS, to the same effect. VAUGHAN (iii, 332), 
however, considers that 'neither the matter nor the language countenances these 
'far-fetched explanations' and, consequently, evades all difficulty by changing the 
words, and had 'little doubt that we should read' 'did join his colour,' etc. 'I have 
adopted,' says Dr Johnson, in his immortal Preface, 'the Roman sentiment, that 

ACT i, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 15 

Againft the Romanes, with Cajfibulan, 41 

But had his Titles by Tenantius, whom 

He feru'd with Glory, and admir'd Succeffe : 

So gain'd the Sur-addition, Leonatus. 

And had (befides this Gentleman in queftion) 45 

Two other Sonnes, who in the Warres o'th'time 

Dy'de with their Swords in hand. For which, their Father 

Then old, and fond of yffue, tooke fuch forrow 

That he quit Being ; and his gentle Lady 

Bigge of this Gentleman (our Theame^ deceaft 50 

As he was borne. The King he takes the Babe 

To his protection, cals him Poftliumus Leonatus, 52 

41. Romanes] Romans F 3 F 4 . 50. Bigge] Big Ff. 

Caffibulan] Caffibelan Ff et (our Thea-me) deceajl] (our Theam 

seq. deceaft) F 4 . our Theam, deceased; Rowe, 

46. o'tk 1 ] o'the Cap. et seq. +. 

48. of] of's Coll. (monovol. MS.), 52. Leonatus] Om. Pope,+, Cap. 

Huds. Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. 

it is more honourable to save a citizen than to kill an enemy, and have been more 
careful to protect than to attack.' DOWDEN paraphrases: 'Who gave the in- 
fluence of his personal reputation or soldierly virtue, summed up in "honour" 
to Cassibelan, but obtained his titles later from Tenantius.' 

42. Tenantius] M ALONE gives a long note here, which has been followed in 
whole, or in part, by many editors, to the effect that, this Tenantius 'was the 
father of Cymbeline, and nephew of Cassibelan, being the younger son of his elder 
brother, Lud; ... on whose death Cassibelan was admitted King. Cassibelan 
repulsed the Romans on their first attack, but, being vanquished by Julius Caesar 
on his second invasion of Britain, he agreed to pay an annual tribute to Rome. 
After his death, Tenantius, Lud's younger son (his elder brother Androgeus having 
fled to Rome), was established on the throne of which they had been unjustly de- 
prived by their uncle,' etc. These 'facts,' as Malone terms them, were furnished, 
as he says, to Shakespeare by Holinshed. But BOSWELL-STONE (p. 7, foot-note) 
says that 'Shakespere seems to have adopted Fabian's conjecture (reported in 
Holinshed, i, Hist, of Eng., 31) that Cassibelan, Androgeus, and Tenantius were 
sons of Lud, Cymbeline's grandfather; for Cymbeline is reminded by Lucius that 
tribute was imposed by Julius Caesar on "Cassibulan, thine Vnkle" (Cym., Ill, 


51. King he] For other instances of this redundant pronoun, see ABBOTT ( 243). 

52. protection] The -lion is to be pronounced, of course, dissolute, which 
throws the accent on the second syllable of Posthumus, as it should be throughout 
the play. See Dram. Pers., 'Posthumus,' above. 

52. Leonatus] This 'sur addition' is omitted for the sake of the metre, by 
every editor from Pope to Knight, who remarks that 'it was given to connect the 
child with the memory of his father, and to mark the circumstance of his being 
born after his father's death,' and should be, therefore, retained on the score of its 
meaning; and as to the metre, DYCE, in a note on 2 Hen. VI: I, i, 7: 'The Dukes of 

THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT i, sc. i. 

Breedes him, and makes him of his Bed-chamber, 53 

Puts to him all the Learnings that his time 

Could make him the receiuer of, which he tooke 55 

As we do ayre, faft as 'twas minisftred, 

And in's Spring, became a Harueft : Liu'd in Court 

(Which rare it is to do) moft prais'd, moft lou'd, 

A fample to the yongeft : to th'more Mature, 

A glaffe that feated them : and to the grauer, 60 

54. to him] him to Var. '03, '13, '21. 57. And in's Spring] Ff, Johns. Knt, 
Learnings] learning Var. '78, '85. Sta. Dyce, Glo. Cam. His spring 

55. receiuer of,] receiver, o/Ingl. conj. Pope,+. In's Elze, Ingl. In his Cap. 

56. 57. As. ..And] One line Cap. et cet. 

Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. Coll. Liu'd] he liv'd Han. 

Ktly, Huds. Ingl. 59- yongefl] youngest Pope,+, Cap. 

56. minijlred,] Ff, Rowe, Johns. Sta. th'more] Ff, Rowe,+, Knt. the 
Glo. ministred. Pope,+. minister 'd; more Cap. et cet. 

Cap. et cet. 60. feated] featur'd Rowe,-f, Cap. 

Orleans, Calaber, Bretagne, and Alencon,' observes that Shakespeare, like other 
early dramatists, considered himself at liberty occasionally to disregard the laws 
of metre in the case of proper names, e. g., a blank verse speech in Rich. II: II, i, 
284, contains the following formidable line: 'Sir John Norbery, Sir Robert Water- 
ton, and Francis Quoint.' ED. 

54. Puts to him] INGLEBY asserted that there is no other certain example in 
Shakespeare of this use of 'put to,' and because of the phrase 'receiver of in the 
next line, he suggested that 'puts to' may mean 'puts into.' HOLCOMBE INGLEBY, 
however, in a revised edition of his father's work, quotes 'and to him put The 
manage of my state.' Temp., I, ii, 69, which is, apparently, exactly parallel, but 
THISTLETON doubts, and suggests that 'it is rather to be explained by the use of 
"put" in Henry VII. 's Statute De proclamacione facienda: "Whiche lawes ought 
to be put in due execucion by the Justice of peas in every shyre of this reame. to 
whom his grace hath put and given full auctoryte soo to do."' Thistleton also 
quotes the parallel use of 'put' in Love's L. Lost: 'If their sons be ingenuous, they 
shall want no instruction; If their daughters be capable, I will put it to them.' 
IV, ii, 80. SCHMIDT (Lex., s. v., 4.) gives the present among several other instances 
to which he gives the meaning to impart, but none is exactly parallel in form, inas- 
much as their direct object precedes the indirect, which is common enough, the 
Variorums of '03, '13, and '21 so printed the present phrase, but in our present 
text the indirect precedes the direct. This inversion, however, creates no real 
difficulty, the meaning is the same in either case. If imparts implies an active use 
as a teacher unbefitting the dignity of a King, then paraphrase it by o/er, or assign, 
or place before. ED. 

57, 58. Liu'd in Court . . . most lou'd] JOHNSON: This enconium is high 
and artful. To be at once in any great degree loved and praised is truly rare. 

60. feated] It is not worth while to repeat Dr JOHNSON'S long note wherein he 
attempted, in revolt against Rowe's featur'd, to justify his reading of feared, i. e., to 
fright. It was reprinted in the Var. of 1773, but in that of 1778 this paragraph was 
added: 'If "feated" be the right word, it must, I think, be explained thus: "a 

ACT i, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 17 

A Childe that guided Dotards. To his Miftris, 61 

(For whom he now is banifh'd) her owne price 

Proclaimes how fhe efteem'd him; and his Vertue 

By her ele6lio may be truly read, what kind of man he is. 

2 I honor him, euen out of your report. 65 

But pray you tell me, is fhe fole childe to'th'King? 

i His onely childe : 67 

61. To] For Han. Coll. MS. 64. U'hat...he is} Separate line Rowe 

62. banijh'd\ banish' d... Ktly. et seq. 

62. 63. her. ..Vertue] In parentheses 65. euen] ev'n Pope,+. 
Vaughan. 65, 66. euen out... tell me] One line, 

63. him; and his Vertue] Ff, Rowe i. Johns, et seq. 

him. And his vertue Rowe ii. him 66. pray] 'pray Mai. Steev. Varr. 

and his vertue. Pope, + , Ktly. him Knt, Sing. Ktly. 

and his vertue; Cap. et cet. to'lh'] to thee Cap. et seq. 

64. read,} read Pope, Theob. Warb. 67. childe:} child? Ff. child. Rowe 

et seq. 

glass that formed them"; a model, by the contemplation and inspection of which 
they formed their manners.' In MALOKE'S edition of 1790, the first to appear 
after Johnson's death in 1784, the note was suppressed, and of the added paragraph 
only the definition was retained: 'A glass that formed them,' etc.; and so it has 
appeared in all the subsequent Variorums. We have the adjective in this play 
(V, v, 106) where Lucius extols his page as 'So feate,' when it evidently means 
skilful, apt, etc. As this is the only instance known to the N. E. D. of the verb used 
in a similar connection, every student is at liberty to form his own definition, and 
editors have availed themselves of the chance. To me, however, Dr BRADLEY'S def- 
inition (in the N. E. D.) preceded by a qu.? is just: 'To constrain to propriety.' ED. 
61. To his Mistris] CAPELL has no parentheses in the next line, but places a 
dash after 'banish'd,' ' which shews,' he says, 'that something is left to be supplied 
by ourselves, which something is easily deducible from what goes before; 
"to his mistress," etc. (it is needless to say what he was); the value that she dis- 
cover'd in him, may be estimated by that of herself.' COLLIER'S MS. and HANMER 
read 'For his mistress .' MONCK MASON says the 'To' means 'as to.' 'As to' 
appears, as an MS. correction in Warburton's own copy of Shakespear (N. 6" Q., 
VIII, iii, 263). DEIGHTON says that here the construction is changed; to the same 
effect ROLFE. WYATT pronounces it an anacoluthon. VAUGHAN asserts that 
these concluding lines 'have not been properly understood by any critic,' and that 
'To his mistress' must be understood as depending directly on 'what kind of a man 
he is. ' Whatever difficulty there be, is it not due to the punctuation? DOWDEN, 
in agreement with Deighton and Rolfe, thinks 'the construction with "to," caught 
from the preceding sentence, is broken.' This is true. To me it seems that the 
speaker means to keep up exactly the same construction, but was diverted, by his 
own explanatory parenthesis, and then failed to complete his sentence in harmony 
with what preceded. As the sentence now stands, I think Wyatt rightly pro- 
nounces it an anacoluthon. Had not the compositors placed a period after 
'Dotards,' the mental continuance of the construction might possibly have been 
clearer. Again in line 63 the punctuation is misleading: the semicolon after 'him' 
should, I think, follow 'Vertue.' ED. 

1 8 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. i. 

He had two Sonnes (if this be worth your hearing, 68 

Marke it) the el deft of them, at three yeares old 
Pth'fwathing cloathes, the other from their Nurfery 70 

Were ftolne, and to this houre, no gheffe in knowledge 
Which way they went. 
2 How long is this ago / 

1 Some twenty yeares. 

2 That a Kings Children fhould be fo conuey'd, 75 
So flackely guarded, and the fearch fo flow 

68, 69. (if.] if.; Johns. 71. gheffe] gueffe F 3 . guefs F 4 . 

69. eldejl] eld'st Sing. Dyce, Huds. 75. conuey'd] Ff, Theob. Warb. 
69, 70. old I'th\.. cloathes, the other] Johns. Coll. Glo. convey'd! Rowe et 

old, I'th...cloaths the other, Rowe et seq. cet. 

71. Jlolne,] Ff, Rowe, Glo. stol'n; 76. guarded,] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. 

Pope et cet. Sta. Glo. guarded! Cap. et cet. 

69. eldest] WALKER (Vers., 168) gives this word as an example of the suppres- 
sion of e in superlatives. The use of the word 'suppression' is here, I think, ob- 
jectionable, especially when it creates a word as harsh as eldst, which is almost 
unpronounceable by anyone who aims at -clear enunciation. Should mechanical 
metre ever interfere with the music of rhythm? When Wordsworth writes, ' Where 
rivulets dance their wayward round,' are we to silence the dancing melody and at 
the behest of scansion, lose a ripple in saying, ' Where riv'lets dance?' A man who 
cannot retain such redundant syllables and so pronounce them as not to mar 
the melody of the verse should never attempt to read poetry aloud or to speak 
it. ED. 

71. no ghesse in knowledge] INGLEBY: That is, 'no guess' resulting 'in knowl- 
edge.' DOWDEN: No intelligent, well-informed guess. HERFG-RD: No guess 
which approves itself as true. VAUGHAN: No guess in ascertaining which way 
they went. [This last guess seems to me the best. If the order of the words be 
changed, will not the phrase then explain itself: 'in the knowledge which way they 
went, there is not seen a guess'? ED.] 

73. How long . . . ago ?] ECCLES: The ignorance of the second Gentleman re- 
specting matters which we must necessarily suppose to be of such general notoriety 
can only be accounted for by imagining him a stranger, or one long absent from the 
Court. [See BULLOCH, line 4, supra.] 

75. That] COLLIER (ed. ii.): The MS., perhaps to render the sense more clear, 
and in conformity with the recitation of the passage to which his ear may have 
been accustomed, gives the line thus 'Strange! a King's children,' etc. The emen- 
dation receives some confirmation from the next speech, which begins, 'Howsoe'er 
'tis strange,' etc., as if the i Gentleman had repeated the word just spoken by the 
person with whom he was conversing. 

75. conuey'd] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v., 6, b.) : A euphuism for: To steal. [Quota- 
tions follow from The Babees Book, 1460; Cranmer, 1548, and from the oft-quoted 
passage in Merry Wives: 'Nym. The good humour is to steal at a minute's rest. 
Pistol. "Convey" the wise it call. "Steal!" fob! a fico for the phrase!' I, 

ACT i, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 19 

That could not trace them. 77 

1 Howfoere, 'tis ftrange, 

Or that the negligence may well be laugh'd at : 

Yet is it true Sir. 80 

2 I do well beleeue you. 

I We muft forbeare. Heere comes the Gentleman, 
The Queene, and Princeffe. Exeunt 83 

Scena Secimda. 

Enter tJic Queene , Pojlliumus, and Imogen. 

Qn. No, be affur'd you fhall not finde me(Daughter) 
After the flander of moft Step-Mothers, 

Euill-ey'd vnto you. You're my Prifoner, but 5 

Your Gaoler fhall deliuer you the keyes 
That locke vp your reftraint. For you Poflhumus, 7 

77. That] That't or That' Elze (p. Huds. 

298). The same. Cap. Mai. 

them.] Ff. them Rowe, Johns. 2. Imogen.] Imogen and Attendants. 

them! Pope, Han. them Theob. Rowe, Pope, Theob. Johns. Varr. 

Warb. them! Cap. et cet. 5. Euill-ey'd] Ptt-ey'd Pope, Theob. 

79. at:] at, Rowe et seq. Warb. Ill-eyd Han. 

80. is it] it is Han. ii. You're} Ff, Rowe, + , Cap. Sta. 
83. Exeunt] Exrunt. F 2 . Dyce, Glo. Huds. You are Varr. Mai. 

i. Scena Secunda] Scene continued. Steev. Varr. Knt, Coll. Sing. Ktly. 
Rowe, Theob. Sta. Dyce, Glo. Coll. iii, Prifoner] prisoner Pope,+. 

82. the Gentleman] It is not unlikely that the omission of these two words in 
the Var. 1803 was accidental. The entrance of Posthumus occurs in the stage- 
direction at the opening of the next scene; and REED, the editor of that Var., was 
a careful scholar. The Var. of 1813 and 1821 heedlessly followed the oversight.- 
KNIGHT, however, roundly denounces the omission, which he ascribes to 'the 
editors,' as though it had been intentional on the part of all his predecessors. ED. 

1. Scena Secunda] COLLIER: There is evidently no change of place, which, on 
the English stage, is usually necessary in order to constitute a new scene. 

2. Enter the Queene] WYATT: The Queen allows the interview to take place 
in order that she may bring the King to witness it, and so incense him further 
against Posthumus. See lines 41, 42. 

4. slander] From the days of the novercalia odia of Tacitus, and possibly long 
before, this 'slander' has accompanied the human race. ED. 

5. Euill] For many examples from Shakespeare, as well as from other dramatists, 
where this word is evidently contracted to a monosyllable, see WALKER (Crit., ii, 
196). POPE, followed by THEOBALD and WARBURTON, prints /'//, to show that it is 
a monosyllable. HANMER prints ///. ED. 

20 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

So foone as I can win th'offended King, 8 

I will be knowne your Aduocate : marry yet 

The fire of Rage is in him, and 'twere good 10 

You lean'd vnto his Sentence, with what patience 
Your wifedome may informe you. 

Pojl. 'Pleafe your Highneffe,i 
I will from hence to day. 

Qu. You know the perill : 15 

He fetch a turne about the Garden, pittying 
The pangs of barr'd Affections, though the King 
Hath charged you mould not fpeake together. Exit 

Into. O diffembling Curtefiej How fine this Tyrant 
Can tickle where me wounds? My deereft Husband, 20 

I fomething feare my Fathers wrath, but nothing 
(Alwayes referu'd my holy duty) what 22 

13. 'Pleafe] F T . Ran. Knt, Coll. i, Sta. Om. Pope,+ 

17. pangs] bangs F 4 . As closing line 18 Cap. Mai. Steev. 

Affections,} Ff , Rovve, Pope, Han. Varr. Sing. Dyce, Ktly, Glo. Huds. 

Coll. Sta. Glo. affections; Theob. et Oh Coll. ii, Ktly. 

cet. 20. wounds?] Ff, Cap. wounds! 

19. 0] Ff, Rowe, Var. '73, '78, '85, Rovve et cet. 

9. marry] WALKER (Vers., 187) says this is commonly a monosyllable and gives 
the present line as an instance. I cannot quite accept this assertion; actors on the 
stage generally endeavour to speak intelligibly. Hath not here at least the zeal of 
Walker's metre eaten him up? ED. 

13. 'Please] Note the apostrophe before 'Please/ which indicates, I suppose, the 
omission of so or an it, as commendable as it is unusual. Helene, Imogen's lady, 
says 'Please you' (II, ii, 4), but she lacks the philological strain of Posthumus; 
there is no apostrophe. ED. 

19. O] Led by CAPELL, some of the best modern editors have printed this 'O' 
as closing the preceding line. I say ' printed ' because it is for the eye alone. Is it 
conceivable how, either in acting or in speaking this exclamation, can be so ut- 
tered as to indicate that, without it, the Queen had inconsiderately departed leaving 
behind her a metrically incomplete line? Perhaps Imogen called it quickly after 
her before she had quite shut the door. ED. 

22. (Alwayes reseru'd my holy duty)] JOHNSON: I say I do not fear my 
father, so far as I may say it without breach of duty. DELIUS understands ' holy 
duty' as referring to her husband. 'As long as this remains undisturbed, she does 
not fear, in other respects, what her father's anger can inflict on her.' HERTZBERG 
takes the same view: 'that "holy duty" refers to her marriage is clear enough; but 
what, however, is not so clear is how her father's wrath can cause any infraction 
of it, unless it be that Imogen intends to express that in some possible way her 
strength might prove insufficient to hold out in her passive opposition to her 
father's determination to marry her to another.' That Imogen could ever yield is 
unthinkable; and the possible interpretation of her words, suggested by Hertz- 

ACT i, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 21 

His rage can do on me. You muft be gone, 23 

And I fhall heere abide the hourely (hot 

Of angry eyes : not comforted to Hue, 25 

But that there is this lewell in the world, 

That I may fee againe. 

Pojl. My Queene, my Miftris : 
O Lady, weepe no more, leaft I giue caufe 

To be fufpected of more tenderneffe 30 

Then doth become a man. I will remaine 
The loyall'ft husband, that did ere plight troth. 
My refidence in Rome, at one Filoritfs, 
Who, to my Father was a Friend, to me 

Knowne but by Letter ; thither write (my Queene) 35 

And with mine eyes, lie drinke the words you fend, 
Though Inke be made of Gall. 37 

28. Queene^ Queen! Rowe et seq. 33. Rome] Rome's Ktly. 

Miftris:] Mistress! Rowe et seq. Filorio's,] F 2 . Florio's, F 3 F 4 . 

29. more,] Ff, Ro\ve, + , Var. '73, Philario's, Rowe, Pope, Han. Glo. 
Coll. Sta. more; Cap. et cet. Philario's; Theob. et cet. 

leaft] left Ff. 34. Who] u-ho F 4 . Rowe et seq. 

31. Then] Than F 4 . 

berg, reveals, I think, the error in supposing that 'holy duty' refers to her marriage. 
In Imogen's darkest hour a divine prohibition cravened her weak hand. So now 
the duty to her father is rendered 'holy' by the divine command in the Deca- 
logue. ED. 

23. on me. You must] COLERIDGE (p. 302): Place the emphasis on 'me'; 
for 'rage' is a mere repetition of 'wrath.' WYATT observes that 'you' is also em- 
phatic. Whereupon DOWDEN remarks: 'Perhaps so, but I am not sure that 
Imogen contrasts her fear for herself with her fear for Posthumus. She shrinks a 
little from the encounter with her father, the wrath itself has some terror in it, but 
she does not fear any punishment it can inflict.' Is it not likely that the accent 
falls, as properly as metrically, on 'must'? Imogen feels that Fate has decreed 
their separation. ED. 

29. O Lady] What a halo Shakespeare throws about this common, often vulgar, 
title! He seems almost to reserve it, as the very highest: 'Why did you throw 
your wedded Lady from you?' ED. 

32. The loyall'st husband, that did ere plight troth] Note that while 
calling, and properly calling, himself 'a husband,' Posthumus here speaks only of 
having plighted his troth. ED. 

36, 37. He drinke . . . Though Inke be made of Gall] JOHNSON: Shake- 
speare, even in this poor conceit, has confounded the vegetable galls used in ink, 
with the animal gall, supposed to be bitter. STEEVENS: The poet might mean 
either the vegetable or the animal-galls with equal propriety, as the vegetable gall 
is bitter; and I have seen an ancient receipt for making ink, beginning, 'Take of 
the black juice of the gall of oxen two ounces,' &c. VAUGHAN: A 'conceit' it is; but, 

22 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

Enter Queene. 38 

Qu. Be briefe, I pray you : 

If the King come, I fhall incurre, I know not 40 

How much of his difpleafure : yet He moue him 
To walke this way : I neuer do him wrong, 
But he do's buy my Iniuries, to be Friends : 
Payes deere for my offences. 44 

41. difpleafure: yet} displeasure Q., IV, viii, 197). 

yet Rowe, Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 42, 43. wrong,. ..Iniuries, ...Friends:] 

displeasure. Yet Johns. Var. '73, '78. wrong.. .Injuries;. ..Friends, Daniel. 

Coll. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Ktly. 43. do's buy] buys of Han. 

41-44. yet.., offences.] As aside Rowe Friends:] friends. Ff. friends, 

et seq. Rowe, Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. Coll. 

42-44. 1. ..But. ..Friends: Payes] For I i, ii. friends Johns. Var. '73. 

...But. ..friends; And pays or I. ..But he 44. [Exit. Rowe et seq. 
who buys... friends, Pays J. Beale (N. & 

withal, a most loving pleasantry. [Though the accent in 'Though ink be made,' 
etc., falls metrically on 'made,' I prefer to place it on 'be.' ED.] 

42-44. I neuer . . . offences] MALONE: He gives me a valuable consideration 
in new kindness (purchasing, as it were, the wrong I have done him) in order to 
renew our amity, and make us friends again. KNIGHT: The meaning of the crafty 
Queen appears to be, that the kindness of her husband, even when she is doing him 
wrong, purchases injuries as if they were benefits. STAUNTON: 'Pays dear for my 
offences' is a clause intended possibly to replace or be replaced by the words 
'buy my injuries to be friends': the first thought through the carelessness of the 
compositor being inserted as well as the reconsidered one. B. NICHOLSON (N. 6* 
Q., Ill, x, 346, 1866): At present these two clauses are more tautological than is 
usual with Shakespeare, but this objection may be removed, and a distinct meaning 
given to each by placing the colon after 'injuries' instead of after 'friends.' She 
commences by saying, with direct reference to the present instance, that when she 
would do the king an ill turn, she so disguised it in kindness, that he took it not as 
an offence, but, with misplaced affection, bought it of her at its seeming value. 
The bringing together of Posthumus and Imogen, though contrary to his com- 
mands, would be put down to such kindliness of disposition, and to such over- 
fondness for all that was his, as overcame her remembrance of the wrong done to 
her son. The bringing of himself to view the interview would be but forgetfulness 
of everything in her pleasure in his society, and desire to withdraw him from the 
general throng of courtiers into the precincts of her own more private garden. 
Such simulations of love would be met, she says, with a greater lavish of love. 
After this, however, she in her pride of craft completes the portraiture of an old 
and doting husband ruled by a cunning woman, and goes on to say that when she 
quarrelled with him, or maliciously or craftily bouded [sic] with him, or gave him 
open offence, he, as though the offence and blame had been his own, would seek a 
reconciliation, and pay dear to be friends again. On examining the wording, it 
will be found that ' injuries ' (that is, wrongs) and ' buys ' in one clause, and ' offences ' 
and 'pays' in the other, are especially chosen to make the difference in meaning 
more clear. VAUGHAN (p. 337): 'I shall incur the King's displeasure if he come; 

ACT i, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 23 

Poft. Should we be taking leaue 45 

As long a terme as yet we haue to Hue, 
The loathneffe to depart, would grow : Adieu. 

lino. Nay, ftay a little : 
Were you but riding forth to ayre your felfe, 
Such parting were too petty. Looke heere (Loue) 50 

This Diamond was my Mothers ; take it (Heart) 
But keepe it till you woo another Wife, 
When Imogen is dead. 

Pojl. How, how? Another? 54 

47. depart,] depart Rowe ii. et seq. Glo. Ktly, Cam. How! How! Var. '73 

48. little:} little Pope,+. et cet. 

54. How, how?] Ff, Rowe, Pope, 54. Another?] Another ! Rowe, -\-, Var. 

Theob. i, Han. How, how, Theob. ii, '73. 
Warb. Johns. How, how! Cap. Dyce, 

and I will take care he does come, in order to make a quarrel, in this way between us, 
which he will seek to make good by some round payment to me in return for my 
ill-treatment of him. In this way I make him pay dear for my misbehaviour to 
him.' ABBOTT ( 244, 'Omission of Relatives'): So, after disobeying Cymbeline 
by allowing Posthumus to speak of Imogen, the Queen, while purposing to betray 
Posthumus, says aside: 'Yet I'll move him (the King) To walk this way; I never do 
him (the King) wrong But he (who, like Posthumus) does buy my injuries to be 
friends, Pays dear for my offences.' [This interpretation, if I understand it (the 
punctuation is defective, I think there should be a semicolon after 'wrong') is as 
novel as it is ingenious. It takes ' But he does buy,' etc., as a general truth, equiva- 
lent to 'But whoever buys,' etc. It may be right, but, possibly, we do not know 
quite enough of the past relations between the Queen and Posthumus, or to what 
extent he had bought her injuries, to accept it. ED.] 

45-48. Should . . . little] VAUGHAN would read 'taking our leave'; and to 
gain this trifling immoment change, would end the lines, 'be . . . yet . . . depart 
. . . little,' pronouncing 'Stay' as a disyllabic, a linguistic feat which arouses 
unavoidable and ardent curiosity to know how it is performed. ED. 

54. How, how ?] Can it be that the interrogation mark is here correct? Does 
Posthumus ask 'how?' twice, as though he had not heard aright? I know that 
this interpretation can be defended, and yet I cannot believe it gives the true 
meaning. It is, I think, the spelling which misleads us. Ho! the imperative of the 
verb 'to ho,' to cease, stop, halt, is frequently in the Folio printed 'how'; as in 
'Ware pencils, ho!' (How in the Folio), in Love's Lab. Lost, V, ii, 45), where it means 
stop! That ho was frequently printed 'how' DYCE abundantly shows (Few Notes, 
etc., p. 57); in cases where it does not mean stop, cease, as in 'Peace, how the morne' 
(Mer. of Yen., V, i, 120), where a large majority of editors have accepted Malone's 
change to 'Peace, ho. 1 Again, in Ham., V, ii, 298, 'How?' to Ho! (here Staunton 
opines that it means Stop! and is addressed to the combatants). Dyce adduces 
'From Scicion how the news' (Ant. & Cleop., I, ii, 128), but this is somewhat 
doubtful. These instances, however, suffice, I think, to show that it is possible 
to take Posthumus's 'How, how?' as Ho, ho in either of the two meanings given 
above; or it may even have a faint tinge of satyric laughter. ED. 

24 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

You gentle Gods, giue me but this I haue, 55 

And feare vp my embracements from a next, 

With bonds of death. Remaine, remaine thou heere, 

While fenfe can keepe it on : And fweeteft, faireft, 58 

56. fearc] F 2 F 3 . cere Steev. conj. Warb. Cap. Coll. ii. here! Pope, here 
Wh. Ktly, Huds. seal Eccles conj. Rowe ii. et cet. 

Sing, fear F 4 et cet. 57. [Putting on the Ring. Rowe et 

from] for Cap. conj. seq. 

57. bonds] bands Wh. i. brands 58. it on] thee on Pope, + , Var. '73. 
Jervis. in on Ran. (misprint). 

heere,] Ff, Rowe i, Theob. Han. 

56. scare] The fact that to cere, i. e., to wrap in a cerecloth, was, in the i6th and 
1 7th centuries (according to the N. E. D.), spelled as in the text, seare, i. e., to dry 
up or burn up, led to some controversy among the early editors, and to a long 
note by B. Nicholson (N. & Q., VI, iv, 444). But the reference to 'bonds of death' 
leaves no doubt that the word here alludes to the cerements of the dead. ED. 

57, 58. Remaine thou heere, While sense can keepe it on] In reference 
to Pope's unauthorised change of 'it' to thee, CAPELL (Notes, i, 102) asks: 'is 
the ear perfectly satisfied with the concurrence to two open vowels in thee and on? 
and might this not be a reason for the preference given to "it"?' STEEVENS 
refers 'it' to 'sense' and paraphrases 'while sense can maintain its operations.' 
MALONE upholds 'it,' because Shakespeare has 'many similar inaccuracies,' and 
proceeds to quote several, especially another in this play, 'they took thee for their 
mother, And every day do honour to her grave.' III, iii, 114. STEEVENS refused 
to allow his interpretation to be thus summarily swept aside, and rejoined, 'as 
none of our author's productions were revised by himself as they passed from the 
theatre to the press; and as Jul. Cess, and Cym. are among the plays which originally 
appeared in the blundering First Folio; it is hardly fair to charge irregularities on 
the poet, of which his publishers alone might have been guilty. I must, therefore, 
take leave to set down the present and many similar offences against the estab- 
lished rules of language, under the article of Hemingisms and Condelisms; and, as 
such, in my opinion, they ought, without ceremony, to be corrected.' R. G. WHITE 
in an unhappy hour was 'inclined to think that "it" is used in a possessive sense, 
and that "on" is a phonographic spelling of own; in which case Posthumus says to 
the ring, "Remain thou there while sense can hold its own." This conjecture 
would have been more plausible, had 'on' been spelled one. White in his ed. ii. 
makes no reference to this emendation, having, in the meantime, it may be pre- 
sumed, wisely taken 'advice of his washerwoman.' (See White's Preface, vol. i, 
p. xii.). To Malone's reference to III, iii, 114, INGLEBY adds two more from the 
present play: IV, ii, 284, 285, and V, i, 4-6, where there is a change of the personal 
pronoun, similar to the present. B. NICHOLSON (N. & Q., VII, ix, 324) shows how, 
in action on the stage, this verbal difficulty may be solved, and rightly, as I think. 
'Posthumus,' he says, 'having received the ring with the injunction to keep it 
"till Imogen is dead," places it on his finger with the heartfelt and emphatic 
adjuration; "Remain thou here," naturally, I should say, kisses it, and then, while 
continuing his words, he naturally looks towards Imogen, and, replying to her 
injunction, addresses to her the bowed promise, "Not for your lifetime," but "while 
sense can keep it on." But here we want a new punctuation, such as "thou here ." ' 

ACT I, SC. ii.] 


As I (my poore fclfe) did exchange for you 
To your fo infinite loffe ; fo in our trifles 
I ftill winne of you. For my fake weare this, 
It is a Manacle of Loue, He place it 
Vpon this fayreft Prifoner. 

I mo. O the Gods J 
When fhall we fee againe/ 

Enter Cymbeline, and Lords. 

Pojl. Alacke, the King. 

Cym. Thou bafeft thing, auoyd hence, from my fight : 
If after this command thou fraught the Court 
With thy vnworthineffe, thou dyeft. Away, 
Thou'rt poyfon to my blood. 

Poft. The Gods protect you, 


And bleffe the good Remainders of the Court : 
I am gone. 



59. (my poore /elf e)} my poor self Pope 
et seq. 

61. this,] this; Theob. et seq. 

63. Prifoner] pris'ner Pope, + . 

[Putting a bracelet on her arm. 
Rowe et seq. 

66. [SCENE in. Pope, Han. Warb. 

67. King.] King! Rowe et seq. 

68. auoyd hence,} Ff (avoid F 3 F 4 ). 
avoid, hence, Rowe, Pope, Han. avoid; 

Cap. avoid! 
avoid! hence, 

hence, Theob. Warb. 
hence! Johns. Var. '73 
Var. '78 et cet. 

68. fight:] sight! Johns, et seq. 

70. dyeft] dy'st Rowe ii,+, Cap. 
Varr. Mai. Ran. 

Away,] Away! Rowe et seq. 

71. Thou'rt] Thou art Var. '73, Varr. 
Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. Knt. 

74. / am] Fm Pope, + , Dyce ii, iii, 

What Nicholson says as to the need of a punctuation which shall indicate a change 
of address is eminently just, but this punctuation already exists, begun by Capell 
and fallen unfortunately into disuse. See note on 'Fye,' line 116, below. ED. 

61. winne of you] That is, my bracelet is not as valuable as your ring. ED. 

62. Manacle] STEEVENS: This properly means what we now call a handcuff. 
[Under the figurative use of manacle, meaning bond, restraint, MURRAY (N. E. D.) 
quotes the present passage, and also 'the manacles of the all-building Law,'- 
M eas. for Meas., II, iv, 93, which is somewhat doubtful; Claudio was actually in 

65. When shall we see againe] DYCE (ed. ii.): The very same words are ad- 
dressed by Cressida to Troilus in Tro. 6* Cress., IV, iv, 59. [For examples of 
similar ellipses, see, if need be, ABBOTT, 382.] 

69. fraught] CAPELL (Various Readings, p. 13) conjectured fr aught 1 st. ECCLES 
justly supposes that 'fraught' may be considered as in the subjunctive. 

73. blesse] ROLFE, DOWDEN, and probably others detect irony in this blessing 
of ' the good remainders,' and they may be right. And yet is it natural that, when 
a man is utterly, abysmally, hopelessly crushed, he can find any relief in a piece 
of petty irony? To indulge in irony a man must go out of himself and for a flash 

2 6 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

Imo. There cannot be a pinch in death 75 

More fharp then this is. 

Gym. O difloyall thing, 

That fhould'ft repayre my youth, thou heap'ft 
A yeares age on mee. 79 

78, 79. heap'jl A yeares age] Ff, conj. (withdrawn), heap'st instead A 

Rowe, Pope, Johns. Sta. Glo. Cam. year's age Cap. heapest years of age 

heap'st A yare age Warb. Theob. uponlngl. conj. heap' st at once A year' s 

heapest many A year's age. Han. Ktly. age Dowden. heapest rather A year's 

heap'st years, ages Johns, conj. age Craig, heapest a year's age Var. 

heap'st A meer or A hoar age Theob. '73 et cet. 

imagine its effect on the victim. But at this instant what there was not of himself 
on Posthumus's breaking heart, was all Imogen. Moreover, we are expressly told 
that all the courtiers were his secret friends, and he could not but have known or 
felt it. Wherefore, then, should he wish to leave behind him a sting in their hearts? 

75. pinch in death] Does Imogen refer to Posthumus's death or to her own? 
It is easy to reply 'to both.' Possibly, she refers to neither separately, and this 
exclamation is forced from her by a premonition that this present separation is an 
eternal farewell. ED. 

78, 79. thou heap'st A yeares age on mee] THEOBALD: Surely, the 
King's sorrow was not very extreme, if the effects of it added only one year to his 
age. But we must correct, as my ingenious friend, Mr Warburton, acutely ob- 
served to me, 'A yare age on me,' i. e., a sudden, precipitate, old age. For the word 
signifies not only nimble, dextrous, as it is many times employed by our author, but, 
likewise as Skinner expounds it, fervidus, promptus, prceceps, impatiens. And so 
in Chaucer, in his Legend of Philomela, we find it spelt, 'This Tereiis let him make 
his shippis yeare,' i. e., yare, nimble, light vessels fit for sailing. [This quotation 
from Chaucer (which Theobald did not repeat in his ed. ii.) I have given as a 
proof of Theobald's wide reading in English literature at that early day. In 
extended knowledge of English and exact scholarship in Greek he was shoulder 
high above the critics, Pope, Johnson, Steevens, who looked down on him and 
dubbed him 'poor piddling Tibbald.'] HEATH (p. 471): Yare never signifies 
untimely, what comes before its time, which is the sense the context requires. Here 
Mr Warburton seems to have been deceived by the ambiguity of the Latin prceceps, 
which Skinner gives as one of the interpretations of the word yare. It is extremely 
probable that Hanmer's conjecture restores the genuine text. STEEVENS: If 
Cymbeline meant to say that his daughter's conduct made him precisely one year 
older, his conceit is unworthy both of himself and Shakespeare. I would read 
with Hanmer. COLERIDGE (p. 302): How is it that the commentators take no 
notice of the un-Shakespearian defect in the metre [line 78], and, what in Shake- 
speare is the same, in the harmony with the sense and feeling? Some word or 
words must have slipped out after 'youth,' possibly and see. B. NICHOLSON 
(N. &* Q., Ill, x, 347, 1866) : How, if he used the word 'repair' in its ordinary sense, 
could Cymbeline talk of repairing his youth when he had wholly lost his youth? 
and why should any one talk of repairing his youth instead of repairing his old 
age in a passage where youth's lustiness and heat are intended to be contrasted 
with a decaying old age? The true meaning of the word will, I think, be found on 

ACT i, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 2/ 

[78, 79. thou heap'st A yeares age on mee] 

examination to be that, in the wished-for marriage, he had thought to see his 
youthful days re-equalled; and, in the happy contemplation of it, feel his days- 
spring renewed. A similar thought is found in Sonnet ii: 'This were to be new 
made when thou art old And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold.' And 
again in Sonnet iii. we have: 'Now is the time that face should form another; 
Whose fresh repair if now thou not renewest.' And from the wording of this, and 
from the phrase 'repair my honour lost' (j Henry VI: III, iii, 193) it seems clear 
that, in accordance with its derivation, Shakespeare sometimes used this word 
'repair' as equalling again and making anew, and not merely as patching or reno- 
vating. It does not, however, seem probable to me that Shakespeare would have 
made Cymbeline use the phrase, 'repair my youth,' unless he had some anti- 
thetical conceit in view. Hence, and from a general review of the passage, I hold 
that 'thy years' age' that is, the age or number of thy years is a certain part 
of any emendation; and if any one will compare this with Hanmer's 'Many a 
year's age? it will be seen how definite the 'thy' makes an otherwise indefinite 
and indifferent passage, and how much it recovers of our author's style. Imogen's 
age added to Cymbeline's would be death or an old age 'sans eyes, sans teeth, 
sans everything.' What else may be required is more doubtful. Some might 
think that the safest restoration of the sense and metre would be Thou heapest 
thy Years' age [up]on me. Or we might read, 'heapest up Thy years' age on me'; 
but this is hardly accordant with Shakespeare's usage in regard to heap. For 
myself, however, I prefer thinking that the 'heap'st' of the Folio is right, and that 
the original reading was, or was nearly, as follows: 'thou heap'st [more than] Thy 
years' age on me.' HUDSON: This expression has been thought too tame for the 
occasion. Gervinus regards it, and, I think, justly, as an instance of the King's 
general weakness; his whole character is without vigour; and whenever he under- 
takes to say or do a strong thing, he collapses into tameness. ['Thou'rt poison to 
my blood' is not so very tame. ED.] (P. 200): Perhaps it should be 'thou 
heapest more than A year's age,' etc. VAUGHAN (p. 339): All the amendments 
involve the interpretation of 'age' as 'a portion of the time of human life' merely, 
whereas in truth 'age' means old age. We might read: 'thou heapest so A year's 
age,' etc. That is, ' By such an answer as yours, you, who should make me young, 
heap a year of old age upon me.' But I prefer, ' thou heapest so Early age on me.' 
That is, 'thou heapest premature old age on me.' [I have reserved to the last 
Capell's note (p. 102); 'If we place ourselves in Cymbeline's state, a king, and at 
the end of his years, we shall not think the losing of one of them a very light 
matter.' Herein I agree with Capell. In the first scene we are told that Cymbe- 
line's eldest son, Guiderius, is now twenty-three years old. We may, therefore, 
infer that Cymbeline's own age was about forty-three or four; certainly not a great 
age, as at present reckoned. But we must bear in mind that it was probably not 
so reckoned in Shakespeare's time, to judge by the longevity of the lives of his 
friends and contemporaries. The average age of Sidney, Bacon, Lyly, Lodge, 
Greene, Nash, Spenser, Chapman, Peele, and Nat. Field (the only actor of Shake- 
speare's contemporaries whose birth and death is, I believe, undisputed) the 
average age of these ten men is 49 and T 8 ^ years. If Shakespeare's 53 be added, 
the average is almost exactly 50. If the average span of life among intellectual 
men in Shakespeare's time be only fifty, what must it have been in Cymbeline's 
unhygienic days! Even by the Shakesperian standard, Cymbeline could count 

28 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

I mo. I befeech you Sir, 80 

Harme not your felfe with your vexation, 
I am fenfeleffe of your Wrath ; a Touch more rare 
Subdues all pangs, all feares. 

Cym. Pafl Grace ? Obedience? 

lino. Paft hope, and in difpaire, that way paft Grace. 85 

Cym. That might'ft haue had 
The fole Sonne of my Queene. 87 

81, 82. Harme. ..I] Ff, Rowe, + , 85. difpaire,] despair; Pope et seq. 
Var. '21, Coll. Sta. Dyce, Sing. Glo. way] way, Theob. Warb. et 
Cam. One line Cap. et cet. seq. 

82. I am] Pm Pope, + , Dyce ii, iii, 86. That] Thou Pope,-f, Var. '73. 
Huds. 86, 87. One line Rowe et seq. 

on only six or seven more years of life. If, then, owing to Imogen's selfish and 
reprehensible behaviour, one of those years was heaped on him prematurely, in 
advance, and he was thereby brought nearer to his death by a whole year, he 
may well be vehemently stirred by such a grievous loss. ED.] 

80, 81. I beseech . . . vexation] This picture, from the pale lips of Imogen, 
of the King's trembling, uncontrolled, almost frenzied rage gives us, I think, an 
idea of the king's moral weakness, more vivid than any utterance of his own can 
give. And does it not at the same time reveal the love for Imogen down deep 
in his heart, which, must later, at the close of the drama, be made manifest, without 
violent incongruity? To be sure, he can be justified in the present emotion, al- 
though not for its bitter expression, by Coleridge, who has taught us that 'to be 
wroth with one we love Doth work like madness in the brain.' ED. 

82. a Touch more rare] WARBURTON: More strong, forcible; alluding to the 
stroke of lightning. [Will no one tell me what he means? ED.] JOHNSON: 
'Rare' is often used for eminently good; but I do not remember any passage in 
which it stands for eminently bad. May we read, 'more near.' 'Cura deam pro- 
pior luctusque domesticus angit.' Ovid [Met., xiii, 578]. Shall we try again, 
'more rear.' Crudum mdnus. But of this I know not any example. There is yet 
another interpretation, which perhaps will remove the difficulty. It may mean a 
nobler passion. HEATH (p. 471): 'More rare' signifies more precious. KNIGHT: 
It means, a higher feeling. STAUNTON: It rather means, a smart, or throe more 
exquisite. A touch in old language was often used to express a pang, a wound, or 
any acute pain, moral or physical, as in the passage before us. WYATT: The 
'sweet pain' of parting with Posthumus deadens her sensibility to all besides. 
[See 'Great griefs I see med'cine the less.' IV, ii, 315.] 

84. Past Grace] CRAIG: Imogen quibblingly replies (though a heathen), 
'yes, past divine favour, and in a state of reprobation where there is no hope.' It 
is curious that this play has these frequent Calvinistic allusions. See Scene iii, 
line 24 of this Act, 'If it be a sin to make a true election, she's damn'd,' where the 
Calvinist doctrine of election is quibblingly alluded to. Compare also I, iv, 4: 
'if he should write, And I not haue it, 'twere a Paper lost As offer'd mercy is.'- 
[GRANT WHITE called attention to the Calvinistic 'election' at I, iii, 24; I think, 
however, the allusion admits of doubt. ED.] 

ART i, sc. ii.j CYMBELINE 2 g 

Imo. O bleffed, that I might not : I chofe an Eagle, 88 

And did auoyd a Puttocke. 

Cym. Thou took'ft a Begger, would'ft haue made my 90 
Throne, a Seate for bafeneffe. 

Imo. No, I rather added a luftre to it. 

Cym. O thou vilde one ! 

Imo. Sir, 

It is your fault that I haue lou'd Poflhumus : 95 

You bred him as my Play-fellow, and he is 
A man, worth any woman : Ouer-buyes niee 
Almoft the fumme he payes. 

Cym. What? art thou mad ? 

Imo. Almoft Sir : Hcauen re ft ore me : would I were 100 

88. bleffed} Ff, Rowe i, Sing. Ktly, No; Cap. et cet. 

Cam. blest Rowe ii. et seq. (subs.) 92. No, I rather added] As closing line 

90, 91. Thou. ..Throne] One line 91 Rowe ii. et seq. 

Rowe et seq. /] Om. Coll. MS. ap. Cam. 

90. Begger, would' ft] F 2 . Beggar, 93. mldc] mid F 3 . vile F 4 et seq. 

would' ft F 3 F 4 . beggar; would' st Pope 96. and he is] he is Pope, Han. 

et seq. 99. What?] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 

92. No,] Ff, Rowe,+. No. Coll. ii. What, Cap. What! Theob. et cet. 

89. Puttocke] MURRAY (N. E. D.)\ A bird of prey; figuratively applied to a 
person as having some attribute of the kite (e. g., ignobleness, greed). 

QO. would'st] COLLIER ii. (Notes, etc., p. 508): The MS. changes 'would'st' to 
would, i. c., 'a beggar who would,' etc. [In the Cambridge Ed. it is recorded that 
Collier's MS. omits 'I' in Imogen's rejoinder. This omission has, however, 
escaped me in a search through Collier's Notes and Emendations, first and 
second editions, through his three editions of the play, and through his 
monovolume. ED.} 

97, 98. Ouer-buyes ... he payes] CAPELL (Notes, p. 103): Modestly under- 
rating herself, and enhancing the wroth of Posthumus; who, she says, over-buys 
her by almost the whole of the sum he pays for her. But what is it that he pays 
for her? Why, himself, and his sufferings: which if they were rated, and a price 
set upon them, a small part of it might make the purchase of her. 

100. me] Let no real student, who cares alone for Shakespeare's text and not for 
wide margins and stainless paper, regret the lack of an original First Folio, as 
long as he has a copy of Lionel Booth's Reprint. I think the world will never see 
a Reprint of any book as bulky as this, more exact than it. It is even more satis- 
factory and useful than a photographic reproduction, wherein there cannot be but 
one version of the text (and we know that copies of that volume vary among 
themselves); whereas Booth's Reprint is the result of an accurate collation 
of seven copies of the First Folio, and the proof sheets were submitted to 
eight of the best proof-readers in London before they were struck off. In my 
own copy of the First Folio the l e' of 'me' in the text before us is defective, or, 
as the printers say, 'battered.' I turn to Booth's Reprint, and lo! it is battered 
there! ED. 

30 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

A Neat-heards Daughter, and my Leonatus 101 

Our Neighbour-Shepheards Sonne. 

Enter Queene. 

Cym. Thou foolifh thing ; 

They were againe together : you haue done 105 

Not after our command. Away with her, 
And pen her vp. 

Qu* Befeech your patience : Peace 
Deere Lady daughter, peace. Sweet Soueraigne, 
Leaue vs to our felues, and make your felf fome comfort 1 10 
Out of your beft aduice. 

Cym. Nay, let her languifh 
A drop of blood a day, and being aged 
Dye of this Folly. Exit. 

Enter Pifanio. 115 

Qu. Fye, you muft giue way : 

101. heards] herds F 4 . 113. a day] aday Rowe. a-day 

103. Enter Queene] After line 104 TPope,+. 

Dyce, Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. 114. Folly] fully Sprenger. 

104. thing;] thing. Johns. thing! Exit.] Exeunt Cymbeline and 
Han. Cap. et seq. Lords. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. 

105. [To the Queen. Theob. Warb. 115. Enter...] After line 116 Dyce, 
et seq. Sta. Glo. Cam. 

1 08. your] you: Cap. (Notes, 103). 116. Fye, you] Ff, Rowe,+. Fie! 

1 09. Lady daughter] Lady-daughter you Var. '73, Dyce, Glo. Cam. Fie! 
Ed. conj. you Cap. et cet. 

no. to our] four Pope,+- 

in. best aduice] STEEVENS: That is, consideration, reflection. 

112, 113. languish A drop of blood a day] CRAIG: I think there certainly 
should be a comma after 'languish.' The meaning is 'let her pine away by degree, 
at the rate of a drop of blood a day.' DOWDEN: 'Languish' was sometimes causal 
and active. N. E. D. quotes from Fenton: 'The displeasures . . . languishe the 
heart,' and from Florio's Montaigne: 'Least (lest) ... he might . . . languish 
that burning flame.' 

114. Dye of this Folly] GERVINUS (ii, 217, ed. 1872): To this curse, she who 
is cursed will willingly respond 'Amen!' HUDSON: Of course, the King means it 
for a curse; but he has not snap enough to make it such. 

116. Fye, you must giue way] As a rule, the majority of editors from CAPELL 
to the GLOBE ED. indicate a change of address by dashes. CAPELL conformed 
rigidly to the rule. Indeed, I think, it originated with him. The Globe disre- 
garded it, and the editors since 1864, who have used the Globe's text to print from, 
likewise omit these dashes; notably R. G. White, who, in his First Ed. 1860, 
scrupulously retained them; in his second Ed., in 1883, discarded them. To use 
these dashes intelligently assuredly adds to editorial problems, as in the present 
instance. To whom is this 'Fye' addressed, to Cymbeline or to Imogen? and to 

ACT i, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 3 ! 

Heere is your Seruant. How now Sir? What newes ? 117 

Pi/a. My Lord your Sonne, drew on my Mafter. 

Qu. Hah ? 
No harme I truft is done ? 120 

Pifa. There might haue beene, 
But that my Mafter rather plaid, then fought, 
And had no helpe of Anger : they were parted 
By Gentlemen, at hand. 

Qu. I am very glad on't. 125 

119. Hah?] Hah! Rowe, + . Ha! 125. 7 am] I'm Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii. 

Cap. et cet. 

whom 'you must give way'? 'Here is your servant' is, of course, addressed to 
Imogen; Pisanio is her servant. But are any of the preceding words addressed 
to her? or are all of them? No Globe or Cambridge text will avail here. Capell 
is the prince of punctuators; he has influenced, I think, the punctuation of the 
text of Shakespeare more than any other editor. I opine that Dyce, Ed. i, printed 
from him, and that the Globe printed from Dyce. It is thus then, that Capell 
prints those lines: 'Fie! you must give way Here is your servant. How now, 
sir?' etc. Hereby showing that, according to Capell, the 'Fie!' is addressed to the 
king by the queen who has just heard his cruel curse; she then turns to Imogen, 
and it is to her that 'you must give way' is spoken, and not, as it probably is in the 
Folio, to the king. And I think rightly. The queen did not wish Cymbeline to 
give way; indeed, she wished him to remain firm; but it was of prime importance to 
her that Imogen should give way, and thereby smooth the road to the marriage 
with Cloten. At the same time it is quite possible to contend that the queen, 
thorough hypocrite as she is, should wish to seem to favour the daughter by coun- 
selling the father to relax his severity. Again, there is a third interpretation, 
warmly advocated by ELZE, that the whole sentence, 'Fie!' and all, is addressed to 
Imogen. No one is competent dogmatically to solve the problem with a Q. E. D. 
Every student must decide for himself with what dramatic instinct heaven has 
vouchsafed him. ED. 

123. no helpe of Anger] DOWDEN: So Sidney, Arcadia (Qto ed. 1590), p. 315, 
recto: 'his Courage (vnused to such injuries) desired helpe of Anger to make him 
this answere.' So in Lear, III, vii, 79: 'Nay, then, come on and take the chance 
of anger.' CRAIG: If a man loses his temper in sword-play he gives himself away 
to his adversary. Shakespeare makes Mecsenas (Ant. &* Cleop., IV, i, 9) express 
this truth: 'Never anger Made good guard for itself.' Here it means, 'Cloten's 
brutal assault did not induce him to strike him in return, he merely stood on his 
guard.' [Craig's note seems to imply that anger would not have helped Post- 
humus, and that he parried Cloten's blows, but gave none. We know, however, 
from the next scene that he drove Cloten back, which could hardly have been ac- 
complished by passive parrying. Pisanio says that Posthumus merely played 
with Cloten, and had not that vindictiveness that anger would have imparted.] 
Thus in Dowden's excellent illustration, Amphiatus was in a state of passive 
melancholy and needed the 'help of anger ' to rouse him to answer the challenge he 
had just received. 

3 2 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. ii. 

lino. Your Son's my Fathers friend, he takes his part 1 26 
To draw vpon an Exile. O braue Sir, 
I would they were in Affricke both together, 
My felfe by with a Needle, that I might pricke 
The goer backe. Why came you from your Mafter? 130 

Pi/a. On his command : he would not fuffer mee 
To bring him to the Hauen : left thefe Notes 
Of what commands I fhould be subiecl too, 
When't pleas'd you to employ me. 

Qu. This hath beene 135 

Your faithfull Seruant : I dare lay mine Honour 
He will remaine fo. 

Pifa. I humbly thanke your Highneffe. 

Qu. Pray walke a-while. 139 

126. friend,] friend; Cap. et seq. Cap. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. Wh. ii. 

126, 127. part To. ..Exile.} part To... 133. too] to Ff. 

Exile, Ff. part To. ..exile; Rowe. part, 134. When't pleas'd] when't pleafe 

To. ..exile: Pope, Theob. i, Han. - F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Han. When it 

part. To. ..exile: Theob. ii, Warb. pleas'd Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. 
part, To. ..exile. Cap. part, To. ..exile! 139. a-while] F 2 - awhile Dyce, Sta. 

Knt. part. To. ..exile! Johns, et cet. Glo. Cam. Coll. Hi. a while F 3 F 4 

130. goer backe] goer-back Pope,-)-, et cet. 

126, 127. his part To draw vpon an Exile] The Text. Notes show the almost 
unanimous approval of JOHNSON'S excellent punctuation; converting the infinitive 
phrase 'To draw upon an exile' into an exclamation; which is eminently Shake- 
spearian. There are several similar usages in Ant. & Cleop. 'The way to lose 
him!' I, iii, 14; 'To be entangled with those mouth-made vows, which break 
themselves in swearing!' I, iii, 48; 'So tart a favour To trumpet such good tid- 
ings!' II, v, 48. Yet let it not be supposed that the text, as it now stands before 
us, does not bear a good sense. The following paraphrase of it is, I think, not 
unfair: 'By drawing his sword on one whom my father had exiled, he takes my 
father's part and shows that he is his friend.' Yet Johnson's interpretation seems 
to me far better. ED. 

128. Affricke] FORSYTH, in a chapter on 'Parallelisms,' not of Shakespeare with 
other writers, but with Shakespeare himself, quotes as similar to the present wish 
of Imogen,, that of Volumnia in reference to Coriolanus: 'I would my son 
were in Arabia, and thy tribe before him,' etc. Cor., IV, ii, 24; 'or be alive 
again, And dare me to the desert with thy sword.' Macb., Ill, iv, 104; 'I dare 
meet Surrey in a wilderness, And spit upon him while I say he lies.' Rich. II: 
IV, i, 74- 

129. Needle] ABBOTT ( 465): 'Needle,' which in Gammer Gurton rhymes with 
'feeble,' is often pronounced as a monosyllable. 

139. walke a-while] That is, withdraw. For similar examples, see SCHMIDT, 
Lex., s. v. 

ACT I, SC. iii.] 


lino. About fome halfe houre hence, 
Pray you fpeake with me ; 
You fhall (at leaft) go fee my Lord aboord. 
For this time leaue me. 



Exeunt. 143 

Scena Tertia. 

Enter Clottcn ,and two Lords. 
I. Sir, I would aduife you to fhift a Shirt; the Vio- 

140, 141. One line Rowe,+, Var. 
'73, '78, '85. Ran. 

140-143. hence,;. ..aboard.] 
hence,... me. ...aboard:... me. Cap. Var. 
'78 et seq. 

141. Pray you] pray Pope, Han. 
I pray you Cap. Steev. Varr. Knt, 
Dyce/Wh. Sta. Ktly, Glo. Cam. 

141-143. Pray.] Two lines, end- 
ing: leajl) Cap. Mai. Steev. et seq. 
143. For] From Warb. (misprint?). 

1. Scena Tertia.] Scene continued. 
Rowe, Theob. SCENE rv. Pope, Han. 
Warb. Johns. SCENE n. Dyce, Sta. 
Glo. Coll. iii, Cam. et seq. (subs.) 

The same. Cap. A Publick Place. 
Mai. Steev. Varr. Knt. Coll. 

The same. A Public Place. Dyce, 
Sta. Glo. Cam. 

2. Clotten] Ff. Cloten. Rowe et 

3. 10, 16, 25, 35. i] i Lord. Rowe. 

143. Exeunt] SHERMAN (p. 19) : Evidently Shakespeare is not yet fully at work. 
Neither in this scene nor in the preceding does his hand suggest the cunning that 
it has known in most earlier plays. Particularly this plan of character contrasts, 
which presents first a scene of Imogen, and then of Cloten, and then of Imogen 
again, is unexampled in all his work elsewhere. 

1. Scena Tertia] ECCLES: Place is the same. The time seems to succeed 
immediately to that of the last; by the shortness of the interval between the de- 
parture of Posthumus in the former scene, and the appearance of Pisanio who 
relates the assault made on him by Cloten, we must suppose it to have happened 
either in the palace, or immediately after Posthumus had set out from thence on 
his way to the harbour, and one of the lords here speaks as if Cloten were still warm 
from the effects of the encounter. INGLEBY: This scene is introduced to show up 
Cloten in a character which, to judge of his subsequent conduct, he hardly 
deserves, that of a conceited coward. The First Lord flatters him too grossly for 
human credulity, and the Second Lord, by 'asides,' lampoons him, for the benefit 
of the groundlings. The allusions are obscure, and the quibbles poor. It would 
be a relief to know that Shakespeare was not reponsible for either this scene or the 
first of Act II. Both may be omitted, without loss, in reading the play. [Those 
editors who here mark the Second Scene are, it seems to me, unquestionably right. 
There has been no change of scene until now. ED.] 

2. Clotten] HAZLITT (p. 8): The character of Cloten, the conceited, booby 
lord, and rejected lover of Imogen, though not very agreeable in itself, and at 
present obsolete, is drawn with great humour and knowledge of character. The 
description which Imogen gives of his unwelcome addresses to her, 'Whose 
lovesuit hath been to me as fearful as a siege,' [III, iv, 157] is enough to cure the 
most ridiculous lover of his folly. It is remarkable that though Cloten makes so 
poor a figure in love, he is described as assuming an air of consequence as the 


34 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. iii. 

lence of Action hath made you reek as a Sacrifice : where 

ayre comes out, ayre comes in : There's none abroad fo 5 

wholefome as that you vent. 

Clot. If my Shirt were bloody, then to fhift it. 
Haue I hurt him ? 

2 No faith : not fo much as his patience. 

1 Hurt him? His bodie's a paffable Carkaffe if he bee 10 
not hurt. It is a through-fare for Steele if it be not hurt. 

2 His Steele was in debt, it went o'th'Backe-fide the 

Clot. The Villaine would not ftand me. 

2 No, but he fled forward ftill, toward your face. 15 

5. comes in:} comes in, Johns. n. a through-fare] F 2 F 4 , Rowe i, 

6. wholefome] unwholesome Ingl. i. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. thorough-fare 

7. 8. If. ..him?} Prose Cap. et seq. Rowe ii. a thorough-fare F 3 et cet. 

7. to Jhlft it] Ff, Knt, Dyce, Sta. 12. o'th'] Rowe,+, Cap. oth' Ff. 

Glo. Coll. iii, Cam. to shift it Rowe the Steev. o'the Var. '73 et cet. 

et cet. I'd shift it Lloyd ap. Cam. 12, 13. the Towne] o' the town Ktly 

9, 12, 15, 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 37. 2} 2 conj. 

Lord. Rowe. 15. forward] forward Pope, + , Var. 

9, 12, 16. [Aside. Theob. et seq. '73. 

Queen's son in a council of State, and with all the absurdity of his person and 
manners, is not without shrewdness in his observations. So true is it that folly is 
as often owing to a want of proper sentiments as to a want of understanding! 
The exclamation of the ancient critic, Oh, Menander and Nature, which of you 
copied from the other! would not be misapplied to Shakespeare. [For other 
estimates of Cloten's character, see Appendix. It suffices, I think, here and now to 
call attention to Cloten's irreconcilable traits of character: he is at once a despic- 
able lout and a prudent councillor, timid as a hare and bold as a lion. ED.] 

5,6. so wholesome as that you vent] INGLEBY reads unwholesome in his text, 
and appends a foot-note. The original text is restored, and the foot-note silently 
omitted by Holcombe Ingleby in the revised edition of his father's book. DOWDEN: 
Ingleby misunderstood the meaning. The speaker advises Cloten to shift a 
shirt, a common Elizabethan expression, used, for example, in Massinger, The 
Picture, II, i, in order to cease reeking; otherwise he must take air in to supply 
what he loses, and the outer air is less wholesome than that of his own sweet body. 

10. passable] SCHMIDT (Lex.): Affording free passage. 

10, ii. if he bee not hurt ... if it be not hurt] Can any man lay his hand 
on his honest heart and say this needless repetition sounds like Shakespeare? ED. 

12, 13. His Steele . . . Towne] DELIUS: In order to spare him, Posthumus's 
steel sneaked roundabout Cloten's body, like a debtor trying to avoid his creditors. 
THISELTON (p. 8): In An Account of James the First's Visit in 1615 to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, given in the Appendix to Hawkins' edition of Ignoramus, we 
read that certain 'Jesuits or priests, being to be conveyed from London to Wisbich 
castle, were not suffered to come thorough Cambridge, but by the Sheriff carried 
over the backe side of the town to Cambridge castle.' 

A. r i, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 3 5 

1 Stand you ? you haue Land enough of your ovvne : 16 
But he added to your hauing, gaue you fome ground. 

2 As many Inches, as you haue Oceans( Puppies.) 
Clot. I would they had not come betweene vs. 

2 So would I, till you had meafur'd how long a Foole 20 
you were vpon the ground. 

Clot. And that fhee fhould loue this Fellow, and re- 
fufe mee. 

2 If it be a fin to make a true election, ifhe is damn'd. 

I Sir, as I told you alwayes : her Beauty & her Braine 25 
go not together. Shee's a good figne, but I haue feene 
fmall reflection of her wit. 27 

16. 17. As prose Pope et seq. 23. mee.] me! Rowe. 

18, 20, 24, 28, 32. [Aside. Pope et 24. flie is] she's Rowe ii,+. 

seq. 25. alwayes:] always, Rowe et seq. 

18. Oceans(Puppies.)] F 2 F 3 . Oceans her Beauty 6" her Braine] your 

(Puppies) F 4 . oceans, Puppies! Rowe, beauty and your brain Anon. ap. Cam. 

+ . oceans. Puppies! Coll. Dyce, 26. Shee's] Shees F 2 . 

Ktly, Glo. Cam. oceans: Puppies! fegne] sun Sta. conj. (Athenaeum, 

Cap. et seq. 14 June, 1873). 

17. But he added . . . ground] WALKER (Crit., iii, 316) queries whether the 
stage-direction at the head of this Scene should not be, 'Enter Cloten and three 
Lords'; and, because he doubts that 'Puppies' refers to the First Lord and Cloten, 
he gives this line 17 to the Third Lord. [I cannot see how this addition to the group 
mends matters, or what objection there is to calling Cloten, or the First Lord either, 
a 'puppy.' ED.] 

18. Inches . . . Oceans] This antithesis between 'inches' and 'oceans' teases 
us as a possible allusion which time has hidden. But the words may signify no 
more than their plain meaning; inasmuch as Cloten had no 'having' in oceans, so he 
had no addition to his 'having in ground.' ED. 

20, 21. So would I ... ground] Time has evaporated the wit in this sentence 
also, if it ever had any. ED. 

24. election] WHITE (ed. 5.) : The allusion plainly is to the doctrine of election 
held by the Calvinists. [I think this is doubtful. The Calvinistic 'election' is a 
prerogative of God; man cannot 'make it.' 'Election' is here used, I think, in its 
ordinary sense. See Craig's note, I, ii, 84. ED.] 

25. her Beauty & her Braine] JOHNSON: I believe the lord means to speak 
a sentence, 'Sir, as I told you always, beauty and brain go not together.' [Have 
we not here an illustration of Dr Johnson's own remark in regard to a whirlpool: 
'Sir, it is movement without progression.' ED.] 

26. signe] WARBURTON: If 'sign' be the true reading, the poet means by it, 
constellation, and by 'reflection' is meant influence. But I rather think, from the 
answer, that he wrote shine. EDWARDS (p. no) : So, because shine signifies bright- 
ness, you may call a bright person a good shine! The expression is monstrous. 
'Sign' is the true reading; without signifying constellation, or even a single star. 
The sense is plain as words can make it. She has a fair outside, a specious appear- 

36 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. iii. 

2 She fhines not vpon Fooles, leaft the reflection 28 

Should hurt her. 

Clot. Come, He to my Chamber : would there had 30 
beene fome hurt done. 

2 I wifh not fo, vnleffe it had bin the 1 fall of an Affe, 
which is no great hurt. 

Clot. You'l go with vs ? 

1 He attend your Lordfhip. 35 
Clot. Nay come, let's go together. 

2 Well my Lord. Exeunt. 37 

28, 29. As prose Rowe ii. et seq. 35. i lie] 2. L. I'll Cap. Ran. Ecc. 

32. bin] been F 4 . Dyce ii, Huds. 

37. 2 Well] i Lord. Well Del. conj. 

ance; but no wit. O quanta species, cerebrum non habet! Phaedrus. HEATH (p. 
472): 'Reflection' here means token or display, not influence, for light is chiefly 
manifested by being reflected. The sense is: She is undoubtedly a constellation 
of considerable lustre, but it is not displayed in her wit; for I have seen but little 
manifestation of that. STEEVENS: To understand the whole force of Shakespeare's 
idea, it should be remembered, that anciently almost every sign had a motto, or some 
attempt at a witticism, underneath it. MALONE refers oppositely to I, vii, 20- 
22. [It is time wasted to spend much thought on this foolish scene, which wain- 
ropes cannot hale me to the belief that Shakespeare ever wrote. ED.] 

34. You'l go with vs] CAPELL (Notes, p. 103) believes that this is addressed 
to the Second Lord, 'and, of consequence, he is the answerer, though editions have 
order'd it otherwise.' [There is force in what Capell urges. He evidently takes 
'attend' in the sense of await, as it is used in 'the Legions attending you heere,' 
IV, ii, 415, and in many another place, and as Cloten understands it; it explains his 
request that they should not separate but all 'go together.' I think ELZE failed to 
catch this meaning; he leaves the distribution of the speeches unchanged, but ac- 
counts for Cloten's remonstrance by supposing that the Second Lord offers 'either 
to stay behind or to leave by a different door.' VAUGHAN, retaining the text of the 
Folio, thus paraphrases: 'The second lord, in the words "Well, my lord," plays 
sarcastically on the expression of Cloten, "let's go together." Cloten makes use 
of these words in their literal sense, as "let us go like companions, hand in hand, and 
not like princes and attendant, the second after the first": but the second lord, 
on the other hand, professes to understand "let us go together" in the metaphorical 
sense, in which the first lord has already employed it, by the phrase " her beauty and 
her brain go not together," that is, "are not a match"; and, accordingly, he adds 
"well, my lord," that is, "you go together well, my lord; you are an excellent pair 
and match, being both coxcombs and puppies." He has said the same of them 
before, in his aside exclamation "puppies."' 

ACT I, SC. iv.] 



Scena Quartet. 

Enter Imogen, and Pifanio. 

Imo.\ would thou grew'ft vnto the fhores o'th'Hauen, 
And questioned' ft euery Saile : if he fhould write, 
And I not haue it, 'twere a Paper loft 5 

As offer'd mercy is : What was the laft 
That he fpake to thee? 

Pifa. It was his Queene, his Queene. 

lino. Then wau'd his Handkerchiefe ? 

Pifa. And kift it, Madam. IO 

lino. Senfeleffe Linnen, happier therein then I : 
And that was all? 12 

i. Scena Quarta.] Scene continued. 
Rowe. SCENE v. Pope, Han. Warb. 
Johns. SCENE in. Dyce, Sta. Glo. 
Cam. Coll. iii. 

Imogen's Apartments. Theob. A 
Room in the Palace. Cap. 

3. o'l/i] Rowe,+. olh' Ff. o'the 
Cap. et seq. 

4. questioned' ft] Ff, Rowe, Pope, 
Han. question'd'st Theob. Warb. 
questioned Var. '85. qucstiondst Johns, 
et cet. 

4. euery] ev'ry Rowe i. 

5, 6. 'twere... is:] 'livere as a paper 
lost With offer 'd mercy in it. Han. 

5. Paper loft] proper loss Dtn 

6. offcr'd] deferred Sta. conj. 
is] is... Ktly conj. 

7. to thec] with thee Pope, + . 

8. It was] Ff, Rowe, Cap. Knt, Coll. 
Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 'Twos Pope 
et cet. 

ii. Senfelejfe] O senseless Ktly. 

i. Scena Quarta] ECCLES: Between the former and the present scene such an 
interval must be supposed as was sufficient for Pisanio to attend his master to the 
harbour, agreeably to Imogen's directions, and to return from thence with an 
account of his departure. 

6. As offer'd mercy] WARBURTON refers this to the 'offer'd mercy of heaven.'- 
JOHNSON and WYATT agree with him. HEATH refers it to the pardon of a con- 
demned criminal. Thus also, CAPELL, STEEVENS (who quotes, 'Like a remorseful 
pardon slowly carried.' All's Well, V, iii, 58); and nearly all subsequent editors, 
with unusual unanimity. 

n, 12. Senselesse . . . all] WALKER (Crit., iii, 316) proposes to arrange, 
'Senseless linen, happier' as closing line 10, and read 'Therein than I,' as a broken 
line. W T ho can discern therein any possible metrical gain, or imagine how the 
change can be pleasurably indicated by the living voice. Line n may not be a 
fine filed iambic trimeter, but with its two heavy, long spondees, ' senselesse linnen,' 
it is highly felicitous. After the force of these four sombre syllables has spent itself, 
the choriamb, 'happier therein,' imparts, as it should, a gayer, brighter air, as 
though over Imogen's sweet features a thought almost jocund had passed, as she 
remembered her lovers last kiss. Then, lastly, 'than I,' with its downward 
inflection, prepares us for the plaintive, 'And that was all?' And into this music 

38 THE TRAGEDIE OF [ACT i, sc. iv. 

Pi/a. No Madam : for fo long 13 

As he could make me with his eye, or eare, 

14. his] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. Knt. 14. his eye] his eyes F 4 , Rowe. 

the Coleridge, Ktly. mine Ingl. this either eye Sta. conj. (Athenaeum, 14 
Theob. et cet. June, 1873). 

of William Shakespeare rude fingers must be thrust, and the cords wantonly 
snapped. Vaughan is, possibly, the arch-enthusiast for metrical arrangement 
and the supreme domination of metre over pronunciation. The following line is 
of his scansion: 'Beyond thought's comp'ss that former fab'lous story.' (p. 401). 
Again, 'Who knows of one of h'r women being corrupted.' (p. 411). Again, 
'And gentl'men of It'ly most willing spirits.' (p. 496). May we not be permitted 
to marvel why these metrical enthusiasts do not urge a return to the intoning of 
Betterton's days, and the adoption of a drama wherein the lines shall be faultlessly 
metrical, but the words unintelligible and unpronounceable? ED.] 

14. make me with his eye, or eare] THEOBALD: How could Posthumus make 
himself distinguished by his ear to Pisanio? By his tongue he might, to the 
other's ear: and this was certainly Shakespeare's intention. We must, therefore, 
read, as Mr Warburton hinted to me, 'with this eye.' The expression is Sei/cri/cois, 
as the Greeks term it. The party speaking points to the part spoken of. [In 
Nichol's Illustrations, ii, 628, Theobald conjectures 'with my eye'; but evidently 
withdrew it.] JOHNSON: Hanmer alters-it to 'mark me with his eye, or /,' because 
Pisanio describes no address made to the ear. BECKET (p. 256) conjectures 'make 
his eye, or e'er [i]' and explains that 'the want of the personal pronoun, which 
should accompany e'er, obscures the expression'; it must be understood. THISEL- 
TON (p. 9): Becket is, I think, for once in a right way in [his conjecture], but there 
is no misprint: See 'They shall be parde, who eare do lesse '- Hake's News out of 
Powles Churchyarde; also 'Whatear we shew' Return from Parnassus (Macray), 
Prologue, 64. COLERIDGE (p. 303) : But 'this eye,' in spite of the supposition of its 
being SeuriKcos, is very awkward. I should think that either or or the was Shake- 
speare's word. HUDSON: Coleridge's proposed 'with the eye,' I am apt to think 
the better correction. [Unquestionably there are occasions when an actor may, 
and even must, make clear his meaning by 'pointing,' as Theobald says, 'to the 
parts spoken of,' as where Polonius says 'Take this from this, if this be otherwise,' 
pointing to his head and neck. But is the present one of the occasions? Could 
the effect be other than ludicrous (and the 'absurdity' struck Ingleby also) to see 
Pisanio gravely raise his hand and point first to his eye and then to his ear? ED.] 
WHITE (ed. i.) : It would be well were there warrant for reading ' with or eye or ear.' 
DEIGHTON'S text reads 'with his eye, or mine,' with the meaning that 'so long as 
he could make me out, see me at all, and I could distinguish him from the sailors 
on board,' etc. STEEVENS: This description, and what follows it, seems imitated 
from Ovid, Met. [463-474]. See Golding's trans. [142 verso, ed. 1567]. 'Shee lifting 
vp her watrye eyes behilld her husband stand Vppon the hatches making signes by 
beckening with his hand: And shee made signes to him ageine. And after that the 
land Was farre remoued from the shippe, and that the sight began Too bee vnable 
too discerne the face of any man, As long as ere shee could shee lookt vppon the 
rowing keele. And when shee could no longer tyme for distance ken it weele, Shee 
looked still vppon the sayles that flashed with the wynd Vppon the maast. And 
when she coulde the sayles no longer fynd, She gate her too her empty bed with sad 

ACT i, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 39 

Diftinguifh him from others, he did keepe 1 5 

The Decke, with Gloue, or Hat, or Handkerchife, 
Still wauing, as the fits and ftirres of's mind 
Could beft expreffe how flow his Soule fayl'd on, 
How fwift his Ship. 

Into. Thou fhould'fl haue made him, 20 

As little as a Crow, or leffe, ere left 
To after-eye him. 

Pifa. Madame, fo I did. 

Imo. I would haue broke mine eye-ftrings ; 
Crack'd them, but to looke vpon him, till the diminution 2$ 
Of fpace, had pointed him fharpe as my Needle : 

20. him] him ev'n Han. him seem 25. them, but] 'em, but Pope,+. 

Sta. conj. (Athenaeum, 14 June, 1873). the balls Huds. 

24-29. Mnemonic Pope, Warb. him,} Ff, Coll. Ktly, Glo. Cam. 

24, 25. / would... Crack' d them, but] him; Rowe et cet. 

One line Pope et seq. 26. Of] From Han. Of's Warb. 

and sorye hart, And layd her downe.' DOWDEN refers to a close parallel in Venus 
& Adonis, lines 817-822. [There is one faint point in favour of Warburton's emen- 
dation which seems to give it possibility, and this is that the compositor, misled 
by the repetition of the sound, heard from the voice of his reader, or from his mental 
ear, set up, 'with his,' when he should have set up 'with this,' the words of the copy. 
If these were really the words of the copy, an emendation is needed, if one be needed 
at all, quite as much as ever. I see no reason, however, why we should assume that 
Posthumus was silent as long as he was within ear-shot. Such is not the use and 
wont now-a-days when the great Ocean Liners leave the dock. If, after all, the 
phrase be unintelligible, be it so. Have we received at Shakespeare's hand 
'favours so sweet, they went to the heart's root, And shall we not receive one bitter 
fruit.' ED.] 

24. broke mine eye-strings] MURRAY (N. E. D.}\ The strings (i. e., muscles, 
nerves, or tendons) of the eye. They were formerly supposed to break or crack 
at death or loss of sight. STAUNTON (Athcnaum, 14 June, 1873): No one familiar 
with Shakespeare's style can believe him guilty of this bathos. He might have 
written, 'I would have crack'd mine eye-strings; broke them,' etc., though even 
this would be tame for him. It is far more likely that what he really did write 
was ' I would have crack'd mine eye-strings, broke their balls,' etc. I am doubtful 
whether the expression of Pisanio, III, iv, 'I'll wake mine eye-balls blind first/ 
adds anything to the probability of this suggestion, but it may be worth notice. 

25, 26. diminution Of space] WARBURTON: But the increase of distance is 
the augmentative, not the 'diminution of space' between the object and the be- 
holder; which augmentation occasions the diminution of the object. We should 
read, therefore, ' the diminution of's space,' i. e., of his space, or of that space which 
his body occupied; and this is the diminution of the object by the augmentation of 
space. HEATH (p. 473) : All this is certainly true and perfectly right; but then it 
ought to have taught [Warburton] to have recourse to that rule of construction in 
the English language, that the genitive case is frequently used to express the cause, 

40 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT i, sc. iv. 

Nay, followed him, till he had melted from 27 

The fmalneffe of a Gnat, to ayre : and then 

Haue turn'd mine eye, and wept. But good Pifanio, 

When fhall we heare from him. 30 

Pifa. Be affur'd Madam, 
With his next vantage. 

Imo. I did not take my leaue of him, but had 
Moft pretty things to fay : Ere I could tell him 
How I would thinke on him at certaine houres, 35 

Such thoughts, and fuch : Or I could make him fweare, 
The Shees of Italy fhould not betray 
Mine Intereft,- and his Honour : or haue charg'd him 
At the fixt houre of Morne, at Noone, at Midnight, 39 

27. followed] followed Pope et seq. 37. Shees] F 2 . She's F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 

29. wept. But] wept but Pope, Han. 38. haue charg'd] could charge Han. 

30. him.] him? Rowe. 39. fixt] fexth F 4 . 
33-45. Mnemonic Warb. 

as well as the object. Thus, ' the diminution of space, will be that diminution which 
is caused by space or distance. [The correction of Warburton may be always 
safely left to Heath or Edwards. ED.] JOHNSON: That is, the diminution of 
which space is the cause. Trees are killed by a blast of lightning, that is, by blast- 
ing, not blasted lightning. 

28. of a Gnat, to ayre] In reading or speaking, the slight pause after 'Gnat/ 
indicated by the comma in the Folio, should not be overlooked. CAPELL, I am 
sorry to say, was the first to remove this comma, and he has been almost uniformly 
followed by succeeding editors. Of course, as far as the mere construction of the 
sentence is concerned, the punctuation of the Folio is erroneous. ED. 

32. vantage] That is, his next favourable opportunity. 

36-38. Or I could . . . his Honour] These are to me the only jarring 
words that Imogen ever utters. We all know how common it is, both on and, 
unfortunately, off the stage, for wives to mistrust husbands. This excuse may be 
possibly urged in Imogen's defence. But I prefer that she should need no defence. 
When she learns the contents of Posthumus's cruel, brutal letter to Pisanio, her 
suspicions fly at once, not unnaturally, to some 'jay of Italy!' But it grates me 
that she should express any such suspicion, however faint, at the very instant that 
her heart was breaking over their separation; and when her every other utterance 
at this moment was that of an ' enskyed saint.' Is the harboring of such a thought, 
at such a crisis, in harmony with a character that was almost perversely obtuse when 
lachimo broadly hinted at Posthumus's infidelity? These lines are to me so 
repugnant that I would fain believe she never uttered them. Let them be ex- 
cised and the remaining lines will flow with sufficing metrical smoothness: 'Such 
thoughts, and such; or I could have charg'd him.' On the other hand, Collier 
(ed. ii.) remarks that the allusion to the 'shes of Italy' is 'an admirable preparation 
for what succeeds in the play.' I cannot see it. ED. 

37. The Shees] See 'Twixt two such She's.' I, vii, 47. For other instances 
where 'he' and 'she' are used for man and woman, see ABBOTT, 224. 

ACT i, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 

T'encounter me with Orifons, for then 40 

I am in Heauen for him : Or ere I could, 

Giue him that parting kiffe, which I had fet 

Betwixt two charming words, comes in my Father, 

And like the Tyrannous breathing of the North, 

Shakes all our buddes from growing. 45 

40. T encounter] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. 40. Orifons] Or also us Rowe. 

Dyce ii, Sing. 41. Heauen] heav'n Han. 

43. two charming words] WARBURTOX: Without question by these two 
charming words she would be understood to mean, 'Adieu, Posthumus.' The one 
Religion made so; and the other Love. EDWARDS (p. 191): [According to Mr War- 
burton] Imogen must have understood the etymology of our language very exactly; 
to find out so much religion in the word adieu; which we use commonly without 
fixing any such idea to it; as when we say that such a man has bidden adieu to all 
religion. And, on the other side, she must have understood the language of love 
very little if she could find no tenderer expression of it than the name by which 
everybody else called her husband. COLLIER: The old meaning of to 'charm' was 
to enchant, and in that sense we suppose it to have been used by Imogen in this 
passage; she would have set the kiss betwixt 'two charming words,' in order, per- 
haps, to secure it from 'the shes of Italy.' [And to the same effect, all subsequent 
editors.] INGLEBY believes that 'there is, not improbably, an allusion to some 
custom of Shakespeare's own day.' THISELTON finds here 'an allusion to the 
cross, which still, I understand, represents a kiss in love letters, that was placed 
between words in written charms or "charects. " DOWDEN: In Scot's Discovery 
of Witchcraft 'use charming words' means use words of incantation. DEIGHTON 
suggests that 'perhaps "charming" means nothing more than "sweet," "loving"'; 
whereto the present editor is inclined to agree. 

45. Shakes . . . growing] WARBURTOX argues that if Cymbeline's rage had 
occurred when he first discovered the marriage, Imogen would have rightly 
referred to it as shaking 'all our buds from growing' 'because by banishing Post- 
humus, he quite cut off the fruits of their loves and alliances, which were things of 
duration; and in this case the buds of fruit-trees had been meant.' But Posthumus 
was taking his last farewell of her, which was but of a short and momentary dura- 
tion, 'in this case, it is plain' that the 'buds' must refer to flowers, which do not 
'grow' like fruit buds, but merely open or expand. Therefore, we must read, 
'Shakes all our buds from blowing.' HANMER is the only editor who was beguiled 
by this hypercritical emendation. But the Rev. Dr HURD, a fulsome admirer of 
Warburton in a note on Cattida juncture, in his edition of Horace's Art of Poetry 
(p. 56, ed. 1766) adopted 'blowing' of the 'sagacious editor' and modified the line 
by suggesting: 'Shuts all our buds from blowing.' 'And, on second thoughts, 
changed shuts to checks, as more like both in sound to "Shakes" and in the traces of 
the letters, and lastly because it is easier and better English.' I owe to ECCLES 
this reference to Kurd. In the emendation checks, Hurd anticipates BAILEY (ii, 
128). CAPELL (i, 103): Not the fair bud of their adieus only, but all their buds, 
the whole promised crop of their loves is shaken and beat to the ground by this 
'tyrannous breathing.' 'Growing' is equivalent to 'blowing,' for the expansion 
of buds is growth; promoted, as is elsewhere expressed, 'by summer's ripening 

42 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

Enter a Lady. 46 

La. The Queene (Madam) 
Defires your Highneffe Company. 

Into. Thofe things I bid you do,'get them difpatch'd, 
I will attend the Queene. 50 

Pi fa. Madam, I fhall. Exetint. 

Scena Quinta. 

Enter Philario , lacltiino : a Frenchman y a Dntcli- 

man, and a Spaniard. 3 

i. Scena Quinta] SCENE n. Rowe. 2. lachimo:] lachimo, Ff. lachimo, 

SCENE vi. Pope, Han. Warb. Johns. and Rowe. 

SCENE iv. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Coll. iii, 2, 3. a Frenchman, a Dutchman,] 

Cam. Frenchman, Dutchman F 3 F 4 . 

Rome. Rowe. A Room in Philario's a Dutchman, and a Spaniard] 

House. Cap. Om. Rowe,+, Varr. Ran. Knt. 

breath.' Rom. &" //., II, ii, 121. JOHNSON: A bud, without any distinct idea, 
whether of flower or fruit, is a natural representation of anything incipient or 
immature; and the buds of flowers, if flowers are meant, grow to flowers, as 
the buds of fruits grow to fruits. STEEVENS: I think the old reading may be 
sufficiently supported by 'Rough words to shake the darling buds of May.'- 
Sonn., xviii. Again in 'Confounds thy fame, as whirlwinds shake fair buds.'- 
Tam. Shr., V, ii, 140. 

1. Scena Quinta] ECCLES (p. 31) : Between this scene and the last so much time 
must be imagined to pass as was sufficient for Posthumus to perform his voyage and 
journey to Rome. DANIEL: Here begins the Second Day. INGLEBY: The language 
of this scene presents a notable instance of slipshod writing, with an occasional 
construction of equivocal meaning. Recent publications on the authorship of 
these plays induce the reflexion, how the fastidious taste of so great a master of 
prose as Francis Bacon would have been shocked by such composition as we find 
in this and other prose scenes. 

2, 3. a Dutchman, and a Spaniard] CAPELL (p. 104): Perhaps the Poet 
might have intended to make more of [these two] than only silent co-agents; or, 
when he dropped that intention, let them stand as a mark of Philario's benevolence 
and his hospitable disposition to strangers. STEEVENS: Shakespeare derived 
[these four characters] from whatever translation of the original novel he made use 
of. [In the Var. '21 there is this additional remark by Steevens: 'Thus, in the 
ancient one described in our Prolegomena to this drama: "Howe iiii merchauntes 
met all togyther in on way, whyche were of iiii dyverse landes," etc.' This is 
probably a reference to the version of Boccaccio, of which Steevens gives a meagre 
account in his Prolegomena. See Appendix, Source oj 'the Plot. SKOTTOWE quotes 
this reference by Steevens, and adds: 'In the trifling particular of the arrange- 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 43 

lack. Beleeue it Sir, I haue feene him in Britaine; hee 
was then of a Creffent note, expected to proue fo woor- 5 

thy, as fmce he hath beene allowed the name of. But I 
could then haue look'd on him, without the help of Ad- 
miration, though the Catalogue of his endowments had 8 

4. Sir,] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. Dyce, crescent note; expected Theob. et cet. 
Glo. Cam. Sir; Cap. et cet. 5, 6. woorthy] wore thy Pope i. 

5. then of a Creffent note, expeded] 6. But] Om. Han. 

F 2 . then of a crejjcnt none, expected F 3 . 7, 8. Admiration,] Ff, Coll. Dyce ii, 

then of a crefcent, none expected F 4 , Rowe. in, Sta. Glo. Cam. admiration; Theob. 

than but crescent, none expected, him et cet. 
Pope (then ed. ii.), Han. then of a 

ment of his Dram. Pers. in this Scene, therefore, Shakespeare acted under the 
influence of authority, and this is likewise evident from the circumstance that the 
Spaniard and Hollander are mute.' KNIGHT opines that Shakespeare no doubt 
intended ' to show that the foolish wager of Posthumus was made amidst strangers 
who resorted to Rome.' WHITE agrees substantially with Knight, and adds that 
their 'mere presence had a dramatic effect.' 

7, 8. without the help of Admiration] STAUNTON (Athenceum, 14 June, 
1873): What befitting sense can be tortured out of 'the help of admiration'? 
Does not the context plainly show that 'help' is a corruption? I feel certain we 
ought to read, 'without the yelp of admiration,' or 'the whoop of admiration.' 
Either word tallies with the sense, which obviously is 'I know how distinguished 
this Briton is accounted, but if I had studied every item of his accomplishments, 
I could still look on him without a vulgar shout of wonderment.' Compare, 'two 
yoke-devils . . . working so grossly . . . That admiration did not whoop at them.' 
Henry V: II, ii; also 'most wonderful wonderful! and yet again wonderful! 
and, after that, out of all whooping!' As You Like It, III, ii. INGLEBY: This 
very difficult passage had been passed over by all critics, with the exception of 
Staunton, who was reduced to the expedient of proposing two emendations for 
'help,' one of which has no resemblance to the trace of the letters, and the other is 
simply laughable. It is natural, at first sight, to suppose that lachimo is the 
person who is said to be 'without the help of admiration'; but, if the passage be 
closely examined, it will be seen that an atmosphere of prestige would be rather a 
hindrance than a help to a person desirous of critically estimating the hero; and even 
tolerable sense cannot be extracted from the ordinary interpretation. What 
lachimo intended to say is this: 'but I could then have looked upon Posthumus, 
whose name had not at that time obtained the glamour which now invests it.' 
The phrase is slightly elliptical, but not to so great an extent as is to be found 
in other passages of this play. [The papers on ' Unsuspected Corruptions in Shake- 
speare's Text' which, during 1872, '73, '74, STAUNTON contributed to The Athenceum, 
were a source of grief to his friends. The nice discrimination, due to wide reading 
and a dramatic temperament, seemed to have wholly deserted him. And the 
emendations he proposed were received in silence, and with the respect to which, 
as the editor of a truly admirable edition of Shakespeare, he was entitled. Mrs 
MARY COWDEN-CLARKE was, I think, the only critic who openly remonstrated 
against some of them. In those far-away days Shakespeare had not, as now, his 

44 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

bin tabled by his fide, and I to perufe him by Items. 

Phil. You fpeake of him when he was leffe furnifh'd, 10 
then now hee is, with that which makes him both with- 
out, and within. 

French. I haue feene him in France : wee had very ma- 
ny there, could behold the Sunne, with as firme eyes as 
hee. 1 5 

lach. This matter of marrying his Kings Daughter, 
wherein he muft be weighed rather by her valew, then 17 

9. bin] been F 4 . 16. Kings] King F 2 . 

13. in France] France F 2 . 

niche in every household as a fireside god, and emendations of his text were not 
then to be resented as personal affronts. In the present instance, Staunton's 
changes of 'help' into yelp or whoop are unhappy, most unhappy; they need no 
comment. In them, the palmiest days are recalled of Beckett, of Zachary Jackson, 
and of Lord Chedworth. As in many others of Staunton's emendations, the 
difficulty here is of his own creation; it is, as DOWDEN, when speaking of Ingleby's 
assent to Staunton's difficulty, justly terras, 'imaginary.' For, strangely enough, 
Ingleby shared Staunton's view of the present passage, and pronounced the Folio 
text 'very difficult.' 'An atmosphere of prestige,' he thinks, 'would be rather a 
hindrance than a help to a person desirous of critically estimating the hero.' But 
lachimo had no desire to estimate Posthumus, either critically or justly, he was 
prejudiced from the start, and it was his irritating manner due to this prejudice 
which exasperated Posthumus. Dr Ingleby's son, Mr Holcombe Ingleby, who 
edited a second edition of his father's book, assumed the responsibility of the note in 
the first edition by acknowledging that it was written at his suggestion; and invited 
a discussion of it in the pages of Notes & Queries; and there the student can find it, 
in VII, vii, 124, 384; Ibid., viii, 44, 222, 302, 402; Ibid., ix, 263. In the course of it 
W. W. LLOYD is the solitary writer, I think, who found any difficulty in the present 
passage, which he amends by reading ' without the eyes of admiration.' No editor, 
I think, since Dr Ingleby has detected any difficulty here, and but few have noticed 
Ingleby's criticism. ED.] 

9. peruse] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v., n, 2): To examine (a number of things) one 
by one. 

ii. makes him] JOHNSON: In the sense in which we say, This will make or mar 

ii, 12. both without, and within] DOWDEN refers to 'All that is out of door 
most rich,' etc. I, vii, 20. Possibly an equally apt comparison lies in, 'So faire an 
Outward, and such stuff e Within Endowes a man, but hee.' I, i, 32. 

14, 15. as hee] DOWDEN: Perhaps this refers to lachimo, and if so, 'the sun' 
must stand ironically for Posthumus; but 'he' may be Posthumus, and the mean- 
ing may be, we had as many eagles as true of breed as he. Compare 3 Hen. VI: 
II, i, 91, 92: 'Nay, if thou be that princely eagle's bird, Show thy descent by gazing 
'gainst the sun.' [It seems to me that 'he' must refer to 'I have seen him in 
France,' and that Dowden's paraphrase is just. ED.] 

ACT I, SC. V.] 



his owne, words him (I doubt not) a great deale from the 18 

French. And then his banifhment. 20 

lack. I, and the approbation of thofe that weepe this 
lamentable diuorce vnder her colours, are wonderfully 
to extend him, be it but to fortifie her Judgement, which 
elfe an eafie battery might lay flat, for taking a Begger 
without leffe quality. But how comes it, he is to foiourne 25 

20. banijhment.] banishment- Pope, 
+ , Knt, Sing. Sta. Ktly. banishment: 
Cap. Mai. Steev. Varr. banishment 

21. /,] Ay, Rowe. 

approbation] approbations Warb. 
Johns. Coll. ii. (MS.). 

22. vnder her colours] and her dolours 
Coll. MS. 

are] is Ktly. 

22, 23. are wonderfully to] aids won- 
derfully to Warb. conj. (Nichols ii, 265). 
are "wonderful to Cap. conj. and wonder- 

fully do Ecc. are wont wonderfully to 
Coll. ii. (MS.), iii. and are wonderfully 
to Ecc. conj. who wonderfully do Orger. 

23. extend him] extend her Var. '73 

her] here F 2 . 

25. without lejje quality] without 
more quality Rowe,+, Ran. Steev. 
Varr. Coll. ii. (MS.), Sing. Ktly. 
without level quality Bailey (ii, 368). 
without less inequality Cartwright (p. 
38). without self-quality Bulloch (p. 
269). without best quality Vaughan. 

18, 19. words him . . . matter] JOHNSON: Makes the description of him very 
distant from the truth. [See 'whose containing Is so from sense in hardness. '- 
V, v, 512, 513.] 

20. banishment] When this sentence is assumed to be incomplete, and is 
filled out with what we are assured the Frenchman would have said, as has been 
done, we should bear in mind that it is Pope's, not Shakespeare's, words that are 
supplied. Pope is the first to indicate that the sentence is broken, and to put 
words in Pope's mouth is harmless and allowable, but to put them in Shakespeare's 
mouth verges on the temerarious. Is there any good reason to be given why the 
Frenchman's exclamation should be deemed incomplete? ED. 

22. diuorce vnder her colours, are] JOHNSON: Under her banner; by her 
influence. [If Shakespeare had placed 'under her colours' directly after the rela- 
tive pronoun which it qualifies, thus: 'the approbation of those under her colours 
that weep this lamentable divorce,' we should then probably have had 'is wonder- 
fully to extend him.' But as the text now stands, immediately after the plural 
'colours' follows the plural 'are,' which is held by Malone and others as a 'gram- 
matical inaccuracy.' It is merely the ordinary plural by attraction; in strictness, 
ungrammatical, but not so far unpardonable in Shakespeare that we need correct 
it. It occurs again in IV, ii, 396. ED.] 

23. extend] See note on 'I do extend him.' I, i, 35. 

23, 24. fortifie . . . battery] Did not the use of the military term, 'fortify,' 
suggest 'battery'? ED. 

25. without lesse quality] MALONE (ed. 1790): Whenever less or more is to be 
joined with a verb denoting want, or a preposition of a similar import, Shakespeare 
never fails to be entangled in a grammatical inaccuracy, or, rather, to use words 
that express the very contrary of what he means. [Thus far, Dyce (ed. ii.) quotes 
this note without dissent. Malone then goes on to say that he had proved his 

46 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

[25. without lesse quality] 

assertion 'incontestably ' in a note on Ant. & Cleop., IV, xiv, 72, 73. Unfortunately 
posterity has not confirmed his proof. Again he refers to Wint. Tale, III, ii, 58, 59; 
here, too, JOHNSON wisely pointed out that we must remember that, of aforetime, 
two negatives did not make an affirmative, but strengthened the negation. In- 
deed, there are, in Shakespeare, at least two instances of even triple negatives: 
'No woman has, nor never none shall mistress be of it,' etc., Twelfth Night, III, i, 163, 
and 'nor no further in sport neyther,' etc., As You Like It, I, ii, 27. Be this fact 
remembered in the discussion, not 'luminous but voluminous,' which follows. ED.] 
Malone thus ends his foregoing note: Mr Rowe and all the subsequent editors read: 
' without more quality,' and so undoubtedly Shakespeare ought to have written. On 
the stage, an actor may rectify such petty errors; but it is the duty of an editor 
to exhibit what his author wrote. STEEVENS: As on this occasion and several 
others, we can only tell what Hemings and Condell printed, instead of knowing with 
any degree of certainty what Shakespeare wrote, I have not disturbed Mr Rowe's 
emendation, which leaves a clear passage to the reader, if he happens to prefer an 
obvious sense to no sense at all. KNIGHT: We doubt the propriety of [Rowe's] 
change. Posthumus is spoken of by all as one of high qualifications, and he is 
presently introduced as 'a stranger of his quality.' He was bred as Imogen's 
'playfellow,' and, therefore, cannot be spoken of as a low man, 'without more 
quality.' . . . We do not feel warranted in altering the text, or we would read: 
'without his quality,' a beggar who does^iot follow the occupation of a beggar. 
[HUDSON adopted in his text this conjecture of Knight, which seemed to him 
'just the thing.' COLLIER believes that 'less' for 'more' was a compositor's error. 
HALLIWELL (Folio ed. 1853, i, 279) repeated the examples supplied by Malone, and, 
having added to them the following: 'Fortune forbid my outside have not 
charm'd her,' Twelfth Night, II, iii, 20; 'men must not walke too late who cannot 
want the thought,' Macb., Ill, vi, 10; 'Let his lacke of years be no impediment to 
let him lacke a reverend estimation,' Mer. of Ven., IV, i, 168; 'You lesse know 
how to value her desert, Than she to scant her duty,' Lear, II, iv, 135, deduced 
therefrom the following admirable summary: Words of negative import are some- 
times used for words of positive meaning where other words implying negation or 
detraction are placed in connection with them. This apparent solecism is merely 
a subtle variation of the use of the double negative. This exposition is in part 
quoted by INGLEBY. DELIUS (ed. i, 1855): According to Shakespearian usage, 
' less ' appears in some degree to strengthen a subjoined negation, as here ' without.' 
Posthumus is a beggar without any other quality whatever than just a beggar has. 
[Here follows the quotation from The Winter's Tale, above referred to by Malone: 
'I ne're heard yet, That any of these bolder Vices wanted, Lesse Impudence to 
gaine-say what they did, Then to performe it first.' III, ii, 57-60. WHITE (ed. i.) 
attributed the ' obscurity to the poet's own carelessness.' Ibid. (ed. ii.) : ' Doubtless 
Shakespeare thought here that what he had written meant, " with so little quality." 
In passages of this construction he, like many others who are not Shakespeares, was 
apt to fall into confusions.' In his Shakespeare's Scholar, 1854, White conjec- 
tures 'without this quality,' or 'with less quality,' but as he did not repeat these 
emendations in his subsequent editions, they may be regarded as withdrawn. 
In the conjecture 'with less quality' White anticipated W. W. Lloyd (N. & Qu., 
VII, ii, 162). In his conjecture 'without this quality' he anticipated A. Hall (N. & 
Qu., VII, ii, 164). STAUNTON says that 'without wore quality' was 'apparently, 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 47 

with you ? How creepes acquaintance ? 26 

26. creepes] grew Lloyd ap. Cam. 

though by no means certainly, the meaning intended'; and he then quotes Malone's 
note, so much as refers to Shakespeare's 'entanglement' with negatives. HERTZ- 
BERG (1871) misquotes the Folio: 'without less qualities,' wherein there lies a dif- 
ference from the singular, 'quality,' and, in deciding in favour of 'with less qual- 
ities,' is anticipated in the 'with' by White. He thus translates: 'Wenn sie einen 
Bettler mit geringeren Fahigkeiten sich envahlt hatte.' Rev. JOHN HUNTER 
(1872): Who had no other inferiority lessening his quality. BR. NICHOLSON 
(N. & Qu., 1886, VII, ii, 23) zealously maintains, and at times with eminent success 
(witness his palmarian explanation of Malvolio's 'my some rich jewel '), that 
many obscurities in the text are to be explained by dramatic action, and on the 
present passage comments as follows: We are obliged to suppose that either Shake- 
speare or the transcriber mistakenly wrote 'less' instead of more, or else seek a 
means by which the sentence will give a meaning to this 'less.' This latter, if 
possible, would be more in accordance with true criticism than suggesting an 
emendation. A snap of the fingers was and is used to express a contemptuous 
estimate of anything or any one. Twice at least it was so used in plays of the 
period; and though I acknowledge that in these, so far as my memory goes, 
there are the words 'than this,' or words to that effect, which are wanting in this 
instance, yet I think that there the sentence was equivalent to 'of less quality 
[snaps his fingers] [than that].' I have heard, and I think I have said, words 
indifferently to this effect, 'I do not value it that [snap],' or 'I do not value it' 
and then the snap completed the sentence. DEIGHTON (1894): Even if given only 
in order to confirm her judgment, which otherwise might be impugned for choosing 
a beggar without greater recommendations than belong to him. THISELTON 
(1902, p. 10): 'For taking a beggar without lesse quality' practically amounts to 
'if it were not that she has taken a Beggar with such great quality.' DOWDEN: 
Possibly Shakespeare wrote, 'with, doubt less quality,' a beggar, though, I admit, 
of some merit. [He who has perused this discussion will come, I think, to the 
conclusion that 'without less,' according to our present habits of thought, means 
'without more,' and that, according to Shakespearian usage, it means precisely the 
same, and that in all the foregoing examples of regular sentences, there is nothing 
ungrammatical, nor any solecism, nor any confusion in The Master's mind, but he 
was merely repeating what he met with in reading and heard in talking; and, 
finally, that wherever there be in his text anything which appears enigmatical it is 
wiser to accept it and wait for fuller knowledge of the usage of his times, than to 
propose emendations, which, at this late day, will be approved by no human being 
but by the proposer himself, and prove food for mirth to every one besides. ED.] 
26. creepes] DEIGHTON: This verb does not here seem to have any notion of 
slowness, still less of secrecy; possibly a misprint for breeds. HERFORB: How have 
you stolen into acquaintance. ' Creeps ' hints at the stealthy process implied in the 
unexpected result. DOWDEN: I know no other example of the expression. To 
'creep in acquaintance' occurs in Greene, Quip for an Upstart Courtier. ['The end 
of all beeing is to knowe God, and not as your worship good masdter Veluet breeches 
wrests, to creep into acquaintance.' p. 233 ed. Grossart, where it is used in its 
usual acceptation. Circumstances can be imagined where 'How creeps acquain- 
tance?' would be intelligible and appropriate; but such circumstances are not 
before us here, and so the phrase remains incomprehensible. ED.] 

.g THE TRACED IE OF ACT i, sc. v. 

Phil. His Father and I were Souldiers together, to 27 
whom I haue bin often bound for no leffe then my life. 

Enter Pojlhumus. 

Heere comes the Britaine. Let him be fo entertained a- 30 
mong'ft you, as fuites with Gentlemen of your knowing, 
to a Stranger of his quality. I befeech you all be better 
knowne to this Gentleman, whom I commend to you, 
as a Noble Friend of mine. How Worthy he is, I will 
leaue to appeare hereafter, rather then ftory him in his 35 
owne hearing. 

French. Sir, we haue knowne togither in Orleance. 

PoftS'mcQ when, I haue bin debtor to you for courte- 
fies, which I will be euer to pay, and yet pay ftill. 

French. Sir, you o're-rate my poore kindneffe, I was 40 
glad I did attone my Countryman and you: it had beene 
pitty you fhould haue beene put together, with fo mor- 
tall a purpofe, as then each bore, vpon importance of fo 
flight and triuiall a nature. 44 


28. bin} been F 4 . 37. haue knowne} have been known 

29. Enter...] After quality, line 32, Pope,+. 

Dyce, Sta. Ktly, Glo. Cam. togither} FI. 

30. Britaine} F 2 . Britain F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Orleance} Orleans Pope. 
Pope, Theob. i, Cap. Briton Theob. 38. bin] been F 4 . 

ii. et seq. debtor] debter F 4 , Rowe. 

him} me Johns, ap. Cam. 40. kindneffe} Ff. kindness. Var. 

35. then} than F 4 . '71, Coll. kindness; Rowe et cet. 

37. French.] Fren. Ff throughout. 41. attone} atone F 3 F 4 . 

beene} bin F 3 . 

30. the Britaine] See Walker's note on 'Britaine reueller. I, vii, 72. 

31. knowing] Experience, whether social or otherwise. THISELTON: Philario 
means: 'Beggar though you deem him, he has quality which entitles him to a wel- 
come from those of your condition,' and, to emphasise the point, introduces him as a 
'Noble Friend' of his own. lachimo was 'Syenna's brother' (IV, ii, 423), and, 
therefore, of high rank. 

37. knowne togither] A somewhat similar ellipsis to 'When shall we see again?' 
I, ii, 65. 

38,41. bin, beene] Note the lawless spelling of Shakespeare's compositors. 

39. I will be euer to pay] ABBOTT ( 405) : That is, kindnesses which I intend to 
be always ready to pay you, and yet go on paying. [Malone quotes similar expressions 
in All's Well, and in the 3oth Sonnet. It is superfluous to quote them here, in these 
days of Mrs Cowden-Clarke's Concordance, of Bartlett's and of Schmidt's Lexicon. 

41. I did attone my Countryman and you] WYATT: The Frenchman revives 
the memory of a former quarrel, and thus paves the way for the subsequent dispute 
on a similar ground. 

43. importance] MALONE: This is here, as elsewhere in Shakespeare, im- 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 49 

Pojl. By your pardon Sir, I was then a young Trauel- 45 
ler, rather fhun'd to go euen with what I heard, then in 

45, 46. Traueller,} Traveller; Rowe et seq. 

portunity, instigation. [Is not this too strong a meaning here, for a 'slight and 
trivial' matter? Elsewhere it undoubtedly bears this interpretation. Yet to 
DOWDEN it 'seems satisfactory, and it may be right; yet I rather prefer to accept 
it as meaning simply subject, occasion, a matter of trivial import.'' COLLIER (ed. ii.) 
in the belief that 'importance' is here used in its etymological sense, from the 
French em porter, observes that it means 'carrying away, upon urgency, or 
provocation of so slight and trivial a nature.' Unquestionably, emporter means to 
carry away, but our word import, which is adapted from it (see N. E. D.}, means to 
bring in. All of this conversation, until we come to the death-grip of lachimo and 
Posthumus, seems pitched in a forced, laboured, and un-Shakespearian key. 
Philario is pompous, and lachimo hysterical, with such phrases as 'weep this 
lamentable divorce,' 'easy batteries laying flat,' and 'creeping acquaintance.' 
Shakespeare's unmistakeable hand begins at line 53, and all the preceding may 
have been his, but to me it lacks his creative cunning. At line 53 you see the 
snake, and hear the soft modulations of Mephistopheles. ED.] 

46. rather shun'd to go euen with what I heard] JOHNSON: This is ex- 
pressed with a kind of fantastical perplexity. He means, I was then willing to 
take for my direction the experience of others, more than such intelligence as I 
had gathered myself. MONCK MASON (p. 321): This passage cannot bear the 
meaning Johnson contends for. Posthumus is describing a presumptuous young 
man, as he acknowledges himself to have been at that time; and means to say, that 
'he rather studied to avoid conducting himself by the opinions of other people, 
than to be guided by their experience.' To take for direction the experience of 
others, would be proof of wisdom, not of presumption. CAPELL (p. 104): 'To 
go even with what I heard' is no easy expression, nor the speech it stands in quite 
so clear as it should be: The meaning of the phrase is to assent to, 'shun'd to 
assent to what I heard ' : this the speaker owns as a fault, and in travellers 'specially, 
which his youth might draw him into at that time; but notwithstanding, that he 
cannot admit even now that his cause of quarrel was so ' trivial ' as the other would 
make it out. STAUNTON: Should we not read sinned? The meaning being, I 
was then a young traveller and wilfully preferred rather to go by what I heard than 
to be guided by the experience of others. [An excellent interpretation if we can 
take 'shun'd, or even sinned, as meaning preferred. ED.] INGLEBY: This is a 
roundabout way of saying that Posthumus preferred disregarding the conventions 
of his time, to being 'guided by others' experience.' VAUGHAN (p. 347): That is, 
'rather than servilely follow the guidance of others, I even avoided independent 
concurrence with their opinions so soon as they were expressed.' This is the 
contrast between 'guided by' and 'go even with' what he heard, where Mason 
considers that both are identical in effect; for 'conducting myself by the opinion 
of others' and 'guided by the experience of others' are much the same. The 
stroke of characteristic delineation is true, although fine. DOWDEN: The words 
may mean: Being a young traveller I liked to assert an independent judgment; 
while I did not refuse in my actions to be guided by the experience of others, I 
asserted that the ground of the quarrel was serious, yet, in fact, I yielded and 
rrade it up; now my maturer judgment regards it as serious. [Modern inter- 


50 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

my euery action to be guided by others experiences: but 47 
vpon my mended iuclgement (if I offend to fay it is men- 
ded) my Quarrell was not altogether flight. 

French. Faith yes, to be put to the arbiterment of 50 
Swords, and by fuch two, that would by all likelyhood 
haue confounded one the other, or haue falne both. 

lack. Can we with manners, aske what was the dif- 
ference ? 

French. Safely, I thinke, 'twas a contention in pub- 
licke, which may (without contradiction) fuffer the re- 55 
port. It was much like an argument that fell out laft 
night, where each of vs fell in praife of our Country- 
Misftreffes. This Gentleman,at that time vouching (and 58 

47. euery] very F 3 F 4 . 54. thinke,] think; Pope et seq. 

48. of end] Ff. not of end Coll. 56. like] alike F 3 F 4 . 
(MS.) ii, iii. of end not Rowe et cet. 57. each] earch F 2 . 

51. Swords,] Swords; Rowe et seq. 57, 58. Country-MiflreJJes] country 

52. or haue] and have Ktly conj. mistresses Theob. et seq. 

pretations have not, I think, much improved upon Capell's: 'rather than appear 
to be guided by other's experience I avoided giving assent to what I heard.' ED.] 
51. by such two] VAUGHAN (p. 348): This again is at variance with modern 
idiom. 'Two that would have confounded one the other' means 'two that would 
have killed each other.' Shakespeare means by it ' two, one of whom would have 
killed the other.' It might be amended by a mere transposition of the words, 
thus: 'by such two, that one would by all likelihood have confounded the other, 
or both have fallen.' It is not impossible that 'one' might slip from one line to 
the other. It is also possible that Shakespeare may have written as he is repre- 
sented. [Apparently, CAPELL detected this same difficulty; he conjectures, with- 
out comment, 'by such, too,' which sets all right. Of this conjecture Vaughan 
was probably unaware. ED.] 

55, (without contradiction)] JOHNSON: Which, undoubtedly, may be publicly 
told. CAPELL (p. 104): This means, without danger of drawing on another dis- 
pute like that which happened before; in which the truth of the matter disputed 
was maintained by one party, ' upon warrant of bloody affirmation,' meaning that 
he was ready to shed his blood in maintaining it. [Capell's interpretation is more 
subtle than Johnson's; possibly, a little too subtle. It is also possible that Capell 
interpreted the phrase as -without dispute, and on this founded his comment. 
'Without contradiction' does not always mean undoubtedly. SCHMIDT gives an 
instance in Ant. & Cleop. (II, vii, 40), as having this meaning, and I think he is 
wrong. Lepidus says 'the Ptolemies' pyramises are very goodly things; without 
contradiction, I have heard that,' where the sense is not, I think, that Lepidus had 
undoubtedly heard it, but that he had heard it when the assertion was not contra- 
dicted. ED.] 

56, 57. fell out . . . fell in] This repetition is certainly not Shakespeare at his 
best. ED. 

57, 58. Country- Mistresses] No one who has read the first ten lines of ABBOTT'S 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 5! 

vpon warrant of bloody affirmation ) his to be more 
Faire, Vertuous, Wife, Chafte, Conftant, Qualified, and 60 
leffe attemptible then any, the rareft of our Ladies in 
Frau nee. 

lack. That Lady is not now lining; or this Gentle- 
mans opinion by this,worne out. 

Pojl. She holds her Vertue ftill,and I my mind. 65 

lack. You muft not fo farre preferre her, 'fore ours of 

Pojlli. Being fo farre prouokM as I was in France: I 68 

60. Conftant, Qualified] constant 61. rareft] ratejl F 3 . 
qualified Cap. constant-qualified Cap. 63. or] Om. F 3 F 4 . 
(Errata), Var. '78, Mai. Ran. Steev. 66. ours] our's Coll. ii. 

Varr. Knt, Dyce, Glo. Cam. 68. France: I] France, I Rowe ii. et 

61. attemptible] attemptable Rowe ii, seq. 
+ , Coll. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

Introduction to his admirable Grammar need here be told that in Elizabethan 
English 'almost any part of speech can be used as any other part of speech/ or 
that here 'Country' is an adjective. In the chapter on 'Compound Words,' in 
that same Grammar ( 428-435) a variety of instances in great number of these 
compounds may be found. What is possibly noteworthy in the present instance 
(Ingleby calls attention to it) is the conscientious hyphen of the compositor. ED. 
60. Constant, Qualified] CAPELL (p. 104): That is, gifted with constancy, en- 
dow'd with it; but what idea has 'qualified' singly, when separated, as it has been, 
from 'constant'? [To this question the N. E. D. supplies an answer: 'qualified' 
when used attributively, as here, MURRAY defines as 'possessed of good qualities, 
accomplished, perfect,' and quotes Nashe, Pierce Penilesse (1592, ed. 2. 25, b): 
'The fine qualified Gentleman . . . should carie it clean away from the lazie 
clownish droane.' Also from R. Bernard, trans, of Terence (1598, 286): 'Such a 
qualified yong gentleman.' Under an authority as august as Nashe and Bernard, 
I think Shakespeare may be permitted to use the word. DELIUS, INGLEBY, and 
TmSELTON deny the propriety of this hyphen. DELIUS ingeniously explains 
'qualified' (here meaning endowed, geartet} as referring to all the previous quali- 
ties, not alone to 'constant.' The hyphen first appeared in the text of the Var. 
of 1778, and has been retained ever since by a majority of the editors. And all who 
have remarked on the passage at all have attributed this hyphen to Capell, wherein 
they were misled by the Text. Notes of the Cambridge edition, through wrongly 
interpreting them. Capell, as we have seen, intimated in his Note the necessity 
for the hyphen, but it was an afterthought; in his text there was none, so he put 
it in his Errata. The Var. wherein the hyphen is first found was published in 1778; 
CapelPs Notes and Errata in 1779. Suum cuique is our Roman justice; and to the 
Variorum of 1778 belongs the honour or the obloquy of the hyphen. Moreover, by 
that same justice, it is, I think, hardly fair to attribute the text of this Variorum 
to Steevens, and to Steevens alone. He was associated with Dr Johnson on the 
title-pages of all the early editions of the Variorum, and each was specified as the 
Second, Third, and Fourth edition, even the Third and Fourth, which were published 

52 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

wo uld abate her nothing, though I profeffe my felfe her 
Adorer, not her Friend. 70 

after Dr Johnson's death; the Fourth, 1793, is generally called 'Steevens's own'; 
it would hardly be correct, nine years after Dr Johnson's death, to consider him as 
a fellow-editor. In the Text. Notes of the present edition these Variorums are 
cited according to their dates, except that of Steevens's Own, which is cited as 
'Steev.' ED.] 

69. though I professe myself, etc.] JOHNSON: Though I have not the com- 
mon obligations of a lover to his mistress, and regard her not with the fondness of a 
friend, but the reverence of an adorer. M. MASON: The sense seems to require a 
transposition of these words and that we should read, 'Though I profess myself 
her friend not her adorer.' Meaning thereby the praises he bestowed on her arose 
from his knowledge of her virtues, not from a superstitious reverence only. If 
Posthumus wished to be believed, as he surely did, the declaring that his praises 
proceeded from adoration would lessen the credit of them, and counteract his 
purpose. In confirmation of this conjecture, we find that afterwards he ac- 
knowledges her to be his wife. lachimo says in the same scene, ' You are a friend, 
and therein the wiser.' Which would also serve to confirm my amendment if 
it were the true reading; but I do not think it is. CAPELL (p. 104): Why is this 
qualified by 'Though'? Is it not meant to insinuate that his praises were the 
dictates of truth, not of partial and extravagant passion? STEEVENS prefers 
to consider 'friend' as a euphemism for a coarser relationship, which it is un- 
doubtedly elsewhere, possibly by lachimo afterward, but in Posthumus's mouth 
here it is, to me, revolting. White, ed. i, reading in his text, 'and her friend,' 
'That is, and her accepted lover.' By here referring to a note of his, in Rom. 6* 
Jul., Ill, v, White intimates that 'friend' is here used in the tainted sense upheld 
by Steevens. 'The Folio,' says White, 'has "not her friend"; but since Posthumus 
does profess himself the accepted lover of Imogen, the passage is surely corrupt. 
As the nature of the declaration limits the signification of "friend" to that above 
mentioned, we cannot suppose it to be used in its general sense. With either read- 
ing it is equally difficult to account for the presence of "though." In his Second 
ed. WHITE adhered to his interpretation of 'friend' and pronounced the clause 
'very unsatisfactory.' 'We naturally expect,' he remarks, 'for or as instead of 
"though"; and so and instead of "not." Various attempts have been made to 
bring the text into coherence; but all in vain.' STAUNTON: Posthumus, we appre- 
hend, does not mean, I avow myself, not simply her admirer, but her worshipper; 
but stung by the scornful tone of lachimo's remark, he answers, Provoked as I 
was in France, I would abate her nothing, though the declaration of my opinion 
proclaimed me her idolater rather than her lover. INGLEBY: What Posthumus 
ought to say is: 'I would abate her nothing, though I prof ess' d myself her adorer': 
i. e., one who looks up to her, as to a superior being, with the worship of a votary, 
rather than with the jealous affection of a lover. He means, in fact, to assert for 
her a real objective excellence, apart from her private relation to him. VAUGHAN, 
whose New Readings was published in the same year with Ingleby's edition, makes 
the same emendation: profess'd, with the following note: 'This rather admits 
than denies his real relation to her, while it denies the necessity of such a relation 
to justify his championship, if he were so provoked as he had been. Delius, I 
find, interprets "although I profess myself her adorer" as meaning, "although by 
such refusal to abate her I make myself liable to be considered her adorer." I 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 53 

lack. As faire, and as good : a kind of hand in hand 71 
comparifon, had beene fomething too faire, and too 
good for any Lady in Britanie ; if fhe went before others. 
I haue feene as that Diamond of yours out-lufters many 
I haue beheld, I could not beleeue fhe excelled many : 75 

71, 72. good: a. ..comparifon,] good; 73, 74. others. I] others, I Rowe. 

a. ..comparison Pope, good, a...compari- others you Vaughan. others I Pope 

son, Theob. et seq. et seq. 

71. hand in hand] hand-in-hand 75. beheld, I] beheld. I Ff. beheld; 

Pope et seq. / Rowe. 

73. Britanie] Britain Johns. Var. '73, could not] Ff, Rowe, Pope, 

Glo. Wh. ii. Britany Ff. Cam. et cet. Theob. Varr. Ran. could Warb. Han. 

Britaine Walker (Crit., ii, 41). Johns. Cap. could not but Mai. et cet. 

cannot concur.' The COWDEN-CLARKES: The peculiar mode in which Shakespeare 
uses the word 'though' should be borne in mind when interpreting this speech; 
and it appears to us that here 'though' in all probability bears the sense of inas- 
much as, since. [This Shakespearian use of 'though,' just noted, in the sense of 
since, inasmuch as, because, occurred independently to the late JOSEPH CROSBY, 
who under the name of 'Senior' contributed to Shakesperiana (vol. i, p. 285, 1883- 
84) a valuable article on it, and showed how, by its application to many passages, 
even to those supposed to be hopelessly corrupt, it largely removed the difficulties. 
We have seen above how the use of 'though,' when taken in its ordinary concessive 
meaning, puzzled Capell and White. For 'though' substitute because in the 
present passage, and I think the obscurity is dissipated, 'I would abate her nothing, 
because I profess myself her adorer, not her friend.' ED.] 

75. I could not beleeue] WARBURTON: What? if she did really excel others, 
could he not believe she really did excel them? Nonsense. We must strike out 
the negative. HEATH (p. 474): The common reading, not being sense, readily 
leads us to the true one, 'I could but believe'; that is, the most I could reasonably 
believe would be, that she excelled many. 'Not' is frequently substituted by 
mistake for but by our poet's transcribers or printers. THEOBALD (Nichols, ii, 265) 
made the same conjecture. It was, however, in his private correspondence with 
Warburton. STAUNTON and KEIGHTLY adopted it, and DOWDEN thinks it 'not 
unlikely to be right.' JOHNSON (Var., '73, '78, '85): I should explain the sentence 
thus: 'Though your lady excelled as much as your diamond, I could not believe 
she excelled many; that is, I too could yet believe that there are many whom she 
did not excel.' But yet I think Dr Warburton right. [In the same Variorums 
above given STEEVENS has the following note: 'The old reading may very well 
stand. "If," says lachimo, "your mistress went before some others I have seen, 
only in the same degree your diamond outlustres many I have likewise seen, I 
should not admit on that account that she excelled many: but I ought not to make 
myself the judge of who is the fairest lady, or which is the brightest diamond, till 
I have beheld the finest of either kind which nature has hitherto produced." The 
passage is not nonsense. It was the business of lachimo to appear on this occasion 
as an infidel to beauty, in order to spirit Posthumus to lay the wager, and, therefore, 
will not admit her excellence in any comparison.' This note and Dr Johnson's 
were dropped in the Var. '93, 'Steevens's own,' because in the meantime MALONE, 
in his ed. 1790, completely and severely refutes Steevens's paraphrase, and so far 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

but I haue not feene the moft pretious Diamond that is, 76 
nor you the Lady. 

Poft. I prais'd her, as I rated her : fo do I my Stone. 

lack. What do you efteeme it at ? 79 

vindicates his own emendation that it has been ever since adopted by a majority of 
the editors. It is rare in Steevens's literary career that e'en though vanquish'd he 
could not argue still, but, in the present instance, his discomfiture was complete, 
and it may have been one of the causes which broke up his friendship with Malone. 
The latter's refutation is as follows : In the first place Mr Steevens understands the 
word as to mean only as or as little as; and assumes that lachimo means, not merely 
to deny the supereminent and unparallel'd value of the diamond of Posthumus, but 
greatly to depreciate it; though both the context and the words went before, 
most precious, and out-lustres must present to every reader a meaning directly 
opposite. Secondly, according to this interpretation, the adversative particle 
but is used without any propriety; as will appear at once by shortening Mr Steevens's 
paraphrase, and adding a few words that are requisite to make the deduction con- 
sequential: 'If your mistress went before others I have seen, only in the same 
degree your diamond out-lustres many I have likewise seen, I should not admit on 
that account that she excelled many, [for your diamond is an ordinary stone, and 
does not excel many:] But I have not seen the most precious diamond in the world, 
nor you the most beautiful lady: and therefore I cannot admit she excells all.' Here, 
after asserting that 'he could not admit she excelled many,' he is made to add, by 
way of qualification, and in opposition to what he had already said, that 'inasmuch 
as he has not seen all the fine women and the fine diamonds in the world, he cannot 
admit that she excells all.' If he had admitted that she excelled many, this con- 
clusion would be consistent and intelligible; but not admitting that position, as he 
is thus made to do, it is inconsequential, if not absurd. Malone's note was so long 
that, in the Var. of '21, it was relegated to the end of the volume, and also because 
Steevens had withdrawn his note. It is largely taken up with vindicating his 
emendment, 'I could not but believe,' already proposed by him in the Var. '85. 
Omitting the numerous parallel passages whereby he proves his position, it suffices 
to give his conclusion: 'I am persuaded that either the word but was omitted after 
"not" by the carelessness of the compositor, or, that "not" was printed instead of 
but. . . . Thus the reasoning is clear, exact, and consequential, "if," says lachimo, 
"she surpassed other women that I have seen in the same proportion that your 
diamond out-lustres many diamonds that I have beheld, I could not but acknowledge 
that she excelled many women; but I have not seen the most valuable diamond in the 
world, nor you the most beautiful woman: and therefore I cannot admit she excells 
ALL." -INGLEBY follows the Folio, because, 'First, it is plain that [lachimo] 
entirely disallows even her equality with the ladies of Italy; and secondly, the 
comparison is between the lady's personal charms and the diamond's visible lustre. 
"If she went before others I have seen as that diamond out-lustres many I have 
beheld" points to Imogen's beauty rather than her goodness; and if it be said, that 
to restrict the allusion to her beauty is somewhat to strain the language, the reply 
is, that a slight strain is to be preferred to a violent alteration of the text. [Which 
is true enough. But there are strains and strains, and a slight alteration may be 
preferred to a violent strain. DOWDEN says that ' Ingleby strains the Folio text to 
get a poor meaning.' If that text has received no interpretations of it better than 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 55 

Poft. More then the world enioyes. 80 

lack. Either your vnparagon'd Miftirs is dead, or 

(lie's out-priz'd by a trifle. 

Pofl. You are miftaken : the one may be folde or gi- 

uen, or if there were wealth enough for the purchafes, or 

merite for the guift. The other is not a thing for fale, 85 

and onely the guift of the Gods. 

81. vnparagon'd] paragon'd Rowe ii, 84. purchases] purchases F 4 . pur- 

Pope. chase Rowe et seq. 

84. or if] Ff, Coll. i, ii, Del. Sta. if 85, 86. guift] F t . 
Rowe et cet. 

those here given, I think we may all desert it and creep acquaintance with Malone's 
emendation. ED.] 

80. More . . . enioyes] ECCLES: That is more than the world enjoys that the 
world could give him in exchange for it, agreeably to the distinction afterwards 
made by himself; where the reasoning, however, seems not to be of the most clear 
and satisfactory kind, since his wife, while she remains in the world, may very 
naturally be considered as a part of what 'the world enjoys,' lachimo's remark, 
therefore, is urged not without foundation. VAUGHAN (p. 352) also notices the 
inconsistency in the words of Posthumus, who, when he says that 'he esteems 
[the stone] at more than the world enjoys, he means to include the value which it 
has as the gift of Imogen, in addition to its intrinsic or exchangeable value. When 
he describes it as inferior in value to Imogen, he alludes to its exchangeable value 
only, for this value is the only value which lachimo knows, when he speaks of it as a 
trifle.' [As we gradually approach the awful crisis of the wager, we must not forget, 
in judging Posthumus, that he has a right to demand of us a full consideration of 
every prick and stab that goaded him on. Here is one of them. I can imagine 
him as courteously smiling up till now. His words had not been chosen, for he 
supposed he was talking among friends; all of a sudden he becomes conscious that 
there is malice a-foot, and he feels a sting, which makes him answer rudely, 'you 
are mistaken!' ED.] 

84. or if] MALOXE: The compositor inadvertently repeated 'or.' COLLIER: 
'Or' is here obviously to be taken in the sense of either, 'either if there were,' etc. 
The use of 'or' in this sense is scriptural, and it is also countenanced by some of our 
best writers of the time. DYCE (ed. ii.) : There can be no doubt that [Malone is 
right]. VAUGHAN (p. 351): The rejection of 'or' is unwarrantable. To be per- 
fectly accurate here Shakespeare should have placed it thus: 'If there were or 
wealth enough,' etc., and if any emendation were permissible, it is but the transpo- 
sition of 'or.' [I think Collier and Vaughan are right. Both Malone and Dyce 
apparently overlooked the second 'or' at the end of the line. ED.] 

84. purchases] For a long and valuable Article on the ' final s frequently interpo- 
lated and frequently omitted in the Folio,' see WALKER (Crit., i, 233-268). Were 
it not that this frequency varies throughout the volume, being comparatively rare 
in the Comedies, more frequent in the Histories, and quite common in the Trage- 
dies, Walker would be inclined to attribute it to some peculiarity in Shakespeare's 
handwriting. See 'thousands,' line 129, below; 'desires,' I, vii, 9; 'Musickes,' 
II, iii, 41. 


[ACT i, sc. v. 

lack. Which the Gods haue giuen you ? 87 

Poft. Which by their Graces I will keepe. 

lach. You may weare her in title yours : but you 
know ftrange Fowle light vpon neighbouring Ponds. 90 
Your Ring may be ftolne too, fo your brace of vnprizea- 
ble Eftimations, the one is but fraile, and the other Cafu- 
all;. A cunning Thiefe, or a (that way) accomplimM 
Courtier, would hazzard the winning both of firfb and 
laft. 95 

Poft. Your Italy , containes none fo accomplifh'd a 
Courtier to conuince the Honour of my Miftris : if in the 
holding or loffe of that, you terme her fraile, I do no- 
thing doubt you haue ftore of Theeues, notwithftanding 
I feare not my Ring. IOO 

Phil. Let vs leaue heere, Gentlemen ? 

Poft. Sir, with all my heart. This worthy Signior I 
thanke him, makes no ftranger of me, we are familiar at 

lach. With fiue times fo much conuerfation, I mould 105 

87. you?] you: Theob. Warb. 
you. Johns. 

89, 90. but you know] Ff, Knt. but, 
know: Var. '85. but, you know, Rowe 
et cet. 

91. Jo your] so of your Theob. i, Han. 
50, of your Theob. ii, Warb. Johns. 
Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. 

92. 93. Cajuall;.] F r . 

93. or a] and a Vaughan. 

a (that way) accomplijh'd] Ff, 

Pope, a, that way, accomplished Rowe. 
a thai-way accomplished Johns. Var. '73, 
Sing, a that way accomplished Coll. 
Ktly, Glo. Cam. a that-way-accom- 
plislid Theob. et cet. 

98. fraile, I] Ff, Rowe, Theob. ii, 
Warb. frail; I Pope, Theob. i, Han. 
frail. I Johns, et cet. 

100. fe are] F T . 

101. Gentlemen?] F t . 

103. of me,] of me; Theob. et seq. 

92, 93. Casuall;.] SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, accidental. INGLEBY: Liable to 
mischance. [A similar instance of redundant punctuation occurs in III, v, 51. ED.] 

93. a (that way) accomplish'd] DEIGHTON: That is, 'framed to make 
women false.' Oth., I, iii, 404. 

96, 97. none so accomplish'd a Courtier] Compare 'none a stranger ... so 
merry.' I, vii, 70. 

97. conuince] WARBURTON: That is, overcome. JOHN HUNTER: In Oth., IV, 
i, lago refers to knaves 'having by their own importunate suit, convinced a mis- 

103, 104. at first] ABBOTT ( 90): Here 'at first' is not opposed to afterwards 
(as it is with us), but means 'at the first,' or rather, 'from the first,' 'at once.' 
[May it not be a case of absorption of the in a final t.? i. e., 'at first.'? ED.] 
DEIGHTON: 'We are familiar at first,' is a sarcastic way of saying, 'He has quickly 
become "better known" to me, as you requested him, and has shown his friendli- 
ness by questioning the virtue of my mistress, even at our first meeting.' 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 57 

get ground of your faire Miftris; make her go backe,e- 106 
uen to the yeilding, had I admittance, and opportunitie 
to friend. 

Pofl. No , no. 

lack. I dare thereupon pawne the moytie of my E- 110 
ftate, to your Ring, which in my opinion o're-values it 
fomething : but I make my wager rather againft your 
Confidence, then her Reputation. And to barre your of- 
fence heerein to, I durft attempt it againft any Lady in 
the world. 1 15 

Pofl. You are a great deale abus'd in too bold a'per- 
fvvafion,and I doubt not you fuftaine what y'are worthy 
of, by your Attempt. 

lack. What's rhat ? 

Poflli. A Repulfe though your Attempt ( as you call 120 
it) deferue more;a punifliment too. 

Phi. Gentlemen enough of this , it came in too fo- 
dainely,let it dye as it was borne, and I pray you be bet- 
ter acquainted. 

lack. Would I had put my Eftate,and my Neighbors 125 
on th'approbation of what I haue fpoke, 

106. Miftris;] mistress, Glo. Cam. Ran. you'll Coll. (MS.), Ingl. you 

107. yeilding.] Ff. yielding, Johns. will Coll. iii. 

yielding; Pope et cet. 117. y'are] you're Rowe et seq. 

109. no.] no Var. '73. 120. Repulfe] Repulfe, F 4 . repulse; 

113. Reputation.] Ff, Rowe, Pope. Rowe et seq. 

reputation, Johns, reputation: Theob. 121. deferue] deferves F 4 , Rowe,+, 

et cet. Cap. 

114. heerein to,] hercin-to, White i. 122, 123. fodainely] suddenly; Cap. 
hereunto, Anon. ap. Cam. herein, so et seq. 

Vaughan. herein too, F 3 F 4 et seq. 125. Neighbors] Neighbours F 3 F 4 , 

116, 117. perfwafion,] persuasion; Rowe. neighbour's Pope et seq. 
Rowe et seq. 126. th' approbation] the approbation 

117. you] you'd Rowe,+, Var. '73, Cap. et seq. 

106. get ground] A simile taken, I think, from fencing. In that charlatan's 
book, Vincentio Saviolo his Practise (sig. H2, 1595) the phrase occurs: 'follow 
you well in this warde, and getting sufficient grounde of him, you maie giue him a 
stoccata.' ED. 

108. to friend] For instances of a similar use of to, see ABBOTT, 189. 

116. a great deale abus'd] JOHNSON: Deceived. 

117. you sustaine] ABBOTT ( 368): The subjunctive is here used, where we 
should use the future. [See Text. Notes.] 

125. Neighbors] DELIUS: From the absence of any apostrophe, it is uncertain 
whether we should have read, neighbour's or neighbours'. 

126. approbation] JOHNSON: Proof. 

58 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

Pofl. What Lady would you chufe to affaile? 127 

lack. Yours, whom in conftancie you thinke ftands 
fo fafe. I will lay you ten thoufand Duckets to your 
Ring, that commend me to the Court where your La- 130 
dy is, with no more aduantage then the opportunitie of a 
fecond conference, and I will bring from thence, that 
Honor of hers, which you imagine fo referu'd. 

Po/lhmiis. I will wage againft your Gold, Gold to 
it: My Ring I holde deere as my finger, 'tis part of 135 

lack. You are a Friend, and there in the wifer : if you 1 37 

127. chufe] F 2 , Rowe,+, Var. '73, 135. / /] F x . 

'85, Ran. choofe F 3 F 4 et cet. finger,} finger; Cap. Var. '78 et 

128. whom} who Pope,+, Cap. Varr. cet. 

Ran. Ktly. 137. a Friend} Ff, Rowe, Pope, 

Jlands] stand Vaun. Johns. Varr. Mai. Steev. Varr. Knt, 

129. thoufands} thoufand F 3 F 4 . Coll. i, Del. afraid Theob. Han. 
129,153. Duckets} ducats Pope et seq. Warb. Cap. Sing. Dyce, Ktly, Coll. 
132. and 1} I Pope,+, Var. '73. iii. Glo. Sta. Cam. afeard Coll. ii. 
134. wage} wager Cap. Ran. wage, -(MS.), her friend Ingl. 

Vaughan. there in} therein Ff et seq. 

129. thousands] Another instance of an interpolated final s. See note on 
'purchases,' line 84, above. 

132. and I will bring] INGLEBY: 'And' has no grammatical standing here. 
[A remark, to me, incomprehensible. It does not appear in the ed. by Ingleby's 
son. ED.] 

137. You are a Friend] THEOBALD: I correct with certainty: afraid. What 
lachimo says, in the close of his speech, determines this to have been the poet's 
reading. 'You have some religion in you, that you fear.' [WARBURTON in his 
edition (after Theobald's death) adopted this reading and this note without 
credit to Theobald. Its authorship has been given, erroneously as I believe, to 
Warburton. ED.] JOHNSON:. 'You are a friend' to the lady, 'and therein the 
wiser,' as you will not expose her to hazard; and that you fear is a proof of your 
religious fidelity. MALONE: A 'friend' often signified a lover. lachimo might 
mean that Posthumus was wise in being only the lover of Imogen, and not having 
bound himself to her by the indissoluble ties of marriage. But unluckily Post- 
humus has already said he is not her friend, but her adorer: this therefore could 
not have been lachimo's meaning. ... It would have been more 'germane to the 
matter' to have said, in allusion to the former words of Posthumus you are not 
a friend, i. e., a lover, and therein the wiser; for all women are corruptible. 
STEEVENS, by referring to his previous slimy interpretation of ' friend,' shows that 
he still retains his mind on it, and adds, 'Though the reply of lachimo may not 
have been warranted by the preceding words of Posthumus, it was certainly meant 
by the speaker as a provoking circumstance, a circumstance of incitation to the 
wager.' [Whatever its interpretation, it led to his concluding word, 'fear,' a 
word no soldier like Posthumus can hear, when applied to himself, without growing 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 59 

buy Ladies flefh at a Million a Dram, you cannot pre- 138 

feu re it from tainting; but I fee you haue fome Religion 

in you, that you feare. 140 

Poflhu. This is but a cuftome in your tongue : you 
beare a grauer purpofe I hope. 142 

138, 139. prefeure] F t . 

white to the lips.] BOSWELL asks, 'Does it not mean "you show yourself a 
jrie-nd to your ring, which you have described as being so dear to you, by not risking 
it"?' etc., etc., etc. DYCE (Remarks, etc., p. 252): After carefully comparing it 
with the context, I feel perfectly satisfied that Warburton's [?] correction, afraid, 
is the genuine reading. In the attempts to explain, 'a friend,' there is nothing but 
weakness. WHITE (Shakespeare's Scholar, p. 456): 'You are a friend' has no 
meaning consistent with the context, . . . and besides, lachimo would have said 
'her friend.' [In suggesting 'her friend' White anticipated DELIUS, who also con- 
jectured it, and INGLEBY, who adopted it in his text: his son followed Theobald. 
ED.] DYCE, in his edition, repeats what he says in his Remarks; after the assertion 
that 'a Friend' has been very unsuccessfully defended, he adds 'especially by 
Boswell.' STAUNTON: We are not altogether satisfied with the emendation, 
afraid, but are unable to suggest any word more likely. THISELTON: lachimo 
means: 'You are not so sure of your wife's divinity after all; you are her protector; 
she is human, and you are the wiser not to risk losing your unprizeable diamond as 
well as your wife's honour by relying on her divinity.' The initial Capital ['a 
Friend'] absolutely excludes the tenability of reading afraid.- DOWDEN: If 
'friend' (i. e., lover} be right, lachimo may mean: 'After all you are a lover, not, as 
you professed, an "adorer"; you know that your goddess is human and you are 
therein the wiser.' lachimo's words, 'but I see you have some religion,' would 
then refer sneeringly to the only part of adoration possessed by Posthumus 
fear; he is wise, and the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. Or 'you are a 
friend' may mean 'you have the advantage of me in being her intimate, and being 
so far the wiser, you will not risk your ring.' [I am afraid that Theobald's 'afraid 1 
is too strong at this stage of the conversation. It is enough that lachimo ends his 
sentence with the dread word 'fear'; it is not necessary that he should begin with it. 
Nor is it necessary that he should say 'You are a friend,' sneeringly. He is too 
polished a gentleman for that. He might utter the words almost jocularly, 
certainly assentingly, and then follow them with the bitter sentence, as though 
he were interpreting Posthumus's own conclusion, and putting his own sentiments 
into Posthumus's mouth, 'if you buy Ladies flesh at a Million the Dram,' etc. 
Herein lies the sharp sting which demands all of Posthumus's fast-waning self- 
control. It is almost more than he can bear, but as a last barrier of protection, he 
offers to lachimo the excuse that lachimo has spoken in jest, as his manner might 
indicate; but when lachimo swears he is in earnest (possibly, his manner changes, 
the mask is discarded, and he shows his teeth) , then the hot blood boils in Posthu- 
mus's brain, and in a paroxysm of fury at Imogen's being spoken of as 'Ladies 
flesh ' he closes the wager instantly, almost exultingly, as though repelling an insult 
to Imogen's unsullied purity. I hope this interpretation of the Folio and adher- 
ence to the time-honoured durior lectio is not too far-fetched. ED.] 

60 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. v. 

lack. I am the Matter of my fpee ches, and would vn- 143 
der-go what's fpoken, I fweare. 

Poftlm. Will you ? I fhall but lend my Diamond till 145 
your returne : let there be Couenants drawne between's. 
My Miftris exceedes in goodneffe,the hugeneffe of your 
vnworthy thinking. I dare you to this match : heere's my 

Phil. I will haue it no lay. 150 

lacJi. By the Gods it is one : if I bring you no fuffi- 
cient teftimony that I haue enioy'd the deereft bodily 
part of your Miftris:my ten thoufand'Duckets are yours, 
fo is your Diamond too : if I come off, and leaue her in 
fuch honour as you haue truft in ; Shee your lewell, this 155 
your lewell, and my Gold are iyours : prouided, I haue 

143, 144. vnder-go] undergo F 4 . 151. one:] one. Pope, + , Coll. Dyce, 

146. between's] Ff, Rowe, Dyce, Glo. Sta. Cam. 

Glo. Cam. between tis Pope et cet. no] not Rowe, Pope, Theob. 

148. thinking] things F 3 F 4 . thoughts 153. Miftris:] mistress, Pope et seq. 

Pope, Han. 153, 156. yours] your's Coll. ii. 

match:] match. Coll. 155. trujl in;] trust in, Theob. et seq. 

143. I am the Master of my speeches] STEEVENS: That is, I know what I have 
said; I said no more than I meant. 

151-156. if I bring you no sufficient . . . and my Gold are yours] 
WARBURTON: This was a wager between two speakers. lachimo declares the 
conditions of it; and Posthumus 'embraces' them; as well he might; for lachimo 
mentions only that of the two conditions, which was favourable to Posthumus, 
namely, that if his wife preserved her honour he should win; concerning the other 
(in case she preserved it not) lachimo, the accurate expounder of the wager, is silent. 
To make him talk more in character, for we find him sharp enough in the prosecution 
of his bet, we should strike out the negative and read the rest thus: 'If I bring 
you sufficient testimony that, etc., my ten thousand ducats are MINE; so is your 
diamond too. If I come off, and leave her in such honour, etc., she, your jewel, 
etc., and my gold are yours.' [Of course, WARBURTON'S text conformed to this 
emendation. HANMER adopted it, and so also did the cautious and conservative 
CAPELL.] JOHNSON: I once thought this emendation right, but am now of opinion 
that Shakespeare intended that lachimo, having gained his purpose, should 
designedly drop the invidious and offensive part of the wager, and, to flatter Post- 
humus, dwell long upon the more pleasing part of the representation. One condi- 
tion of the wager implies the other, and there is no need to mention both. DYCE 
(ed. ii.): In opposition to Johnson's defence of the old text we surely may urge: 
Allowing that 'one condition of a wager implies the other, there is no need to 
mention' that one condition twice over in different words. VAUGHAN (p. 356) urges 
that the wager had been already substantially stated piecemeal, except with 
regard to the ring. 'Besides,' he says, shrewdly, 'the formal statement of the 
wager is to be in a writing drawn up by counsel.' But his shrewdness deserts him, I 

ACT i, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 6 1 

your commendation, for my more free entertainment. 157 

Poft. I embrace thefe Conditions, let us haue Articles 
betwixt vs : onely thus farre you fhall anfvvere, if you 
make your voyage vpon her, and giue me directly to vn- 160 
derftand, you haue preuayl'd, I am no further your Ene- 
my, fhee is not worth our debate. If fhee remaine vnfe- 
duc'd, you not making it appeare otherwife : for your ill 
opinion, and th'affault you haue made to her chaftity ,you 
fhall anfwer me with your Sw r ord. 165 

lacJi. Your hand, a Couenant : wee will haue thefe 
things fet downe by lawfull Counfell, and ftraight away 
for Britaine, leaft the Bargaine fhould catch colde, and 
fterue : I will fetch my Gold, and haue our t\vo Wagers 
recorded. 170 

157. free] Om. Ff, Rowc, Pope. your vauntage Coll. (MS.). 

158. Conditions,] conditions; Pope. 164. th'affautt] Ff, Rowe, +. 

159. an/were} Ff. answer. Johns. 166. hand,} Ff, Rowe,-f-. hand, 
answer; Rowe et seq. Dyce. hand; Cap. et cet. 

160. make your voyage] make good 169. jlerue] F 2 , Sing. JlarveF 3 4 et cet. 

fear, when he goes on to say: 'Posthumus has said to lachimo, "Here's my ring," 
and must accordingly have delivered the ring to him. lachimo says here, again, 
"This your jewel," which implies that he had it on his hand.' Had Vaughan 
looked ahead he would have found in II, iv, 137 that Posthumus says to lachimo 
'Here, take this too,' meaning the ring in addition to the bracelet; and Philario says 
to him 'take your Ring again,' whereupon Posthumus exclaims to lachimo 'backe 
my Ring!' etc., with other references which prove that lachimo then received the 
ring for the first time. CAPELL discerned the meaning of the present exclamation, 
'Here's my ring,' better than Vaughan; he represents Philario as the one who 
accepts the ring from Posthumus by inserting a stage-direction (which Vaughan 
might have seen duly recorded in the Cam. Ed.): 'Putting it into Philario's hand.' 

1 60. make your voyage vpon her] DYCE (Strictures, etc., p. 211), in 
criticising Collier's MS. emendation (See Text. Notes), adduces 'the following 
passage, which proves beyond all doubt that the old text is what the author wrote: 
"if he should intend this voyage towards my wife, I would turn her loose to him." 
Mer. Wives, II, i, 198. 

166. a Couenant] RUSHTON (Sh. a Lawyer, p. 23): The Covenant Shakespeare 
refers to is, according to the quaint description of Thomas Wood (Inst. of the Laws 
of England, ed. ii, p. 228), 'agreements made by deed in writing, by the consent of 
two or more, to do, or not to do,' and not the covenants (conventiones) which are 
clauses of agreement contained in a deed. 

169. sterue] SINGER: This has been inconsiderately changed to starve in all 
modern editions. [See Text. Notes.} DYCE: I do not agree with Mr Singer. 
They are one and the same word, whether it be used (as in the present passage) 
simply in the sense of perish, or in that of dying with hunger. The Folio in Cor., 
IV, i, has 'Angers my Meate: I suppe upon myself e, And so shall sterue with 

6 2 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vi. 

Pojl. Agreed. 1 7 1 

French. Will this hold, thinke you. 
Phil. Signior lachimo will not from it. 
Pray let vs follow 'em. Exeunt 174 

Scena Sexta. 

Enter Queene, Ladies, and Cornelius. 2 

171. Pofl.] Host. Pope i. Scene vn. Pope, Han. Warb. Johns. 
[Exeunt Posth. and lachimo. Scene v. Dyce, Glo. Coll. iii, Cam. 

Theob. Scene vi. Eccles. 

172. you.] you? Rowe et seq. Cymbeline's Palace. Rowe. .in Brit- 

173. 174. As prose Cap. et seq. ain. Pope 

174. 'em] Ff. et seq. 2. Cornelius] Cornelius with a Viol, 
i. Scena Sexta] Scene m. Rowe. Rowe. (Vial. Han. Phial. Johns.) 

Feeding'; in which passage Mr Singer prints 'starve with feeding.' INGLEBY 
takes 'sterve' in the sense of perishing through cold (which Dowden pronounces 
a common meaning), and in accordance with it excellently paraphrases the present 
passage: 'lest the wager which was laid in the heat of the dispute should be de- 
clared off, when the disputants have had time for cool reflection. Compare Macb., 
IV, i, 134: "This deed I'll do before this purpose cool." 

171. Agreed] Mrs JAMESON (ii, 73): 'The baseness and the folly of [Posthumus] 
have been justly censured; but Shakespeare, feeling that Posthumus needed every 
excuse, has managed the quarrelling scene between him and lachimo with the 
most admirable skill. The manner in which his high spirit is gradually worked 
up by the taunts of this Italian fiend is contrived with far more probability and 
much less coarseness than in the original tale. In the end he is not the challenger, 
but the challenged; and could hardly (except on a moral principle, too much refined 
for those rude times) have declined the wager without compromising his own 
courage and his faith in the honour of Imogen. BODENSTEDT (Sh.'s Frauen- 
charaktere, p. 38) : In spite of every argument which may be adduced to exculpate 
Posthumus, we cannot blink the revolting character of the wager, and of a surety 
Shakespeare would not have it otherwise. He lets his hero commit a grievous error, 
and grievously does he let him expiate it. 

i. ECCLES: The period at which this Scene passes must be within that space of 
time which elapses between the arrival of Posthumus in Rome and the coming of 
lachimo to the Court of Cymbeline in Britain. DANIEL (Sh. Soc. Trans., 1877-79, 
p. 241): An interval. lachimo's journey to Britain. With the present scene 
begins DAY 3. Another possible arrangement in time would be to make it con- 
current with Day 2; or again, it might have a separate day assigned to it, to be 
placed in the interval marked for lachimo's journey to Britain. As Eccles has 
suggested. Its position as the early morning of Day 3, 'whiles yet the dew's on 
the ground' is, however, quite consistent with [this present] scheme of time. 
[I suppose, in any analysis of the time, that the chief purpose is to calculate the 
number of days consumed by the action, and that the sequence of the days is of 
secondary importance. If, while lachimo is on his journey, the time is filled up 

ACT I, SC. vi.] 


Qit. Whiles yet the dewe's on ground, 3 

Gather thofe Flowers, 
Make hafte. Who ha's the note of them ? 5 

Lady. I Madam. 

Queen. Difpatch. Exit Ladies. 

Now Mafter Doctor, haue you brought thofe drugges ? 

Cor. Pleafeth your Highnes, I : here they are, Madam: 
But I befeech your Grace, without offence 10 

3, 4. One line Rowe et seq. 

3. Whiles} While Rowe, + . 

4. Flowers,] flowers. Rowe, Pope, 
Han. flowers: Theob. Johns, et 

5. hafte] haft F 4 . 
ha's] Fx. 

6. Lady.] Lad. Ff. Ladies. Rowe, 
Pope, i Lady. Theob. First Lady. 

7] /, Rowe et seq. 

7. Exit] Exeunt Ff. 

8. Now] Now, Theob. et seq. 
drugges?] drugges: F 2 . drugs: 

F 3 F 4 . 

9. /:] Ay; Rowe et seq. 

[Giving her some Papers. Cap. 
Presenting a small box. Theob. 

10. But I... offence] But, (I. ..offence,) 

ID, ii. without... aske] Ff. In paren- 
theses Cap. Varr. Mai. Rann, Steev. 
Varr. Knt, Sing, without. ..My. ..ask, 
Rowe. without. ..(my conscience bids 
me ask) Pope et cet. (subs.) 

10. offence] offence, Theob. Warb. 
Johns. Coll. offence; Cap. Varr. Steev. 

with these scenes at Cymbeline's court, the number of days of action is not less- 
ened. And, in fact, the very object of these scenes intervening between the wager 
in Rome and lachimo's interview with Imogen is to give an idea of the lapse of 
time. So that Eccles's suggestion is good and does not clash with Daniel's cal- 
culation that we are now entering on the third day. Daniel refers to Eccles's 
computation. ED.] 

3. Whiles yet the dewe's on ground] In Arderne's Treatises (circa 1376, 
E. E. T. Soc., p. 92, 1910): A receipt is given for making 'oile of violettes, ' which 
is to be made in the same manner as 'Oile of roses,' as follows: 'Recipe roses that 
bene ful spred, and gredre hem erly whiles the dew lasteth.' ED. 

4. Flowers] ELLACOMBE (Season of Sh.'s Plays, New Sh. Soc., Trans., 1880-86, 
p. 74) : The Queen and her ladies gather flowers, which at the end of the Scene we 
are told are violets, cowslips, and primroses, the flowers of Spring. In the fourth 
Act, Lucius gives orders to 'find out the prettiest daisied plot we can,' to make a 
grave for Cloten; but daisies are too long in flower to let us attempt to fix a date 
by them. ... [P. 76.] Even in such common matters as the names of the 
most familiar every-day plants Shakespeare does not write in a careless, haphazard 
way, naming the plant that comes uppermost in his thoughts, but they are all 
named in the most careful and correct manner, exactly fitting into the scenes in 
which they are placed, and so giving to each passage a brightness and a reality 
which would be entirely wanting if the plants were set down in the ignorance of 
guesswork. Shakespeare knew the plants well; and though his knowledge is 
never paraded, by its very thoroughness it cannot be hid. 

5. Who ha's] I suppose that the apostrophe marks the omission of an imaginary 
e. ED. 

64 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vi. 

(My Confcience bids me aske) wherefore you haue II 

Commanded of me thefe moft poyfonous Compounds, 
Which are the moouers of a languifhing death : 
But though flow, deadly. 

Qu. I wonder, Doctor, 15 

Thou ask'ft me fuch a Queftion : Haue I not bene 
Thy Pupill long ? Haft thou not learn'd me how 
To make Perfumes? Diftill ? Preferue ? Yea, fo, 
That our great King himfelfe doth woo me oft 
For my Confections ? Hauing thus farre proceeded, 20 

(Vnleffe thou think'ft me diuellifh) is't not meete 
That I did amplifie my Judgement in 
Other Conclufions ? I will try the forces 23 

11. aske) -wherefore] ask wherefore 14. But though] But, though Theob. 
Vaun. et seq. And, though or Though but 

12. poyfonous] poisonous Pope,+, Anon. ap. Cam. 

Cap. 15. / wonder] I do wonder Theob. 

12-14. Compounds, ...death:. ..deadly.] Han. Warb. Cap. Steev. 

Ff, Rowe. compounds?... death;, deadly. Doctor] doctor, that Ktly conj. 

Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. compounds 21. diuellijh] dev'lish Pope, + , Cap. 

...death;. ..deadly. Johns, compounds, is't] ist F 2 . is it F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 

...death,... deadly. Cam. compounds,... 23. try] prove Vaun. 
death;... deadly? Cap. et cet. 

13. languishing] For the sake of scansion WALKER (Vers., p. 66), and ABBOTT 
( 467) after him, would pronounce this word as a disyllabic, lang'shing. Can any 
lover of Shakespeare's musical language hear this without ang'sh? ED. 

14. 15. But . . . Doctor] VAUGHAN (p. 358) presents us with the following al- 
ternative 'articulation and scansion' of this line: 'But though slow, dea daly. 
I won der, doctor'; or this: 'But though slow dead ly I ooun der, doctor.' 
If, hereafter, from these pages all references to Vaughan's 'articulation and scan- 
sion,' be omitted, I think it will be pardoned; but if not, I will bare my back for 
punishment without flinching. ED. 

15. I wonder] It is hardly conceivable that STEEVENS should have been ig- 
norant that four editions before his own, beginning with THEOBALD, had printed 
'I do wonder'; and yet he deliberately said, 'I have supplied the verb do for the 
sake of the measure.' WALKER (Vers., p. 24) also suggested do; but for him there 
is some excuse; his library is known to have been scanty. ED. 

17. learn'd me] Examples of 'learn' thus used, in the sense of teach, are given 
in N. E. D. (s. v., II. 4. c.) in every century from 1200 to Shakespeare's time. 
This venerable usage is still happily preserved in this country. ED. 

20. Confections] DOWDEN: That is, compounded drugs, as in V, v, 289. 

21, 22. is't not meete That I did] ABBOTT ( 370): Here, as in 'It is 
time he came, 7 the action is regarded as one 'meet' in time past, as well as 
in the future. 

23. Other Conclusions] JOHNSON: Other experiments. 'I commend,' says 
Walton, 'an angler that trieth conclusions, and improves his art.' 

ACT i, sc. vi.] CYMBELINE 65 

Of thefe thy Compounds, on fuch Creatures as 

We count not worth the hanging (but none humane) 25 

To try the vigour of them, and apply 

Allayments to their Ac!;, and by them gather 

Their feuerall vertues , and effects. 

Cor. Your Highneffe 

Shall from this pra6tife, but make hard your heart: 30 

Befides, the feeing thefe effects will be 
Both noyfome, and infectious. 

Qu. O content thee. 

Enter Pifanio. 34 


25. humane] human Rowe et seq. 28. feuerall] several Pope,-)-. 

26. try] test Walker (Crit., i, 288), 29. Your] you Var. '85 (misprint). 
Huds. 34. Enter...] In line 27 Dyce. 

27. by them] ECCLES: These words evidently refer to 'allayments,' but it is 
by no means clear whether the 'virtues' and 'effects,' in the next line, bear a 
reference to the 'compounds' or to the 'allayments'; if to the latter, the 
sense would be improved by substituting from for 'by.' CRAIG: Perhaps Shake- 
speare wrote Allay ment, 'then' in the same line referring to 'acts.' DOWDEN: 
Does not this mean by the creatures experimented on? For 'act' meaning 
action, compare Oth., Ill, iii, 328. [It seems to me that 'by them' refers to 
her 'conclusions,' her experiments; not to the details as to the strength of her 
confections, or their antidotes, or the corpus vile on which the poison was tried 
only by these 'conclusions' can shd gather the several virtues and effects of her 
drugs. ED.] 

30. Shall . . . but make hard your heart] JOHNSON: There is in this passage 
nothing that much requires a note, yet I cannot forbear to push it forward into 
observation. The thought would probably have been more amplified, had our 
author lived to be shocked with such experiments as have been published in later 
times by a race of men who have practised tortures without pity, and related them 
without shame, and are yet suffered to erect their heads among human beings. 
Cape saxa manu, cape robora, pastor. [Virgil, Georg., iii, 420.] KNIGHT: We 
are by no means sure that Shakespeare meant to apply a sweeping denun- 
ciation to such experiments upon the power of particular medicines. There can 
be no doubt that the medical art, being wholly tentative, it becomes in some 
cases a positive duty of a scientific experimenter to inflict pain upon an inferior 
animal for the ultimate purpose of assuaging pain or curing disease. It is the 
useless repetition of such experiments in the lecture-room which is 'noisome and 

32. noysome and infectious] VAUGHAN (p. 361): 'Noisome' may apply only 
to the direct effect upon her own person of the poisons themselves employed by her; 
while ' infectious ' applies only to the indirect effects resulting to her person in the 
way of contagion by close communication with the creatures suffering directly from 

66 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vi. 

Heere comes a flattering Rafcall, vpon him 35 

Will I firft worke : Hee's for his Mafter, 
And enemy to my Sonne. How now Pifaniot 
Doctor, your feruice for this time is ended, 
Take your owne way. 

Cor. I do fufpecl: you, Madam, 40 

But you mail do no harme. 

Qu. Hearke thee, a word. 

Cor. I do not like her. She doth thinke Hie ha's 43 

35. [Aside. Rowe et seq. An enemy Anon. (ap. Cam. i.), Ingl. 

36, 37. Witt. ..And] One line Ktly. Vaun. 

36. worke] let them work Cap. Ecc. 40. [Aside. Rowe. 

for] factor for Walker, Huds. 42. [To Pisanio. Rowe. to Pis, draw- 

36, 37. Mafter, And enemy] Master, ing him aside. Cap. 
An enemy Rowe ii. Master's sake An thee, a] thee a Ff. 

enemy Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 43. Cor. / do] Cor. [Solus.] / do 

master, and Enemy Ktly. master, and Johns. Cor. Aside. Cap. 

35, 36. vpon him Will I first worke : Hee's for his Master] CAPELL (p. 105) 
is severe on his four predecessors, and asserts that their addition of a solitary letter 
and a solitary word is a 'patch-work that does them no credit,' and then proceeds 
to insert two words of his own: 'upon him Will I first let tJtem work'; whereof I 
cannot comprehend the special need, albeit Capell himself says that they 'are as 
necessary to the sense as the measure,' because, 'though this queen does after- 
wards tamper with Pisanio, she knew him too well to think she should do any good 
on him; determines as first to get rid of him by the drugs which she has now in her 
hand, and is only intent on the method, without thinking at all about working on 
him in their sense of the word.' Simple-hearted ECCLES adopted Capell's emenda- 
tion in his text, and at the same time confessed in a note that he could not perceive 
its superiority in meaning, over the emendation of the four preceding editors, or 
even over the original text. WALKER (Crit., ii, 256) proposes to read, 'He's 
factor for his Master,' and justifies the use of factor by quoting the Queen's words 
later on, line 89, where she speaks of Pisanio as 'the agent for his master.' And 
he might have quoted lachimo in the next scene, line 219, where he says 
that he 'is Factor for the rest.' Walker adds that 'Factor in this sense 
is common in Shakespeare'; it occurs, according to Bartlett's Concordance, six 
times, but if it occurred sixty times, its interpolation here is temerarious, to 
say the mildest. DANIEL (p. 84) ingeniously modifies the punctuation, and 
turns 'And' into An,' a very venial change: 'He's, for his master, An enemy 
to my son.' ED. 

43-54. I do not like her, etc.] JOHNSON: This soliloquy is very inartificial. 
The speaker is under no strong pressure of thought; he is neither resolving, repent- 
ing, suspecting, nor deliberating, and yet makes a long speech to tell himself what 
himself knows. [But the audience does not. I think it not unlikely that, in- 
fluenced by this note of Dr Johnson, Garrick omitted this soliloquy in the stage 
performance. For which he is thus criticised by REED (Biog. Dram., iii, 140) in 
speaking of Garrick's Version: 'A material fault occurs in it. By omitting the 

ACT i, sc. vi.] CYMBELINE 

Strange ling'ring poyfons : I do know her fpirit, 

And will not truft one of her malice, with 45 

A drugge of fuch damn'd Nature. Thofe fhe ha's, 

Will ftupefie and dull the Senfe a-while, 

Which firft (perchance) fhee'l proue on Cats and Dogs, 

Then afterward vp higher : but there is 

No danger in what (hew of death it makes, 50 

More then the locking vp the Spirits a time, 

To be more frefh, reuiuing. She is fool'd 52 

44. ling'ring] lingering Var. '21 et Cap. Var. '73, '78. Ran. Steev. awhile 
seq. Var. '85 et seq. 

45. malice, with] malice with Pope et 48. (perchance)] perchance Rowe. 
seq. 49. afterward] afterwards Theob. 

46. Thofe] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Knt, Warb. Johns. 

Coll. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. That 51. locking vp] locking-up Dyce, Glo. 

Han. Those, Theob. et cet. Huds. 

47. a-while] a while Ff, Rowe, + , 

physician's soliloquy, we are utterly unprepared for the recovery of Imogen after 
she had swallowed the potion prepared by her stepmother. To save appearances, 
this speech was inserted in the printed copy, but was never uttered on the stage. 
Useless as it might be to those who are intimately acquainted with the piece, it is 
still necessary toward the information of a common audience' ED.] STEEVENS: 
This soliloquy is yet necessary to prevent that uneasiness which would naturally 
arise in the mind of an audience on recollection that the Queen had mischievous 
ingredients in her possession, unless they were undeceived as to the quality of them; 
and it is no less useful to prepare us for the return of Imogen to life. HUDSON 
(p. 68) : This speech might be cited as proving that Shakespeare preferred expec- 
tation to surprise as an element of dramatic interest. The speech seems fairly open 
to some such reproof [as Johnson's]. But it prepares, and was doubtless meant to 
prepare, us for the seeming death and revival of Imogen; and without some such 
preparation those incidents would be open to much graver censure of clap-trap. 
The expectancy thus started is at all events better than attempting to spring a 
vulgar sensation on the audience. WYATT: If Shakespeare had not felt some- 
thing akin to contempt for vulgar melodramatic effects, he would not have 
given us this premonition of the result of Imogen's swallowing the Queen's 'con- 
fection.' [An observation which DOWDEN pronounces 'just.' See note on line 
101, below.] 

50. what shew of death it makes] VAUGHAN (p. 362): Shakespeare intends 
'it' to refer to the act of 'dulling and stupefying the sense,' and not any object 
mentioned [This last clause,! think, is not quite clear. DELIUS says that 'it,' by 
an inexact construction, refers to 'those she has.' This reference Vaughan pro- 
nounces 'if natural, still wrong.' I cannot so see it; 'show of death' is only a 
paraphrase of 'stupefying and dulling the sense,' and is the object of 'makes.' 
To me, the interpretation of Delius is just. ED.] 

51. a time] M ALONE: All the modern editions, 'for a time.' [I can find no 
edition wherein 'for a time' is to be found. Apparently the Cam. Ed. were equally 
unsuccessful; they record it as 'quoted by Malone.' ED.] 

68 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vi. 

With a moft falfe effect : and I, the truer, 53 

So to be falfe with her. 

Qu. No further feruice, Doctor, 55 

Vntill I fend for thee. 

Cor. I humbly take my leaue. Exit. 

Qu. Weepes me ftill( faift thou?) 
Doft thou thinke in time 

She will not quench, and let inftructions enter 60 

Where Folly now poffeffes? Do thou worke : 
When thou fhalt bring me word fhe loues my Sonne, 
lie tell thee on the inftant, thou art then 
As great as is thy Matter : Greater, for 

His Fortunes all lye fpeechleffe, and his name 65 

Is at laft gaspe. Returne he cannot, nor 
Continue where he is : To fhift his being, 
Is to exchange one mifery with another, 
And euery day that comes, comes to decay 
A dayes worke in him. What fhalt thou expect 70 

53. 7, the] I the Rowe et seq. 60. i nftruc~lions\ instruction Coll. (Mo- 

54. with her] Om. Steev. conj. novol.) 

55. further] farther Coll. 64. Greater] Ff, Dyce, Glo. Cam. 
55, 56. Doclor...for thee] One line greater; Rowe et cet. 

Han. (omitting for thee) . 67. he is] is Cap. (corrected in 

57. humbly] Om. Han. Errata). 

58, 59. One line Rowe et seq. 68. another,] Ff, Rowe, Coll. Glo. 
58. faijl] sayest Rowe, Pope. Cam. another; Pope et cet. 

60. quench,] quench; Cap. Varr. Mai. 70. expert] expect, Theob. Warb. et 

Ran. Steev. Varr. Knt. quench Cam. seq. 
quinch? Vaun. 

53. a most false effect] As to the nature of this drug, see notes on IV, 
ii, 49. 

54. to be] That is, for being. For many other examples of the 'infinitive, 
indefinitely used/ see, if need be, ABBOTT, 356. 

60. quench] CRAIGIE (N. E. D., s. v., Il.intr. f c. of a person): To cool down. 
[The solitary example. It occurs 'with a personal object' where lachimo (V, v, 
230) says, 'Being thus quench'd Of hope, not longing,' and is noted by Craigie 
under 3 transf. f c. 

66. at last] Possibly a case of the absorption of the, 'at' last. ED. 

67. shift his being] JOHNSON: To change his abode. [Posthumus's grief 
lay deeper than the care for his lodging; coelum non animum, etc.; although, possibly, 
the Queen did not suppose such to be the case. Johnson, therefore, may be right. 
INGLEBY, however, thinks that 'being' can hardly be abode here. ED.] 

69, 70. comes to decay A dayes worke in him] ECCLES: The most natural 
construction is that of making 'decay' a noun, and 'a day's work' the nominative 
to the verb 'comes.' 

ACT I, SC. vi.] 


To be depender on a thing that leanes ? 

Who cannot be new built, nor ha ? s no Friends 

So much, as but to prop him ? Thou tak'ft vp 

Thou know'ft not what : But take it for thy labour, 

It is a thing I made, which hath the King 

Fiue times redeem'd from death. I do not know 

What is more Cordiall. Nay, I prythee take it, 

It is an earneft of a farther good 

That I meane to thee. Tell thy Miftris how 

The cafe ftands with her : doo't. as from thv felfe: 


Thinke what a chance thou changeft on, but thinke 
Thou haft thy Miftris ftill, to boote, my Sonne, 






71. depender on] depender of F 3 F 4 . 
71-73. leanes?. ..prop him?} leans,... 

prop him? Han. Knt, Dyce, Sta. 
Glo. Cam. (subs.) leans?. ..him. Coll. 

72. new built] new-built Coll. 
nor] and Pope, + . 

72, 73. Friends So much,] friends, So 
much Rowe et seq. 

73. [Pisanio looking on the Viol. 
Rowe. ...takes up the phial. Pope. 
Dropping some of the Papers. Cap. 
The Queen drops a phial, Pisanio takes 
it up. Var. '78. The Queen drops a 
box... Mai. 

tak'ft] takest Rowe. 
75. made] make F 3 F 4 , Rowe, + , Cap. 
Varr. Rann. 

76. death.] death; Rowe et seq. 

77. Nay,] Nay Rowe, Pope. 
prythee] prcthee Ff, Rowe. pr'y- 

thec or prithee Pope et cet. 

78. farther] Ff, Rowe,+, Cap. Coll. 
Sing, further Varr. et cet. 

81. chance thou changejl on,] chance 
thou chancest on, Rowe,+, Cap. Coll. 
ii, iii (MS.), Dyce. ii, iii, Huds. change 
thou chancest on; Theob. Han. Johns. 
Wh. i, Ktly. 

81, 82. thinke Thou] think; Thou 
Theob. Warb. Johns. Cap. think 
Thou Var. '73. think! Thou Dowden 

82. Jlill,] Ff, Knt, Dyce, Glo. Cam. 
still; Rowe et cet. 

to] too F 2 F 3 . 

71. a thing that leanes] JOHNSON: That inclines towards its fall. [Or may it not 
mean one who leans on another for support, 'To be a depender on one who is 
himself a depender on others'? ED.] 

78. It is an earnest of a farther good] ECCLES finds probability grossly 
violated in this scene, and that a purposeful person would not have taken such a 
roundabout method of effecting her object; while Pisanio was in health, he needed 
no such medicine, and in sickness her description was too vague to lead him to use 
it. Besides he might administer it to others, and thereby cause a disaster more 
widely spread than even the queen could composedly contemplate. 'This is one 
of the passages,' he concludes, 'wherein Shakespeare appears to have been least 
attentive to verisimilitude.' 

81. what a chance thou changes! on] THEOBALD: I imagine the Poet 
wrote, 'what a change then chancest on,' i. e., if you will fall into my measures, do 
but think how you will chance to change your fortunes for the better, in the con- 
sequences that will attend your compliance. HEATH (p. 475): The sense is, 
Think on what a chance, on how promising a prospect of advancing thy fortunes, 
thou changest thy present attachment. [To the same effect, STEEVENS.] 

70 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vi. 

Who fhall take notice of thee. He moue the King 83 

To any fhape of thy Preferment, fuch 

As thou'lt defire : and then my felfe, I cheefely, 85 

That fet thee on to this defert, am bound 

To loade thy merit richly. Call my women. Exit Pifa. 

Thinke on my words. A flye, and conftant knaue, 

Not to be fhak'd : the Agent for his Matter, 

And the Remembrancer of her, to hold 90 

The hand-faft to her Lord. I haue giuen him that, 

Which if he take, fhall quite vnpeople her 92 

83. thee.] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. thee, Cap. 

Cap. thee: Mai. et cet. 88. Jlye] shy Cap. conj. 

He moue] move Cap. Ran. 91. hand-faft] Var. '21, Dyce, Glo. 

85. defere] deserve Theob. conj. (Nich- Huds. Cam. handfast Coll. i, Sta. 

oil's Illust., ii, 629.) Ktly. handfast Ff, Rowe et cet. 

/ checfely,] I chiefly Rowe, Pope, / haue] I've Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii, 

Theob. Warb. aye, chiefly, Vaun. Huds. 

87. Exit...] After words, line 88, giuen] giv'n Pope,+. 

CAPELL adopted Rowe's chancest, and justified it by urging that 'the very first 
thing Pisanio is to consider of is no change.' M ALONE: A line in the Rape of 
Lucrece adds some [Dyce, in quoting Malone, here, after 'some,' interpolates 
' [great] ' in brackets] support to the reading, ' thou chancest on,' which is much in 
Shakespeare's manner: 'Let there bechance him pitiful mis-chances.' [i. 976. 
Yet Malone printed 'changest' in his text.] STAUNTON: We should prefer reading, 
' Think what a chance! thou changest one; but think,' etc. You only change the 
service of your master for mine; retain your old mistress, and have my son for 
friend beside. Chance, it must be remembered, in old language meant fortune, 
luck, etc. Staunton (Athceneum, 14 June, 1873) suggested still another emenda- 
tion: 'The allusion, I apprehend, is to hunting. In the language of our old books 
on field sports, when a hound hunts backward the way the chase has come, he 
hunts counter; when he hunts any other chase than that he first undertook, he 
hunts change. We should read, "Think what a chase thou changest on," etc., or, 
Think what a chase thou changest: oh, but think!' Here Staunton gives several 
examples where chase is used. DANIEL (p. 84): The queen is urging Pisanio to 
abandon the cause of Posthumus, and to serve that of her son Cloten. She has 
already asked him what he can expect by being a 'depender on a thing that leans.' 
Read, 'Think what a chance thou hangest on.' 

90. Remembrancer] INGLEBY: A law-term. There used to be three officers of 
State, so-called. The word occurs in only one other place in Shakespeare: Macb., 
Ill, iv, 37 [where it is applied to Lady Macbeth], 

90, 91. to hold The hand-fast to her Lord] DYCE (Remarks, p. 252): [Collier 
and Knight read hand fast] and most erroneously. Read handfast, i. e., the 
contract. Compare Beau. & Fletcher: 'Should leave the handfast that he had of 
grace,' The Woman Hater, III, i. 'I knit this holy handfast. 1 Wit at Several 
Weapons, v, i. (where the modern editors give wrongly, with the old Eds., 'hand 
fast.') WHITE: That is, the betrothal, the marriage to her lord. 

ACT i, sc. vi.] CYMBELINE 71 

Of Leidgers for her Sweete : and which, fhe after 93 

Except ihe bend her humor, fhall be affur'd 

To tafte of too. 95 

Enter Pifanio, and Ladies. 

So , fo : Well done, well done : 

The Violets, Cowllippes, and the Prime-Rofes 98 

93. Leidgers] leigers Han. Johns. which, she after, Theob. et cet. 

Varr. Mai. Steev. ledgers Cap. 98. Prime-Rofes] Prim-Roses Rowe, 

liegers Var. '03 et seq. Pope, Theob. Han. (subs.) primroses 

which, fhe after} which fhe after, Warb. 
Ff, Rowe, Pope, Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

93. Of Leidgers for her Sweete] COLLIER (ed. i.): The meaning is, that it 
will deprive Imogen of the 'lieger' or ambassador, residing with her, to represent 
and maintain the interest of his master. Possibly 'sweet,' as the Rev. Mr Barry 
proposes, ought to be suite. DYCE (Remarks, p. 252), after quoting this last 
sentence of Collier's note, observes: 'Surely, though such a villainous conjecture 
as this might be sent to Mr Collier, he was not bound to record it.' COLLIER, in 
his ed. ii, undismayed by Dyce's stigmatising suite as a 'villainous conjecture,' 
tells us that suite is the reading of his MS. Corrector, 'but the old text may be 
received without any change.' STAUNTON: This apparently signifies ambassadors 
to her lover. SCHMIDT (Lex., s. v., sweet, adj.) gives a long array of examples where 
'sweet' is used substantively, as here, and for a lover or mistress. 

93. Leidgers ] JOHNSON : A lieger ambassador is one that resides in a foreign court 
to promote his master's interest. 

98. Violets] ELLACOMBE (p. 246) : In all the passages in which Shakespeare names 
the Violet, he alludes to the purple sweet-scented violet, of which he was evidently 
very fond, and which is said to be very abundant in the neighborhood of Stratford- 
on-Avon. For all the eighteen passages [which Ellacombe quotes] tell of some 
point of beauty or sweetness that attracted him. And so it is with all the poets 
from Chaucer downwards. . . . Violets, like Primroses, must always have had 
their joyful associations as coming to tell that winter is passing away and brighter 
days are near. Yet it is curious to note how, like Primroses also, they have been 
ever associated with death, especially with the death of the young. 

98. Cowslippes] See II, ii, 45. 

98. Prime- Roses] The etymological history of the name of this plant, coupled 
with the various plants to which it has been applied, is hardly germane to a com- 
mentary in Shakespeare, and is, moreover, too voluminous for these pages. See 
the New English Dictionary or Ellacombe, p. 175. The latter, albeit that his 
book is devoted to the Plant-Love of Shakespeare, acknowledges that the 'full 
history of the name is too long' to be given by him. An extract from Dr PRIOR 
will, I think, amply supply all present needs: 'Primrose from Pryme rolles is the 
name it bears in old books and MSS. The Crete Herball, ch. cccl, says, "It is 
called Pryme Rolles of pryme tyme, because it beareth the first floure in pryme 
tyme." This little common plant affords a most extraordinary example of blunder- 
ing. Primerole is an abbreviation of French primeverole, Italian primaverola, dim. 
of prima vera, from flor di prima vera, the first spring flower. Primerole, as an 

72 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT i, sc. vi. 

Beare to my Cloffet : Fare thee well, Pifanio. 

Thinke on my words. Exit Qu. and Ladies. 100 

Pi/a. And fhall do : 

But when to my good Lord, I proue vntrue, 
He choake my felfe : there's all He do for you. Exit. 103 

101. And Jhall do] I shall do so Han. And so shall do Ktly. [Aside.] Madam, I 
have and shall do. Ingl. conj. Marry, and shall do; or Marry, and shall do so. Vaun. 

outlandish, unintelligible word was soon familiarised into prime rolles, and this into 
primrose. This is explained in popular works as meaning the first rose of Spring, a 
name that would never have been given to a plant tjiat in form and colour is so 
unlike a rose. But the rightful claimant of it, strange to say, is the daisy, which 
in the south of Europe is a common and conspicuous flower in early Spring, while 
the primrose is an extremely rare one, and it is the daisy that bears the name in all 
the old books.' The COWDEN-CLARKES: Shakespeare makes the miscreant queen 
use these beauteous and innocent products of the earth as mere cloaks to her 
wickedness; she concocts 'perfumes' and 'confections' from them, as a veil to the 
drugs' and 'poisonous compounds' which she collects for the fellest purposes. 
It enhances the effect of her guilt, in thus forcing these sweet blossoms to become 
accomplices in her vile schemes; and we loathe her the more for her surrounding her 
unhallowed self with their loveliness. [Thus far these observations are, I think, 
eminently ingenious and enlightening, but when the editors proceed to contrast 
the queen and Friar Laurence in Rom. 6 Jul., me, at least, they do not take with 
them. Knight called attention to the same contrast; I did not insert his note 
because I could not perceive any ground for a comparison; too deep is the im- 
pression made by the profound truth expressed by that 'you cannot compare a 
pound of butter and four o'clock.' ED.] 

101. And shall do] DOWDEN: I conjecture that the Queen's speech ended 
with 'Think on my words, Pisanio,' and that the printer finding 'Pisanio' above 
the speech that followed, took this for the speech-heading, which he found 
repeated before the word 'And/ whence it was omitted after 'words.' Com- 
pare the often repeated 'Hubert' in the temptation by King John (III, iii). 
Note that Pisanio has not uttered a word to the temptress. [None that we 
hear but he talks with her while Cornelius is holding his soliloquy, for when 
the latter goes out, the Queen addresses Pisanio with 'Weeps she still (saist 
thou?).' In the PORTER-CLARKE edition is the following keen-witted remark: 
'This "saist thou" is an intimation that Pisanio had given in action, at a part 
of the stage removed from the Doctor's place of standing, a semblance of a 
report at some length as to Imogen. This stage-business went on while the 
Doctor, ruminating, speaks the lines that "are needed to show the audience the 
real nature of the drugges he has just given the malicious Queen." This then is the 
reason for Cornelius's long speech (lines 43 to 54). We must see Imogen herself 
and hear her sorrow from her own lips, we must not have it from report, and yet it 
is necessary that the Queen should be embittered by the knowledge that she has 
not yet broken Imogen to her will. This knowledge is conveyed to her aside, while 
we are listening to Cornelius and while Dr Johnson is wondering why Cornelius is 
talking. ED.] 

102, 103. But when . . . for you] Did William Shakespeare write this dog- 
gerel? ED. 

ACT I, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 

Scena Septiina. 

Enter Imogen alone. 

Imo. A Father cruell, and a Stepdame falfe, 
A Foolifh Suitor to a Wedded-Lady, 

That hath her Husband banifh'd : O, that Husband, 5 

My fupreame Crowne of griefe, and thofe repeated 

1. Scena] Scene continued. Rowe. 3. falfe,] Ff, Rowe, + , Ktly. false; 
Scene vm. Pope, + . Act II, sc. i. Cap. et cet. 

Eccles. Scene vi. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 4. Wedded-Lady] Wedded Lady Ff 

Wh. ii. et cet. 

Scene changes to Imogen's Apart- 5. banifli'd:} banish'd Rowe,+. 

ments. Theob Another Room in the Husband,] Ff, Cap. husband! 

same. Cap. Rowe et cet. 

2. alone.] Om. Cap. et seq. (except 6. griefe,] Ff, Rowe,+. grief; Cap. 
Cam.). Coll. ii. grief! Var. '73 et cet. 

i. Scena Septima] ECCLES: The space of time between this scene and the pre- 
ceding is undetermined; between the fifth, however, and the present, such a period 
must be supposed wherein lachimo might pass from Rome to Britain. The time 
seems to be evening; in the next scene one of the lords asks Cloten: 'Did you hear 
of a stranger that's come to court tonight?' 

3-11. A Father cruell . . . comfort] INGLEBY: These are either rough 
notes for a speech, or the remains of a speech cut down for representation. If 
the former, we must regard this soliloquy as the reflection of Imogen's thoughts, 
rather than their articulate expression. The abrupt transition to the splendour of 
lachimo's speeches is exceedingly striking. [It is not easy to comprehend why 
'rough notes for a speech' should be set down in faultless rhythm, nor why 
those lines are the remnant of a speech. To have expatiated on any of these 
topics would have been needless repetition, a mere rehearsal of what already we 
fully know. It is enough dramatically befitting here to recall to us Imogen's 
utterly woe-begone and friendless state, and thereby frame our minds to elevate 
her to a yet higher station in our admiring love, when, in the approaching trial of 
her faith in Posthumus, we see her grandly true, and that this abysmal desolation of 
hers, which might well enough lead her to even lower depths of despair, serves only 
to quicken her love for her wedded husband into a stronger life. ED.] 

6. My supreame Crowne of griefe] MALOXE: Thus in King Lear, 'This 
would have seem'd a period To such as love not sorrow; but another, To amplify 
too much, would make much more, And top extremity.' [V, iii, 206.] Coriolanus, 
'the spire and top of praises' [I, ix, 24]. Again, more appositely, in Tro. dr Cress. 
'Make Cressid's name the very crown of falsehood.' [IV, ii, 106.] Again, in 
Wint. Tale, 'The crown and comfort of my life, your favour, I do give lost.' 
[Ill, ii, 95.] INGLEBY: That is, the greatest and crowning sorrow of that grief, 
whose lesser tributaries are the three just mentioned: cruelty, falsity, and folly, 
equivalent to 'those repeated vexations of it.' 

74 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Vexations of it. Had I bin Theefe-ftolne, 7 

As my two Brothers, happy : but moft miferable 

Is the defires that's glorious. Bleffed be thofe 

How meane fo ere, that haue their honeft wills, 10 

Which feafons comfort. Who may this be ? Fye. 

7. of it.] Ff, Coll. ii. of it Rowe,+. Ff et cet. 

to it. Herr. of it! Cap. et cet. 9. Bleffed} Bless 'd or blest Pope, + , 

bin] F 2 F 3 . Var. '73, Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

8. happy:] Ff, Rowe, Cap. happy! n. feafons comfort] comfort seasons 
Pope et cet. Kinnear. 

9. defires} Ktly. degree Han. defire Fye.] Fie! Rowe et seq. 

6, 7. and those repeated Vexations of it.] STAUNTON'S text reads: 'and 
those, repeated Vexations of it,' with an enigmatical comma after 'those.' How 
Staunton caught it, found it, or came by it, or whereof it is born I am yet to learn. 
It is certainly found nowhere else. But with it before him, it is no wonder that 
he says plaintively: 'Something must be wrong in this place,' and instead of 
detecting the perfidious comma he finds fault with the rhythm which, though it 
is none of the smoothest, is good enough. ' No one,' he goes on to say, ' with an ear 
for Shakespeare's rhythm can ever believe he wrote the passage as it stands.' 
As long as Staunton's text remains unchanged, Peace will not her wheaten garland 
wear nor stand that comma. ED. VAUGHAN (p. 366): 'Repeated' in Shake- 
speare commonly does not, as with us now, mean 'recurring again and again,' 
but 'recited' or 'mentioned aloud.' The phrase here signifies, therefore, 'those 
accessory aggravations of that supreme misery which I have now enumerated, that 
is, the step-dame, the cruel father, the absurd and importunate suitor.' 

7. Theefe-stolne] This forcible-feeble, tautological expression does not sound 
like Shakespeare at his best. ED. 

8, 9. most miserable Is the desires that's glorious] WARBURTON: She 
had been happy had she been stolen as her brothers were, but now she is miserable, 
as all those are who have a sense of worth and honour superior to the vulgar, which 
occasions them infinite vexations from the envious and worthless part of mankind. 
Had she not so refined a taste as to be content only with the superior merit of 
Posthumus, but could have taken up with Cloten, she might have escaped these 
persecutions. This elegance of taste, which always discovers an excellence and 
chooses it, she calls with great sublimity of expression, 'The desire that's glorious.' 
VAUGHAN (p. 367) defines 'the desire that's glorious' as 'the ungratified want and 
longing of a person in a most exalted position. The abstract for the concrete. 
"Desire" means "a wish balked" and " unsatisfied." We have below "the cloy'd 
will, that satiate but unsatisfied desire," as we have here contrasted "honest wills," 
&c. and "desire that's glorious." [Vaughan must have been betrayed into this 
extraordinary meaning of 'desire' by his memory of the 'Quis desiderio sit pudor 
aut modus Tarn cari capitis' of Horace, where 'desiderio' does mean a desire, a 
yearning for that which is lost. But there is a world-wide difference between this 
'desire' and the 'desire' in lachimo's speech where it means the lowest lust. ED.] 

BR. NICHOLSON (ap. Ingleby, ed. ii.): 'Glorious' is equivalent to gloriosus, i. e., 
full of vain-glory. 

9. desires] For this interpolated s, see 'purchases,' I, v, 84. 

ii. Which seasons comfort] WARBURTON: These words are equivocal, 

ACT I, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 75 

[u. Which seasons comfort] 

but the meaning is this, Who are beholden only to the seasons for their support and 
nourishment; so that, if these be kindly, such have no more to care for or desire. 

-JOHNSON: I am willing to comply with any meaning that can be extorted from 
the present text rather than change it, yet will propose, but with great diffidence, a 
slight alteration: 'With reason's comfort.' Who gratify their innocent wishes 
with reasonable enjoyments. STEEVENS: I shall venture on another explanation: 
'To be able to refine on calamity (says she) is the miserable privilege of those who 
are educated with aspiring thoughts and elegant desires. Blessed are they, how- 
ever mean their condition, who have the power of gratifying their honest inclina- 
tions, which circumstance bestows an additional relish on comfort itself. MALONE: 
In my apprehension, Imogen's meaning is simply this: ' Had I been stolen by thieves 
in my infancy (or, as she says in another place, " born a neat-herd's daughter") 
I had been happy. But instead of that, I am in a high, and, what is called, a 
glorious station; and most miserable in such a situation! Pregnant with calamity 
are those desires, which aspire to glory; to splendid titles, or elevation of rank! 
Happier far are those, how low soever their rank in life, who have it in their power 
to gratify their virtuous inclinations: a circumstance that gives an additional zest 
to comfort itself, and renders it something more.' MONCK MASON (p. 323): 
Imogen's reflection is merely this: 'That those are happy who have their honest 
wills, which gives a relish to comfort; but that those are miserable who set their 
affections on objects of superior excellence, which are, of course, difficult to obtain.' 
'Honest' means plain or humble, and is opposed to glorious. STAUNTON: It is 
probable that the obscure clause 'but most miserable is the desire that's glorious' 

was accidentally transposed, and the true reading is, 'Had I been thief-stolen, 
As my two brothers, happy! Blessed be those, How mean soe'er, that have their 
honest wills, Which seasons comfort; but most miserable Is the desire that's 
glorious.' Happy are those, however lowly, who enjoy the moderate wishes that 
preserve comfort, but most wretched they whose inclinations are set in grandeur. 
[KEIGHTLEY (Ex p., 375) pronounces this arrangement as 'most certainly an im- 
provement'; and regrets that he did not recollect it when printing his Edition, as 
he should 'probably have adopted it.' HUDSON did adopt it, as a 'most important 
transportation.'] NICHOLS (ii, 15) finds that the difficulty lies 'in giving a right 
antecedent to "Which"; it has been sought for amongst words, when it consisted 
of the whole sentence,' 'Blessed be those, How mean soe'er, that have their 
honest wills.' [To the same effect, ROLFE.] VAUGHAN (p. 366) gives a fair ab- 
stract of the notes of Warburton, Johnson, Steevens, Malone, and Mason, and then 
' ventures to say' that ' all are wrong if the text be right, and all but Mason grossly 
so in some one particular or more.' He then gives his own version: 'A cruel 
father, and a false stepmother, and a foolish man who urges his suit upon me 
although I am married, as I have my husband banished. Alas for that husband, 
who is my chief misery! and alas for those conditions, which I have just mentioned, 
which are its aggravations! If I had been stolen by thieves, like my brothers, I 
should have been happy, but most miserable is my vain longing in an exalted 
sphere; and blessed are those in stations however mean, who have their honourable 
and moderate wishes satisfied by timely gratification.' [Hereupon he quotes the 
present text, 'Is the desires,' and remarks, 'It is not quite impossible, therefore, 
that the right reading would have been: "Most miserable Is she, desires, that's 
glorious." But this would give exactly the same meaning as I have ascribed to 

76 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Enter Pifanio, and lachimo. 1 2 

Pifa. Madam, a Noble Gentleman of Rome? 
Comes from my Lord with Letters. 

lack. Change you, Madam : 1 5 

The Worthy Leonatus is in fafety, 

14. Comes] come Cap. conj. 15. Madam:] Ktly, Ingl. Madam! 

Ff. Madam? Rowe et cet. 

the traditional text.' I think he does himself injustice. His paraphrase of the 
text is, at least, readily comprehensible, but a phrase as elliptical and contorted as 
'is she, desires, that's glorious' would be hard to parallel either in or out of Shake- 
speare. DOWDEN says Vaughan means, 'is she who is of exalted station, and has 
desires,' and we may gladly take his word for it. CRAIG: I suggested 'Is she de- 
sires' or 'she-desires that's glorious,' /. e., but miserable is the woman of high rank 
who falls in love. ' She ' is used for a woman in this play (see line 47 of this scene, 
and I, iv, 37). I find that Vaughan has made pretty much the same suggestion. 
INGLEBY: 'that have their honest wills,' that is, 'who have godliness with content- 
ment' (i. e., the gratifications of their virtuous desires), which is said to be 'great 
gain,' and which both sweetens and keeps sweet their simple comforts. It is scarcely 
possible to fix, with exactness, the meaning of 'seasons' in this passage. CAPELL 
and KNIGHT are reserved for the last; they give in the simplest and most direct 
way, I think, the meaning, which every one grasps. CAPELL: Then follow some 
wishes, that she had not been placed in so exalted a station, whose constant lot is 
unhappiness, whereas, those of a lower, only in 'having their honest wills,' find 
the seasoning of every comfort that nature bestows on them. KNIGHT: The mean 
have their honest, homely wills (opposed to the desire that's glorious), and that 
circumstance gives a relish to comfort. ED.] 

ii. Fye.] CAPELL: There is much expression in 'Fie!' RANN: On such intru- 
sion. DEIGHTON: An exclamation of surprise. WYATT: Imogen is sorry to have 
her solitude broken in upon. PORTER and CLARKE: Does she exclaim at herself 
for hoping for news? DOWDEN: An outbreak of impatience at the interruption 
of her solitary thoughts. [Hence, it is clear that, where our betters disagree, we 
are all at liberty to give to this 'Fie!' whatever intonation or interpretation our 
mood suggests. ED.] 

15. Change you] The COWDEN-CLARKES: How by these little words the dram- 
atist lets us behold the sudden pallor, and as sudden flush of crimson that be- 
spread the wife's face at this instant. INGLEBY: A very abrupt and even in- 
delicate mode of greeting any lady, seen for the first time, and here a princess of the 
blood. We should have expected lachimo to say, with a low reverence, 'Save you, 
madam.' [Of course, he should have brought his heels together with a click. I doubt 
that there were any ' flushes of crimson ' every drop of her blood had been sum- 
moned to the heart; it was her deathlike pallor that frighted lachimo out of his 
propriety. When Henry the Fifth presented to the conspirators sundry docu- 
ments containing the full exposure of their treason, 'Why, how now, Gentlemen!' 
he exclaimed a moment after, ' What see you in those papers that you lose So much 
complexion? Look ye, how they change? Their cheeks are paper! Why, what 
read you there, That hath so cowarded and chased your blood out of appearance.' 
II, ii, 71. ED.] 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 77 

And greetes your Highneffe deerely. 17 

Imo. Thanks good Sir, 
You're kindly welcome. 

lack. All of her, that is out of doore, moft rich : 20 

If fhe be furnifh'd with a mind fo rare 
She is alone th'Arabian-Bird; and I 
Haue loft the wager. Boldneffe be my Friend : 
Arme me Audacitie from head to foote, 

Orlike the Parthian I fhall flying fight, 25 

Rather directly fly. 

17. [Gives a letter. Johns. 23, 24. Friend:. ..foote,] Ff. friend; 

20. [Aside. Pope et seq. ...foot. Rowe. friend /...foot. Pope. 

rich:] rich! Pope et seq. friend .'...foot: Theob. Han. Warb. 

22. th'] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce ii, iii. Johns, friend /...foot, Ran. Coll. friend! 

the Cap. et cet. ...foot! Cap. et cet. 

Arabian-Bird] Arabian bird 24. me Audacitie] me, Audacity, 

Rowe. Theob. et seq. 

25- fight,] fight; Cap. et seq. 

20. that is out of doore] Compare 'so faire an outward and such stuff e With- 
in,' I, i, 32. 

22. She is alone th' Arabian. bird] It has been supposed by some editors 
that ' alone ' is here used because there was never but one Phoenix at a time. Is it 
not better to interpret it as meaning above all things or beyond all others (for which, 
see ABBOTT, 18)? In this case a comma is properly put after it, as suggested by 
CRAIG; Dowden adopted the suggestion in his text. The earliest account of the 
Phoenix is obtained from Herodotus: 'There is another sacred bird, called the 
phoenix, which I myself have seen only in a picture; for, as the citizens of Helios 
say, it visits them only periodically, every five hundred years; they state that it 
always comes on the death of its sire. If it at all resembles its picture, it is thus 
and so; some of its feathers are golden-hued, and some are red; in shape and 
figure it most resembles the eagle, and in size also. They say, but I cannot credit it, 
that this bird contrives to bring from Arabia to the temple of Helios the body of its 
father plastered up in myrrh, and there buries it. The mode of carrying it is as 
follows: first, he plasters together an egg of myrrh as large as he is able to carry, 
after he has tested his strength by carrying it; this trial having been made, he 
hollows out the egg sufficiently to place his father within, then with fresh myrrh 
he fills up the space unoccupied by his father's body; the egg thereby becomes of the 
same weight as before, and thus plastered up he transports it to Egypt to the 
temple of Helios. Such things, they say, this bird can accomplish.' Herodotus, 
Lib., ii, cap. 73. See also Pliny's account, given in Temp., Ill, iii, 33, also As 
You Like It, IV, iii, 17, of this edition. 

22. Arabian-Bird] According to Cam. Ed., there is no hyphen in F 4 . In my 
three copies of that edition there is a hyphen, faint to be sure, but still discernible. 
ROWE first omitted it, followed by all editors. 

25. Orlike the Parthian, I shall flying fight] KNIGHT: Every one will 
remember the noble passage in Paradise Regained: 'He saw them in their forms 
of battle ranged, How quick they wheel'd, and flying behind them shot Sharp sleet 

78 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Imogen reads. 27 

He is one of the Nobleft note, to wJiofe kindneffcs I am moft in- 
finitely tied. Reflect vpon him accordingly, as yon value your 
trufl. Leonatus. 30 

28. He] * * * * He Cap. Sta. Sing. Coll. ii, iii. (MS.), White, Ktly, 

29. 30. your truft] our trust Or- Dyce ii, iii. truft Var. '21, Knt, 
ger. Coll. i, Del. Sta. Glo. Cam. John 

30. truft] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. Hunter, Huds. Dtn, Ingl. Herford, 
Johns. Cap. Mai. Varr. truest. Han. Wyatt, Dowden. trusty Thirlby (Nich- 
truest, Ran. truest Steev. Var. '03/13, ols, Illust., ii, 229). 

of arrowy showers against the face Of their pursuers, and overcame by flight. '- 
[Bk III, 1. 322.] The editors of Milton refer to parallel passages in Virgil and 
Horace as amongst the images with which our great epic poet was familiar. The 
commentators of Shakespeare suffer his line to pass without a single observation. 

29. Reflect vpon him] INGLEBY: That is cast upon him some of the radiance 
of your favour. See I, iii, 28. SCHMIDT (Lex.) gives 'Reflect,' in this passage, 
as nearly equivalent to look. DOWDEN says that the word does not here mean, as 
Ingleby interprets it, but as simply regard him. 

30. trust.] MASON, not knowing that he had been anticipated by Hanmer's text, 
observed (p. 323): 'Were Leonatus writing to his steward, this style might be 
proper; but it is so strange a conclusion of a letter to a princess, and a beloved wife, 
that it cannot be right. I have no doubt, therefore, that we ought to read: 
"your truest." MALONE: This conjecture would have more weight if it were 
certain that these were intended as the concluding words of the letter. It is more 
probably that what 'warmed the very middle of the heart' of Imogen, proved the 
conclusion of Posthumus's letter; and the words 'so far' and 'by the rest' support 
that supposition. Though Imogen reads the name of her husband, she might 
suppress somewhat that intervened. STEEVENS: It is certain, I think, from the 
break, 'He is one,' etc., that the omitted part of the letter was at the beginning 
of it, and that what follows (all indeed that was necessary for the audience to hear) 
was its regular and decided termination. KNIGHT: The signature is separated 
from the word, which has been changed to truest, by the passage which Imogen 
glances at in thankful silence. WHITE (ed. i.): 'Trust' has been defended, but 
most ineffectually. Imogen had no special trust from Posthumus, and what she 
reads is certainly the end, not the beginning, of the letter; the first word that she 
reads, 'he,' necessarily implying a previous mention and introduction of lachimo. 
In courtesy Imogen reads aloud her husband's commendation of her guest. 'So 
far' may very properly be taken in the sense of 'so much,' and 'the rest,' of which 
Imogen speaks, may refer as well to an unmentioned part that goes before as to one 
that comes after. [DYCE (ed. ii, reading 'trust') quotes in full this note of White, 
as his only comment on the interpretation of the phrase.] INGLEBY (who retains 

' trust.') : That is, the ' trust ' she has accepted by her marriage-bond. [Thus also, 
DEIGHTON.] For confirmation of this view, see lines 185-187. The COWDEN- 
CLARKES (who adhere to the Folio) : We take the sentence, as it stands, to be a frag- 
mentary one; one that occurs in the midst of the letter, and selected by Imogen 
as that which she will 'read aloud,' since it contains complimentary mention of the 
bystander and bearer of the letter, and serves for his credential of introduction to 
her. There has probably been some previous mention of lachimo by name, since 

ACT I, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 

So farre I reade aloud. 31 

But euen the very middle of my heart 

Is warm'd by'th'reft,and take it thankefully. 

You are as welcome( worthy Sir) as I 34 

31. aloud.] Ff, Rowe, Pope, aloud; 33. by 'ih'] F 2 . by th' F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. 

Ran. Col. Wh. aloud: Theob. et cet. by the Han. et cet. 
aloud, Vaun. take] takes Pope et seq. 

33. warm'd] warmed Rowe, Pope, thankefully.} thankfully Rowe, 

Han. Sta. Pope, Han. 

the sentence commences with 'He'; and we think it more likely that 'the rest' 
comes between this sentence and the signature than that this sentence forms the 
closing one. . . . Shakespeare, in many passages, uses 'trust' with the exalted 
and even sacred meaning which this word, in its fullest sense, includes; and he 
may most assuredly have thus used it in a letter from husband to wife. Mrs LATI- 
MER (p. 407) : I think the act I can least forgive in Posthumus is the writing of 
this letter, recommending such a scoundrel as lachimo, as 'one of noblest note, to 
whose kindnesses I am most infinitely tied.' HUDSON: This is, 'my trust in you,' 
or 'the trust I repose in you.' Observe Imogen reads aloud only the first two 
sentences, and then skips all the rest till she comes to the signature, which she also 
pronounces aloud. ROLFE: Truest seems preferable. Imogen has been reading 
the letter to herself during the preceding speech (aside} of lachimo. Having come 
to the end of it, she now turns to him and reads aloud the closing lines with their 
reference to himself. THISELTON: The whole sentence is: 'Let your welcome to 
him correspond to these kindnesses in such measure as you value your belief in, or 
truth to, me.' The ambiguity seems designed to give a hint of possible danger, 
if such a hint should be necessary. DOWDEN: That is, value the charge entrusted 
to you as my wife and representative. [Is not this essentially the same as Ingle- 
by's? This fragment of the letter is not, I think, intended to raise Posthumus 
greatly in our esteem. Where he speaks of being 'infinitely knit' to lachimo, 
is it not gross exaggeration? and when of lachimo's 'kindnesses,' is it not flagrantly 
untrue? Posthumus may have believed that in promising his 'commendation' 
to lachimo, he was, in these expressions, only making good his promise and vindi- 
cating his honour. But in his soul he must have known that his honour toward 
Imogen was on a ground far higher than that toward an Italian stranger, and I 
cannot but believe that in telling Imogen that she must be guided by the value she 
placed on her 'trust' in her treatment of lachimo, he was (as intimated by Thisel- 
ton) sounding a note of warning, as explicitly expressed as he dared. ED.] 

31-33. aloud. But . . . th'rest, and take it thankefully] VAUGHAN (p. 369) 
substitutes a comma for the full stop after 'aloud.'; then includes in a paren- 
thesis 'But euen the very middle of my heart Is warm'd by th'rest,' and 
retains 'take' of the Folio. 'The meaning is,' he observes, 'I read aloud so far, 
and take what I read aloud thankfully'; that is, 'I take the intelligence of your 
kindness to Leonatus with gratitude, and offer you the best welcome words can 
give. But what I do not read aloud warms the very core of my heart.' The 
universally accepted alteration [i. e., takes] deteriorates the passage. It destroys 
the intended contrast between the pleasure intense and sweet and the open satis- 
faction claiming the expression of gratitude. [It is heart-easing to have the Folio 
thus excellently vindicated. si sic omnia, at Vaughan's hands! ED.] 

80 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Haue words to bid you, and fhall finde it fo 35 

In all that I can do. 

lack. Thankes faireft Lady : 

What are men madf Hath Nature giuen them eyes 
To fee this vaulted Arch, and the rich Crop 

Of Sea and Land, which can diftinguifh 'twixt 40 

The firie Orbes aboue, and the twinn'd Stones 
Vpon the numbered Beach, and can we not 42 

38. [Aside. Johns. Half- Aside. Ktly. (N. & Q., V, vi, 185, 1876), Huds. 
What are] Ff . What, are Rowe, Herr. Kinnear. 

Pope, Han. Cap. Dyce. What! are 41. and the] and as Pope ii. 

Theob. et cet. twinn'd] twin Han. spurn'd 

mad?] Vernor & Hood, Booth. Heath, whiten' d Bulloch. 

mad. FI, ap. Cam. 42. the number\i] th' unnumber'd 

39. vaulted] valuted F 2 F 3 . Theob. Han. Ran. Sing. Coll. ii, iii. 
39, 40. Crop Of] cope Of Warb. (MS.), Ktly. the humble Eccl. conj. 

Johns, cope O'er Coll. ii, iii. (MS.). Beach,] Ff. beach; Coll. beach? 

Prop of Bailey (i, 114). scope of Crosby Rowe et cet. 

38. What are men mad] CAPELL (p. 105) : It has been thought [I wish 
I knew where. Probably, however, in Capell's own mind, and he quieted the ob- 
jection by the argument he proceeds to give ED.] that this artificial preparative 
to what the speaker is meditating breaks out too soon, and that Pisanio should not 
have been present at it; as for the latter objection, it is likely the Poet intended 
to shew us a picture of villany thrown off its guard, as is sometimes the case, 
and the speaker's clumsy expedient to get rid of him afterwards confirms this 

39, 40. the rich Crop Of Sea and Land] WARBURTON: He is here speaking of 
the covering of sea and land. Shakespeare, therefore, wrote: 'the rich cope' [Cole- 
ridge (p. 303), and Collier's MS., also suggested 'cope']. STEEVENS: Surely no 
emendation is necessary. The ' vaulted arch ' is alike the cope or covering ' of sea 
and land.' When the poet had spoken of it once, could he have thought this 
second introduction of it necessary? 'The crop of sea and land' means only 
the productions of either element. FURNIVALL (N. & Q., V, vi, 226, 1876) : 'Crop' 
has the metaphorical meaning of fulness (cf. 'crop-sick,' sick with repletion) or 
wealth here. 'The rich fulness, the wealth, of sea and land' is not 'exceedingly 
harsh' [as Crosby had termed it, in proposing scope], I think. The use of 'crop' 
also gives you another image, that of the long, calm-sea level of standing crops of 
corn, to contrast with ' this vaulted arch ' of the bent heaven above, the string of 
land and sea beneath the bow of sky. INGLEBY: That is, the vast prospect, etc. 
The crop, or out-crop, is that which strikes the eye. It might, however, be con- 
tended with some shew of probability, that ' the rich crop ' is that vast treasury of 
pebbles which belongs almost as much to the sea as to the land. All other inter- 
pretations may be safely discountenanced. VAUGHAN: If the text be right, it 
means the rich harvest which the eye gathers in, consisting of sea and land. [Which, 
I think, expresses the idea as tersely as may be. ED.] 

40. distinguish] DOWDEN: Distinguish not, I think, orbs from stones, but orb 
from orb, and stone from stone. [Unquestionably. ED.] 

41, 42. the twinn'd Stones Vpon the numbered Beach] THEOBALD: I 

ACT T, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 8 1 

[41, 42. the twinn'd Stones Vpon the numbered Beach] 

have no idea in what sense the Beach or Shore should be called 'number'd.' 
I have ventured, against all copies, to substitute th' unnumbered Beach,' i. e., 
the infinite, extensive beach. We are to understand the passage thus: 'and the 
infinite number of twinn'd stones upon the beach.' The poet has given them the 
same epithet before, in his Lear: 'The murmuring surge, That on th' unnumber'd 
idle pebble chafes.' [IV, vi, 20.] WARBTJRTON: Sense and the antithesis oblige 
us to read this nonsense thus: 'upon the humbPd beach,' i. e., because daily 
insulted with the flow of the tide. JOHNSON: I know not well how to regulate this 
passage. 'Number'd' is perhaps numerous. 'Twinn'd stones' I do not under- 
stand. Twinn'd shells, or pairs of shells, are very common. For 'twinn'd/ we 
might read twin'd, that is, twisted, convolved; but this sense is more applicable to 
shells than to stones. [It is almost inconceivable that anyone could have adopted 
Warburton's humbl'd. Yet the clear-sighted and conservative CAPELL not only 
followed it in his text, but justified it in his notes, as follows: 'the epithet is just 
and poetical; near in trace of letters to" number'd"; and not liable to an objection 
unnumber'd is open to, namely, that of presenting to the fancy nearly the same 
idea that is conveyed in "twinn'd stones"; which epithet "twin'd," is characteristic 
of beach stones; multitudes of them having a more perfect sameness than can be 
found in anything else.' This last remark proves that Capell's spelling twin'd 
is not the same as Johnson's conjecture. ED.] HEATH (p. 475) [The emendation 
unnumber'd is] no other than a synecdoche, frequently used by the best writers, 
by which the whole, the 'beach/ is put for its component parts, the pebbles. 
The poet might possibly have written 'the spurn' d stones.' STEEVENS: The peb- 
bles on the seashore are so much of the same size and shape that 'twinn'd' may 
mean as like as twins. FARMER: I think we may read the umber 'd, the shaded 
beach. MALONE: Th' unnumber'd and 'the humbered/ if hastily pronounced, 
might have been easily confounded by the ear. If 'number'd' be right, it surely 
means, as Johnson has explained it, abounding in numbers of stones, numerous. 
[This note of Malone is quoted by DYCE, ii, without dissent, and yet he follows the 
Folio in his text.] COLERIDGE (p. 303) : As to ' twinn'd stones/ may it not be a 
bold catachresis for muscles, cockles, and other empty shells with hinges, which are 
truly twinned? I would take Farmer's umber'd, which I had proposed before I 
ever heard of its having been already offered by him; but I do not adopt his inter- 
pretation of the word, which, I think, is not derived from umbra, a shade, but from 
umber, a dingy yellow-brown soil, which most commonly forms the mass of the 
sludge on the seashore, and on the banks of tide-rivers at low water. One other 
possible interpretation of this sentence has occurred to me, just barely worth 
mentioning: that the 'twinned stones' are the augrim [i. e., algorism ED.] stones 
upon the number'd beech, that is, the astronomical tables of beech-wood. [Cole- 
ridge in his Table-Talk (p. 80, ed. Morley) modified his extremely recondite augrim, 
and has then (in 1830) 'no doubt' that the passage should read: 'the grimed 
stones Upon the umber'd beach.' ED.] WALKER (Crit., iii, p. 316): Warburton's 
humbled is absurd enough; but may not Shakespeare have written humble in 
antithesis to the stars? [Herein Eccles has anticipated Walker.] STAUNTON: 
Might we not read, 'the cumber'd beach'? taking cumber'd in the sense either of 
rough, strewed, &c., or, perhaps, troubled? VAUGHAN (p. 371) conjectured 'en- 
cumbered beach/ but concludes that, 'in consideration of the here quoted uses of 
"number" and "numerous," the "numbered beach" should stand.' ABBOTT (375) 

8 2 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Partition make with Spectales fo pretious 43 

Twixt faire, and foule ? 

43. S petioles] F 2 . Spectacles F 3 F 4 . 

has a section devoted to examples of where ' the Passive Participle is used to signify 
not that which was and is, but that which was, and, therefore, can be hereafter. In 
other words, -ed is used for -able.' Among his examples is the passage from Lear, 
first quoted by Theobald, of ' the unnumbered idle pebbles,' where -ed is certainly 
used for -able. But, unfortunately, in the present passage, unless we adopt Theo- 
bald's emendation, numbered cannot be equivalent to numberable. Abbott, 
therefore, concludes that Theobald was right in reading ' th'unnumber'd beach. '- 
DOWDEN: Is the fancy too far-fetched that the beach is 'number'd' because 
sung in ' numbers ' (numerous verse) by the waves? Craig thinks hungred possible, 
comparing the 'hungry beach/ of Cor., V, iii, 58. [The very plausibility of Theo- 
bald's unnumbered is against it. Whether or not the pebbles can be counted or 
have not been counted has nothing to do with the trending of lachimo's thought, 
which is that between pebbles as like as twins Nature hath given us such eyes, such 
precious spectacles, that we can distinguish one from another as they lie on the 
beach covered with numbers of them. Just as ' delighted spirit ' in Meas. for Meas. 
means the spirit abounding in delights, and the ' guiled shore ' in the Mer. of Ven. 
means the shore replete with guiles, so here the 'mimber'd beach' means the 
beach covered with many a number, or, in the words which Malone has attributed 
to Johnson, 'abounding in numbers.' ED.] 

43. Spectales] DOWDEN: Does this mean 'with organs of vision' (as perhaps in 
2 Hen. VI: III, ii, 112), or having shows (of earth or sky) which instruct the eyes 
in making distinctions? The meaning ' shows ' is common in Shakespeare. [Dow- 
den's alternative interpretation is, I think, excellent, and would be the only one, 
were not the reference to the 'eyes, which Nature hath given us,' so pointed. 
See the next Note by 'Anon.' ED.] 

44. Twixt faire, and foule ?] ANON. (qu. Lettsom? Blackwood's Maga., 
Oct., 1853, p. 469): Let us consider the bearing of the whole speech. It has a sin- 
ister reference to Posthumus, the husband of Imogen, the lady in whose presence 
the speech is uttered. 'How can Posthumus,' says lachimo, 'with such a wife as 
this this Imogen take up with the vile slut who now holds him in her clutches? 
Are men mad with senses so fine that they can distinguish, or separate from each 
other, the fiery orbs above; and also so acute that they can distinguish between 
the "twinned" (or closely resembling) stones which can be cotmtedupon the beach; 
"with spectacles" that is, with eyes so precious, are they yet unable (as Posthu- 
mus seems to be) to make partition "twixt a fair wife and a foul mistress?" The 
words, "which can distinguish "twixt the fiery orbs above and the twinned stones," 
do not mean that we have senses so fine that we can distinguish between stars and 
stones, but senses so fine that we can count, or distinguish from one another, the 
stars themselves; and can also perceive a difference in the pebbles on the beach, 
though these be as like to one another as so many peas. This interpretation brings 
out clearly the sense of the expression, "numbered beach"; it means the beach on 
which the pebbles can be numbered; indeed, are numerically separated by us from 
each other, in spite of their homogeneousness, so delicate is our organ of vision by 
which they are apprehended; "yet," concludes lachimo, as the moral of his reflec- 
tions, "with organs thus discriminating, my friend Posthumus has, nevertheless, 

ACT I, SC. vii.] 


Imo. What makes your admiration ? 

lack. It cannot be i'th'eye : for Apes, and Monkeys 
'Twixt two fuch She's , would chatter this way, and 
Contemne with mowes the other. Nor i'th'iudgment : 
For Idiots in this cafe of fauour, would 
Be wifely definit : Nor i'th'Appetite. 
Sluttery to fuch neate Excellence, opposed 
Should make defire vomit emptineffe, 
Not fo allurd to feed. 




46. [Half-Aside. Ktly. 

i'th'] F 4 , Rowe, + , Sing. Dyce ii, 
iii, Ktly. ith' F 2 F 3 . i'the Cap. et cet. 

48. i'th'] F 4 , Rowe, + , Sing. Ktly. 
ith F 2 . ith' F 3 . i'the Cap. et cet. 

49. Idiots] Ideots Rowe, Pope, Theob. 
Warb. Johns. 

50. definit:] definit, Rowe, Pope, 

i'th'] Theob. Warb. Johns. Sing. 
Dyce ii, iii, Ktly. ith F 2 . in the F 3 F 4 , 

Rowe, Pope, Han. i'the Cap. et 

50. Appetite.] appetite, Rowe, Pope. 
appetite: Theob. et cet. 

51. Sluttery] Slutfry Pope,+. 

52. vomit] vomit ev'n Pope, Han. 
Covet Bailey (i, 262). vomit from Huds. 

vomit emptineffe,] vomit, empti- 
ness Kinnear (p. 468). very daintiness 
Anon. ap. Cam. 

53. allur,d] Fj. allure 't Han. 

gone most lamentably astray." This explanation renders the substitution of 
unnumbered not only unnecessary, but contradictory. We cannot be too cautious 
how we tamper with the received text of Shakespeare. Even though a passage 
may continue unintelligible to us for years, the chances are a hundred to one that 
the original lection contains a more pregnant meaning than any that we can pro- 
pose in its place. 

46. It cannot be i'th'eye] CAPELL (p. 106): What cannot be i'the eye? Why, 
the fault of making such perverse choices as some men are seen to. After exculpat- 
ing the 'eye' and the 'judgment,' he comes to the 'appetite.' 

47. She's] See 'The Shees of Italy.' I, iv, 37. 

47, 48. would chatter this way, and Contemme with mowes the other] 
lachimo intentionally pays no attention to Imogen's question, neither here nor at 
line 54; he appears to be, as Johnson says, 'in a counterfeited rapture.' Where- 
fore we must connect this present passage with what is just gone before. His last 
words were about making a distinction between fair and foul. He now says that 
between two 'such shees,' one fair and the other foul, even apes and monkeys would 
chatter with approval of the fair and make faces at the foul. Of course, his hands 
were not hanging at his side, and when he said ' to the fair,' he intimated to Imogen 
plainly enough that he referred to her. ED. 

49. in this case of fauour] DOWDEN: That is, in this question respecting beauty. 

52, 53. make desire vomit emptinesse, Not so allur,d to feed] WAR- 
BURTON: That is, that appetite, which is not allured to feed on such excellence, 
can have no stomach at all, but, though empty, must nauseate everything. 
JOHNSON (1765): I explain this passage in a sense almost contrary. lachimo, in 
this counterfeited rapture, has shewn how the 'eyes' and the 'judgement' would 
determine in favour of Imogen, comparing her with the present mistress of Posthu- 
mus, and proceeds to say, that appetite too would give the same suffrage. 'De- 

84 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Imo. What is the matter trow ? 

lack. The Cloyed will : 55 

That fatiate yet vnfatisfVd defire, that Tub 
Both fill'd and running : Rauening firft the Lambe, 57 

54. mailer trow] matter, trow Theob. 56-60. That. ..well?] Lines end: will: 
et seq. ...desire,... first... what, Johns. Var. '73. 

55. Cloyed] cloyed Dyce. Lines end: will: ...desire, ...first ...Sir, 
will:] will, F 3 F 4 et seq. Var. '78, '85, Steev. Var. '03, '13, 

56. 57. That. ..running:] In parenthe- Sing. Coll. i, ii. 

ses Cap. Varr. Mai. Rann, Steev. Varr. 57. Rauening] rav'ning Cap. 

Knt, Sing. Coll. Ktly. 

sire,' says he, when it approached 'sluttery,' and considered it in comparison with 
'such neat excellence,' would not only be 'not so allured to feed,' but, seized with a 
fit of loathing, 'would vomit emptiness,' would feel the convulsions of disgust, 
though, being unfed, it had nothing to eject. TYRWHITT (p. 8, 1766): I am 
still unable to comprehend how 'desire,' or any other thing, can be made to 'vomit 
emptiness,' I rather believe the passage should be read thus: 'Should make 
desire vomit, emptiness Not so allure to feed.' That is, Should not so (in such 
circumstances) allure (even) emptiness to feed. JOHNSON (1773): This [Tyrwhitt's 
emendation] is not ill conceived, but I think my own explanation right. 'To 
vomit emptiness' is, in the language of poetry, 'to feel the convulsions of eructation 
without plenitude.' [Any difficulty, in any passage, is cheaply bought at the price 
of such pure Johnsonese! CAPELL, considering 'desire' a disyllabic, as he had a 
right to do, remarked (p. 106) that the verse was lame both in measure and sense, 
'till to came to its aid'; accordingly his text reads 'vomit to emptiness.' This 
emendation was adopted by WHITE (ed. i.) and COLLIER (ed. ii.), who, however, 
followed therein his MS. -ED.] MALONE: No one who has been ever sick at sea, 
can be at a loss to understand by what is meant vomiting emptiness. BUCKNILL 
(p. 224): The meaning of this passage would be plain enough but for the word 
'emptiness '; but as it is more difficult to vomit on an empty than on a full stomach, 
this word seems used merely to augment the expression. STAUNTON: Certainly if 
'emptiness' is Shakespeare's word, to must be understood. [The simile is not only 
repulsive, but unworthy, I think of Shakespeare. No appeal to the coarseness 
of Elizabethan times can palliate it. Discussion makes it only more repulsive; 
the less it is discussed the better as I think. It is for me quite enough to ap- 
prehend that, in lachimo's opinion, sluttery, in comparison with Imogen's refine- 
ment, would prove nauseating to the last degree. May we not discern herein that 
this play was written late in life. Old men are not as squeamish in matters of re- 
finement as are younger men. Would Shakespeare have used such a simile in the 
days of Romeo and Juliet? ED.] 

54. trow] LETTSON (Foot-note to Walker, Crit., i, 79): This apparently answers 
to the modern / wonder. [See 'What meanes the foole trow?' Much Ado, III, iv, 
55 (of this ed.), where 'trow' has the same meaning as in the present passage, which 
is there referred to.] 

55~57- Tlie Cloyed will :... running : Rauening] CAPELL (p. 106): 
The word 'desire' has crept in no one knows how, to the utter perversion of sense 
and metre: by discarding it, and placing the parenthesis properly, this speech is 
perfected now, for the supplial of thing after ' that ' is obvious to every one. [I 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 85 

Longs after for the Garbage. 58 

Imo. What, deere Sir, 
Thus rap's you ? Are you well ? 60 

lack. Thanks Madam, well : Befeech you Sir, 
Defire my Man's abode, where I did leaue him: 
He's ft range and peeuifh. 63 

58. Garbage.] garbage Rowe, Pope, Glo. 

Theob. Warb. Johns. 61. Befeech you Sir,] One line Cam. 

60. rap's] raps Rowe. 63. He's] he is Han. he Is Steev. 

61-63. Two lines, ending: abode,... Varr. Knt, Sing. Coll. Dyce, Glo. 

peevijh Han. Ktly. Ending: Defire... peeuifli] sheepish Han. 

He Steev. Varr. Knt, Sing. Coll. Dyce, [To Pisanio. Rowe. 

suppose Capell means, 'That [thing] satiate, yet,' etc. 'Desire' is omitted in his 
text, and 'That satiate . . . running' included in a parenthesis. STEEVENS 
remarks that the irregularity of the metre ' almost persuaded ' him ' that the passage 
originally stood thus: ''The cloyed will (That's satiate, yet unsatisfied, that tub 
Both fill'd and running) ravening," etc. The want in the original MS. of the 
letter I have supplied perhaps occasioned the interpolation of the word "desire." 
I have but little doubt that this emendation was suggested to Steevens by Capell's 
note. VAUGHAN (p. 373) points out that the demonstrative 'that' before 'tub' 
shows that the same pronoun before 'satiate' is also demonstrative and not relative, 
as Steevens assumes; and Vaughan further opines that the metre may be mended, in 
lines 58, 59, either by omitting 'deere' before 'Sir,' or by 'compressing' 'deere' 
into d'r. Had Dyce lived to quote this d'r, with what a feast of exclamation marks 
after it, we should have been regaled. ED.] 

60. Thus rap's you] WHITE (ed. i, reading wraps) : That is, wraps you in con- 
templation, of course. The Folio, 'raps you,' which ridiculous reading has been 
hitherto preserved. [And continues to be preserved in White's ed. ii. According 
to Bartlett's Concordance this is the only instance of its use in the present tense in 
Shakespeare; as a past participle, 'rapt,' he uses it several times. I can find no 
reference to its present use in the N. E. D. Possibly when the letter W. is reached 
it may appear as a variant of wraps. ED.] 

62. Desire my Man's abode] RANN was the first to notice any obscurity in this 
phrase, which he interpreted as meaning search out my man's abode, and herein, 
of those editors who have noticed it at all, he was followed by KEIGHTLY (who 
substituted Inquire in his text), by HUDSON, by WYATT and by Miss PORTER, and 
by DELIUS in his ed. iii. On the other hand, DELIUS, in his ed. i, in 1855, gives, 
for the first time, what is, I think, the true meaning: 'lachimo's servant,' says 
Delius, 'must abide where he had been left, and must there await his master.'- 
Rev. JOHN HUNTER gives the same interpretation: 'Desire my man to abide. '- 
DEIGHTON: 'Bid him stay where I left him.' ROLFE: 'That is, ask him to re- 
main.' (Rolfe also calls attention to the use of 'abode' in connection with time, 
as in 'Your patience for my long abode.' Mer. of Yen., II, vi, 21.) HERPORD: 
'Bid my servant stay.' And, finally, DOWDEN: 'Desire my man to settle himself 
where I left him.' In an unhappy hour DELIUS, in his last edition, says that 
Pisanio must 'seek out, lachimo's servant.' 

63. He's strange and peeuish] JOHNSON: He is a foreigner and easily fretted. 
LITTLEDALE (Dyce's Gloss.): 'Peevish' appears to have generally signified, 

86 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Pifa. I was going Sir, 
To giue him welcome. Exit. 65 

Imo. Continues well my Lord ? 
His health befeech you ? 

lack. Well, Madam. 

Imo. Is he difpos'd to mirth ? I hope he is. 

lack. Exceeding pleasant : none a ftranger there, 70 

So merry, and fo gamefome : he is call'd 
The Britaine Reueller. 

Imo. When he was heere 
He did incline to fadneffe, and oft times 
Not knowiug why. 75 

lack. I neuer faw him fad. 

64, 65. One line Han. 70. none] not Han. ne'er Anon ap. 

64. going] just going Han. a going Cam. 

Ktly. 72. Britaine] Britain F 3 F 4 . Briton 

65. Exit.] Om. Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. Varr. et seq. 

Theob. Warb. Johns. Varr. Ran. 74. oft times] oft-times Cap. Var. '78 

66. 67. One line Han. Cap. et seq. et seq. ofttimes Sta. 

during Shakespeare's days, silly, foolish, trifling, etc., and such would seem to be its 
import in the greater number of instances, though, no doubt, the word was formerly 
used to signify, as now, pettish, perverse, etc. [The present passage is quoted.] 

66, 67. Continues . . . you?] STAUNTON reads, 'Continues well my lord his 
health, beseech you?' and asks, 'Does not "continues" here import preserve, as in 
Meas.for Meas. "And how shall we continue Claudio," IV, iii, 88?' [If the pas- 
sage were obscure we might well be grateful for the interpretation, but I cannot see 
that it needs any assistance whatever. ED.] 

70,71. none a stranger ... So merry] Cf. 'none so accomplish'd a courtier.' 
I, v, 96. 

72. Britaine] HANMER changed this to Briton, but none of his successors, WAR- 
BURTON, JOHNSON, CAPELL, or the Var. '73 adopted it, until the Var. '78 which 
accepted Hanmer's reading, and Briton it has remained ever since. WALKER, 
however (Crit., ii, 40), quotes 'Was Caius Lucius at the Britaine Court' (II, iv, 46): 
'the Britaine Army' (V, ii, 3), 'a Britaine Lord' (V, iii, 2), and then remarks: 
'In these three places, however, I rather believe that "Britaine" is an adjective, 
Britannus. The word which we now spell Briton was in old times uniformly 
written Britain; so far, at least, as I have observed. Like the Latin Britannus, 
which (in poetry at least) was used either as a substantive or an adjective, Britain, 
might be employed in both ways.' An instance which corroborates this last 
remark occurs in 'Heere comes the Britaine,' I, v, 30. Walker adduces examples 
of the use of Britain for Briton, in other writers, even down to Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress, enough to prove, as I think, that if we are to retain Shakespeare's own 
language we should retain 'Britain.' ED. 

74. sadnesse] That is, seriousness. Rosalind says to Celia, 'speake sadde brow, 
and true maid.' As You Like It, III, ii, 209. 

ACT I, SC. vii.] 


There is a Frenchman his Companion, one 77 

An eminent Monfieur, that it feemes much loues 

A Gallian-Girle at home. He furnaces 

The thicke fighes from him; whiles the iolly Britaine, 80 

(Your Lord I meane) laughes from's free lungs :cries oh, 

Can my fides hold, to think that man who knowes 

By Hiftory, Report, or his owne proofe 

What woman is, yea what fhe cannot choofe 

But muft be .-will's free houres languifh : 85 

For affured bondage ? 

79. Gallian-Girle] Gallian girl Pope 
et seq. 

home.] home, Johns, home: Han. 
Cap. et seq. 

80. figJics] fides Ff, Rowe, Pope i. 
Britaine} Britain F 3 F 4 . Briton 

Theob. ii. et seq. 

81. from's] from his Ktly. 

oh,} oh! Rowe, + . O, Cap. 
Dyce. Oh! Coll. ii. O! Var. '78 et seq. 

82. to think that man] to think, that 
man Rowe, Pope, Han. to think that 
man, Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. to think, 
that man, Theob. et cet. 

85. But mttjl be:] But must be, Rowe 
et seq. Separate line Johns. Var. '73. 

85. will's] F 3 F 4 . Rowe i, Johns. 
wills F 2 . will his Rowe ii. et cet. 

85, 86. But. ..For] One line Steev. 
Varr. Sing. Knt, Coll. ii, Dyce, Sta. 
Ktly, Glo. Cam. 

will's... bondage?] One line 
Johns. Var. '73. 

languiJJi: For] languiJJi, For 
Ff, Rowe. languish out For Pope, 
Theob. Han. Warb. Cap. languish for 
Johns. Var. '73, Steev. Varr. Knt, 
Dyce, Coll. ii, Glo. Cam. languish 
For Var. '78 et cet. 

86. affured] assur'd Rowe, Pope, 
Theob. Han. Warb. Cap. Varr. Mai. 
Ran. Coll. i. 

79, 80. He furnaces The thicke sighes] According to Bartlett's Concordance, 
this is the only instance where Shakespeare uses the verb 'furnaces'; albeit Steevens 
and others have found here and there examples in other authors. Of course, evory 
one will recall 'the lover. Sighing like furnace,' in Jaques's 'Seven Ages.' 

80. The thicke sighes] That is, where the sighs follow thick after each other. 
Imogen, full of eager impatience, tells Pisanio to 'speake thicke' (III, ii, 58). 
'Thick' refers to quantity not quality. ED. 

80. whiles] ABBOTT (137): 'Whiles,' the genitive of while, means of, or during, 
the time. 

81. laughes from's free lungs] That is, laughs unrestrainedly; see 'free houres,' 
in the fourth line below. ED. 

82. that man] Possibly, there is an absorption of the in the final / of 'that,' 
'that ' man.' ED. 

85. will's free houres languish] The Text. Notes show how the earlier Edd. 
dealt with the neuter verb, 'languish.' DELIUS thus paraphrases: 'In the hours 
of his freedom he languishes for a more assured bondage.' The COWDEN-CLARKES, 
in support of the same interpretation, 'think it not improbable, that "will's" 
may be a misprint for "will in's free hours," etc. In's would be accordant with 
several similar elisional contractions in this play. Nevertheless, it is true that 
"languish" was sometimes used in Shakespeare's time as a verb active; and, 
therefore, we leave the text undisturbed.' INGLEBY adopted this emendation, 
in's (with credit to the Clarkes); VAUGHAN says that the phrase was probably thus 

83 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

Imo. Will my Lord fay fo ? 87 

lack. I Madam, with his eyes in flood} with laughter, 
It is a Recreation to be by 

And heare him mocke the Frenchman : 90 

But Heauen's know fome men are much too blame. 

Ivw. Not he I hope. 

lack. Not he : 
But yet Heauen's bounty towards him, might 94 

88. Madam,] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. 91. But Heauen's know} but heav'n 

Dyce. madam; Cap. et cet. knows Pope, + . But heauens know Ff. 

laughter,} laughter, or laughter: (heav ns F 2 ) et cet. 

Rowe ii. et seq. too] Ff. to Rowe. 

90, 91. And. ..know] One line Pope 93,94- Not. ..might] One line Rowe et 

et seq. seq. 

written (without credit to the Clarkes). Moreover, Vaughan asserts that 'as 
"languish" is not transitive in Shakespeare, "languish his hours" must mean 
"languish during his hours." In dogmatic assertion, Vaughan, at times, appears 
to be a belated Warburton. Because Shakespeare has not elsewhere used 'lan- 
guish ' as a transitive verb ' must ' he be for ever debarred the privilege? a privi- 
lege accorded to other writers? In the N. E. D. (s. v. 'languish,' 4. a.) BRADLEY 
gives as 'quasi-trans. (usually with out) : To pass (a period of time) in languishing.' 
Hereupon follows as the first example the present passage from Cym. Under the 
next heading 'f b. causal. To make to languish,' an example is quoted from 
Florio's Montaigne: 'Least by that jouissance he might or quench, or satisfie, or 
languish that burning flame and restlesse heat wherewith he gloryed.' III, v, p. 
495, 3d. ed. This causal force is sufficient to justify us, I think, in applying it to 
the interpretation of the present passage. But this is not all. There is another 
sentence, not given by Bradley, on p. 498 of the same volume of Montaigne, 
where this verb is used, unmistakably I think, in a transitive sense: 'The innumer- 
able multitude of so manifold duties stifling, languishing, and dispersing our care.' 
Emboldened by this transitive use, several years before the date of Cymbelim, by 
one who was in all likelihood Shakespeare's personal friend, I think Shakespeare 
may be allowed, just this once, to make 'free hours' the object of 'languish.' ED. 

86. For assured bondage] In two passages, according to DYCE (Gloss.) 
'assures' bears the meaning of affianced: 'this drudge . . . swore I was assured 
to her.' Com. of Err., Ill, ii, 145; 'King Philip. Young princes close your hands. 
Austria And your lips too; for I am well assured That I did so when I was first 
assured.' King John, II, i, 534. I think it more than probable that here also 
'assured' bears this meaning; it would bring to Imogen an especial pang, if it re- 
minded her that she was herself merely affianced or ' hand fasted ' to Posthumus, 
which I think was the case. VAUGHAN asserts without qualification: '"To be as- 
sured" in Shakespeare is to be. betrothed.' What a flood of new light Vaughan thus 
throws on Shylock's character! It has been always supposed that he still mourned 
for his Leah, but in the first scene he says, ' that I may be assured, I will bethink 
me.' Evidently 'twas the fear of a step-mother that drove Jessica from home. 

92, 93. Not he I hope. lach. Not he] PORTER and CLARKE: The dra- 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 89 

Be vs'd more thankfully. In himfelfe 'tis much; 95 

In you, which I account his beyond all Talents. 

96. which I account his] "whom I count Ktly. 

his Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. whom 96. Talents.] F 2 . talents; Theob. 

7 account his Johns. Var. '73. which Warb. Johns. Var. '73. Talents, F 3 F 4 , 

7 account Coll ii. (MS.), Ktly. Rowe et cet. Tattenis. F x (Capell's 

his beyond all] beyond all his copy, ap. Cam.), telling. Kinnear. 

matic skill of this repetition is a marvel. lachimo says he is not one of those who 
are much to blame, assenting to Imogen's hope that he is not. But he means one 
thing; she, quite another. He means to blame as his fictitious sighing Frenchman 
is. She, the opposite, that he is not to blame as a loose liver. Thus, without di- 
rectly impeaching Posthumus's fidelity, he has struck desolation to Imogen's 
heart by indirectly telling her that this 'Frenchman's' silly fault of constancy is 
not his, while seeming to echo her hope that he is not unfaithful. [If lachimo 
were narrating facts, and anxious to keep within the bounds of truth, lest he be 
hereafter called upon to make good his words, it might well serve his purpose to 
prevaricate to Imogen and deceive her under a semblance of truth and allow her 
to misunderstand his assent. His whole story is, however, pure fiction, and it is of 
the utmost importance to him, step by step, to gain her credence; this he can gain 
by assent; assenting to whatever she says, not by opposing; just as sometimes an 
opponent will say, 'Precisely,' therefore, it is, I think, that he immediately re- 
affirms her timid hope, whatever it be, it matters not to him, and then, as imme- 
diately, allays the good precedence with a 'But yet.' ED.] 

95, 96. In himselfe 'tis much ; . . . Talents.] CAPELL: That is, this beha- 
viour is much, even in himself, considered only as coming from himself, a man of 
his qualities; but when I further consider it as used towards 'you' whom I 
count a part of himself, and that an invaluable one, beyond all price 'Whilst I 
am,' etc. [Capell's text (where it differs from the Folio) reads: 'In you, which 
I count his, beyond all talents, Whilst/ etc., and is followed by STEEVENS '93; 
Varr. '03, '13; SINGER, DYCE ii, iii, Coll. iii.] RANN: That is, such conduct is very 
extraordinary, when considered only as proceeding from a man of his rare qualities, 
but when viewed as used towards you, his mate inestimable, as piteous as 'tis 
strange. [This appears to be a mere paraphrase of Capell. Rann's text reads, 
'In you, which I account his, beyond all talents, Whilst,' etc. Followed by 
MALONE, Varr. '78, '85, '21; KNIGHT, COLLIER, ed. i. (omitting comma after 'his'); 
DELIUS, DYCE i; WHITE i. Globe (omitting comma after 'his'), Cam. (ditto), 
HERFORD (ditto), ROLFE (ditto), WYATT (ditto).] M ALONE: If he merely re- 
garded his own character, without any consideration of his wife, his conduct would 
be unpardonable. [A note which Singer adopts, without acknowledgment.] 
COLLIER (ed. ii.): The MS. Corrector has put his pen through the pronoun 'his,' 
to the improvement of the verse and also of the sense. lachimo clearly means to 
express his own. admiration of Imogen. [Collier followed the MS. in his text, but 
deserted it in his ed. iii.] STAUNTON, whose text reads, 'In you, which I account 
his, beyond all talents., 'remarks, "all talents," or we mistake, means here 
incalculable riches. The bounty of heaven towards him is great in his own endow- 
ments; in its gift to you it is beyond all estimation. By the ordinary pointing 
[which differs from Staunton's by a comma after "talents"] the word "talents" 
is made to signify accomplishments, and the whole sense of the passage miserably 
enfeebled.' It is not readily apparent how the presence of a comma can work 

90 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

[95> 96- In himselfe 'tis much ; . . . Talents.] 

such a change in the meaning of a single word. [Staunton's text is followed by 
'Heaven's bounty towards him in his own person is great; but in you, for I regard 
you as his treasure, it is beyond all estimate of riches.' [This appears to be 
an excellent paraphrase. HERFORD'S, which Rolfe commends, is certainly more 
terse, as follows:] 'That he is not grateful for his own gifts, is much; that he is not 
grateful for you, his gift beyond price, fills me with wonder and pity.' [Wherein 
this interpretation falls a little short, as I think, is that the main thought is repre- 
sented as gratitude; should it not be 'Heaven's bounty'? ED.] SCHMIDT (Lex., 
ed. ii, 1886) conjectures that 'account his' should be printed account's, i. e., account 
is, on the supposition that in the MS. the words stood thus and the compositors 
mistook the abbreviation for his. ]HERTZBERG at once adopted this conjecture, 
wherein, I think, he will find no follower. ED.] DEIGHTON: Heaven's bounty 
to him is abundant in regard to what is inherent in himself (e. g., noble descent, 
heroic character, manifold accomplishments), while in regard to you, whom I look 
upon as belonging to him, it is beyond all limit; but while I am on this account com- 
pelled to wonder, I am also compelled to pity. WYATT: 'As regards himself alone 
he is greatly to blame; as regards you, whom I must suppose to be irredeemably 
his, his conduct amazes me and fills me with pity.' That is, I believe, the meaning 
of this difficult sentence. Most recent editors punctuate the line: 'In you, which 
I account his, beyond all talents.' This makes the passage yield a totally different 
meaning, as in Deighton's paraphrase. DOWDEN: I change the full stop of the 
Folio after 'thankfully' to a colon, and insert a comma after 'his.' . . . The 
meaning I believe to be: In his own peculiar gifts heaven's bounty is much; in you 
who are his heaven's bounty to him is beyond all gifts (or endowments). 'Talent' 
is used for 'gift' by Shakespeare. Mr Craig, however, noticing, what is certainly 
the fact, that 'talent' was used by Elizabethan and earlier writers for 'inclination,' 
'desire,' would let the sense run to line 97, and explain: 'With respect to you, 
whom I account his beyond all reach of loose desires, Whilst,' etc. [Craig, in his 
edition, did not repeat this plausible interpretation of 'talents' (see N. E. D., sb. 
II. 2. and 3), but merely quoted DOWDEN'S note. lachimo had made a bad 
beginning; the 'boldness' and 'audacity' which he had summoned to his aid 
proved futile, and instead of awakening jealousy his rapsodies had suggested to 
Imogen only that he was tainted in his wits and that he was not well. This would 
never do. So he invents Posthumus's scoffs at the love of the Frenchman and the 
Gallian girl, ending with the sanctimonious but ambiguous remark that the 
Heavens know some men are much to blame, which may apply either to the 
Frenchman or to Posthumus. To Imogen's placid but confident response, 'Not 
he, I hope,' lachimo had to give an assent, for the reason, I think, given in the 
preceding note. Had he dissented and said outright that Posthumus was guilty, 
he might as well give up his wager at once and return to Italy; he had made no 
impression on Imogen. He changes his tactics, therefore, at once, and qualifies 
his assent by a regret that Posthumus is not sufficiently thankful for the gifts which 
Heaven's bounty had bestowed on him. Towards himself that bounty had been 
much; towards Imogen, who was also to be counted in the sum of Posthumus's 
gifts, that bounty had been bestowed beyond all calculation. Then follows the 
insidious remark that while he wonders he must also pity. This paraphrase hardly 
varies from some that have been given by my betters. I wish to give merely my 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 

Whil'ft I am bound to wonder, I am bound 07 

To pitty too. 

Imo. What do you pitty Sir ? 

lack. Two Creatures heartyly. loo 

Imo. Am I one Sir ? 

You looke on me : what wrack difcerne you in me 
Deferues your pitty ? 

lack. Lamentable : what 

To hide me from the radiant Sun, and folace 105 

I'th'Dungeon by a SnufTe. 

IJJLO. I pray you Sir, 

Deliuer with more openneffe your anfweres 
To my demands. Why do you pitty me ? 

lack. That others do, HO 

(I was about to fay) enioy your but 

It is an office of the Gods to ven^e it, 


Not mine to fpeake on't. 113 

97. Whir ft] whilft Ff. Varr. Knt. what, Cap. Dyce, Sta. 

102. wrack] F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Cap. wracke Glo. Cam. 

F 2 . wreck Pope et cet. 105. Sun, and] sun and Glo. 

104. Lamentable:] Lamentable! Rowe 106. I'th'] F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. Ith F 2 . 
et seq. Pthe Cap. et seq. 

what] Ff, Rowe, Pope, what! no. do,] do Han. 

Theob.-f, Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. in. your - but] Ff, Rowe,+. your 

But Cap. et seq. 

opinion that it is not gratitude to Heaven for the bounty, but Heaven's bounty 
lavished on Posthumus, which is the leading idea. Then, having shown to Imogen 
his appreciation, akin to wonder, of her husband's heaven-sent gifts, with herself 
as that husband's greatest possession, the proof that this rare man wallows in filth 
and slime will come with heavier force. ED.] 

102. You looke on me] Here, I think, is one of Shakespeare's stage direc- 
tions, almost the only kind we ever need or he ever uses. By the light of these 
words we are to see the bold, glittering eyes of lachimo fixed steadily on Imogen. 

105. To hide me] INGLEBY: 'me' is here expletive. DEIGHTON: 'me' is the 
ethical dative. WYATT: 'me' is pleonastic. [Does it not stand for myself? See 
ABBOTT, 223. ED.] 

106. SnufFe] JOHN HUNTER: An expiring candle. HERFORD: A candle-wick. 
DOWDEN: The wick, as darkening the flame. 

in. enjoy your but] DEIGHTON: He interrupts himself in order to 

further excite her distrust. [A variation in the copies of Ft is noted in 'Talents' 
in Text. Notes, line 96. There is here apparently another variation. The Cam. 

Ed. record 'your: but' as the reading of Fi. My copy has 'your but,' and thus 

also are Vernor & Hood's Reprint of 1807, Booth's Reprint, and Staunton's Photo- 
lithograph. ED.] 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

lino. You do feeme to know 

Something of me, or what concernes me; pray you 1 15 

Since doubting things go ill, often hurts more 
Then to be fure they do. For Certainties 
Either are pad remedies; or timely knowing, 
The remedy then borne. Difcouer to me 
What both you fpur and ftop. 120 

lacti Had I this cheeke 

To bathe my lips vpon : this hand, whofe touch, 
(Whofe euery touch) would force the Feelers foule 123 

116-119. Si nee... borne.] In parenthe- knowing, ...born, Mai. Steev. Varr. Knt, 

ses (subs.), Pope et seq. In parenthe- Dyce. known, The remedy then born 

ses. For Certainties... borne. Vaun. Ktly. knowing,.. .born Glo. knowing, 

116. hurts] hurt Pope. ...born, - Cam. knowing The remedy 

117. Then] Than F 4 . therefore Anon. ap. Cam. 

do.] do; Rowe et seq. 1 20. What both you] What's both your 

118. Either] or Pope,+. Eccl. conj. 

remedies} remedy Boaden, Ingl. 122. bathe] F 2 . bath F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 

118,119. knowing,.. .borne.] Ff. (born. Pope, Theob. Warb. Cap. bait Bailey 

F 3 F 4 ). knowing... born; Rowe, Pope, (ii, 129). 

Theob. Warb. known, The remedy's 123. (Whofe euery touch}] No paren- 

then born; Han. Eccl. conj. knowing, theses Rowe et seq. 

The remedy's then born; Johns, know- euery] F 2 . very F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 

ing,.. .born) Cap. Varr. Ran. Coll. Pope, Han. 

116. Since doubting things go ill] That is, being in doubt as to whether or 
not things go ill. 

118, 119. or timely knowing, The remedy then borne] JOHNSON: Rather 
timely Known. MALONE: I believe Shakespeare wrote Known, and that the 
transcribers ear deceived him here as in man}'- other places. J. BOADEN (reading, 
'past remedy; or timely knowing The remedy, then borne']: That is, 'they are 
either past all remedy; or, the remedy being timely suggested to us by the knowing 
them, they are the more easily borne.' DEIGHTON: That is, being known in time 
their remedy is then discovered. WYATT: 'Knowing,' as if the subject of the 
sentence were 'we' or 'I,' is a good example of an 'unrelated participle.' VAUGHAN 
(p. 378): I interpret thus: 'either the evils certainly known are past remedies, or 
the timely knowing them as certain is the remedy brought into existence con- 
currently with that of knowledge.' 'Knowing' is both genuine and correct. 
Do WDEN disagrees with Vaughan in taking ' timely knowing ' as itself the remedy, 
and believes that 'Imogen speaks of evils known as certain, yet not remediless; 
upon timely knowledge the remedy is (the "is" being understood and assumed out 
of "are") then born.' [As in many an elliptical sentence, the sense is here readily 
grasped. In unfolding the ellipsis, however, there is generally quot homines, tot 
sententiae, and it is perhaps well to lay his choice before the student. To me 
Dowden's paraphrase is satisfactory. ED.] 

1 20. What both you spur and stop] JOHNSON: What it is that at once 
incites you to speak and restrains you from it. M. MASON: What you seem 
anxious to utter, yet withhold. STEEVENS informs us that there is here an allusion 
to horsemanship. 

ACT I, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 


To'th'oath of loyalty. This obiecl:, which 124 

Takes prifoner the wild motion of mine eye, 

Fiering it onely heere,fhould I (damn'd then) 126 

124. th'oath] the oath Cap. et seq. ing Ff et cet. Fearing Nicholson ap. 

125. prifoner] prisoner Pope,+. Cam. 

126. Fiering] Daniel, Dowden. Fix- 126. damn'd] F 3 F 4 . damnd F 2 . 

124. oath of loyalty] STEEVENS admitted to his edition of 1793 a note by 
HOLT WHITE, wherein it was maintained that there can be no connection between 
touching the hand and the oath of loyalty unless we perceive therein an allusion ' to 
the manner in which the tenant performed homage to his lord' when the vassal 
v< held his hands jointly together between the hands of his lord.' No reference 
would have been here made to this dry-as-dust note had not HALLIWELL given it 
in full. It evoked from PYE (p. 275) the comment, noteworthy for its unwonted 
sense, that the 'coloring in this passage is too warm to have any allusion to the 
cold ceremony of doing homage to a feudal lord.' Pyc, be it recalled, was, for more 
than twenty years Poet Laureate; he it was who not needing plumpie Bacchus with 
pink eyrie to inspire him, compounded for 27 per annum the historic tierce of 

124. This object] That is, Imogen herself, with cheek and hands. 

124, 125. which Takes prisoner the wild motion of mine eye] PECK (p. 
227) thinks that Shakespeare 'copied' this charming thought from the Apocrypha, 
Judith, chap, xvi, 9: 'Her beautie tooke his minde prisoner.' This raises the 
question of the version of the Bible used by Shakespeare. GINSBURG (Athenceum, 
28 April, 1883) infers, from a line in Love's Lab. Lost: 'For charity itself fulfills 
the law' (IV, iii, 364) that Tlie Bishops' Bible, 1568, was Shakespeare's Version, 
because out of the eight versions then extant The Bishops' alone has the phrase in 
Shakespeare's words. On the other hand, Rev. T. CARTER (p. 195) adduces many 
instances to prove that The Genevan Bible (1560) w r as most frequently paraphrased 
by Shakespeare. If the decision lie with the present passage, it must be given in 
favour of The Genevan, which has the words as given above, whereas The Bishops' 
Bible reads: 'her beautie captiuated his minde.' ED. 

1 26. Fiering it onely heere] DANIEL (p. 85) : It seems to me that ' fiering ' (firing, 
giving fire to) is a very good reading, and should be restored. DOWDEN: I retain this 
reading of Fi. The reading of the Ff , ' Fixing,' is, perhaps rightly, adopted by many 
editors [by all editors, I think. ED.]. I explain: 'from her alone does the passion 
of my eye catch fire'; 'motion' may mean passion here, as of ten elsewhere. CRAIG, 
albeit following the Ff in his text, quotes Dowden's explanation, with the remark, 

' Fiering" of FI is surely preferable.' [To me it is an inter -pretatio certissima. I 
know how strong may be the defence of 'Fixing' by alleging that it is Imogen's 
beauty which imprisons the unconfined rovings of lachimo's eye, and fixes it 
enchained on her; this is the easiest reading, but it is the durior lectio which is to be 
preferred. 'Motion' here means passion, just as it does in Posthumus's bitter 
soliloquy: 'there's no motion That tends to vice in man, but I affirme It is the 
Woman's part.' II, iv, 217; and where Brabantio accuses Othello of having prac- 
tised on Desdemona 'with drugs or minerals That weaken motion'; and where 
Lucio describes Angelo, in Meas. for Meas.,a.s a man that 'never feels the wanton 
stings and motions of the sense ' ; and in many a passage elsewhere. This wild and 
wandering motion is caught a prisoner, and by the sight of Imogen's cheek and by 



Slauuer with lippes as common as the ftayres 
That mount the Capitoll : loyne gripes, with hands 
Made hard with hourely falfhood (falfhood as 
With labour:) then by peeping in an eye 

[ACT i, sc. vii. 


128. gripes,] gripes Pope. 

129, 130. Made... labour:)] One line 
Rowe,+, Cap. 

129. hourely falfhood (falfhood} F 2 . 
hourly falfhood (falfhood F 3 , Var. '73, 
Coll. hourly (faljhood F 4 . hourly 
falshood Ro\ve, + , Cap. hourly false- 
hood with falsehood Ktly. hourly 
falsed falshood Vaun. hourly falsehood 
(falsehood, Var. '78 et cet. 

130. then} than F 4 . Then glad myself 
Rowe,+, Cap. 

by peeping] Ff, Rowe,+, Cap. 
Coll. i. lye peeping Johnson conj. 
Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. Dyce 
ii, iii. by-peeping Knt, Delius, Dyce i, 
Sing. Wh. Sta. Glo. Cam. Dowden. 

bo-peeping Coll. ii, iii. 
Ktly. sit peeping Huds. 

bide peeping 

the touch of her hands is set on fire by them alone; if so, could he then leave them 
and turn to other lips? This he could not do were his eyes still ' fixed ' on her. The 
very supposition that he could seek a lower sort implies that his eyes were free to 
wander. The sentiment is parallel to Hamlet's question to his mother: 'Have 
you eyes? Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, And batten on this 
moor?' III, iv, 65. ED.] 

126. damn'd] Again there is a variation in the copies of F t . The Cam. Ed. 
give dampn'd as the spelling of this word in F x . In my copy of that edition, in 
Vernor & Hood's Reprint, in Booth's Reprint, and in Staunton's Photolitho graph 
it is spelled as in the text. ED. 

127. Slauuer] This is explained by more than one editor as 'amorous,' or 'dis- 
gusting kisses.' Is it not a profanation of a 'kiss' to think of it in this connection? 
'Slavering with lips' is not kissing, but mere slobbering. ED. 

127, 128. stayres That mount the Capitoll] HALLIWELL: Mr Fairholt sends 
this note: 'In addition to the winding way, the via triumphalis, that gave carriages 
an ascent to the Capitoll at Rome, there was a flight of stairs for foot passengers 
leading direct to the summit from the Arch of Septimus Severus.' 

128-130. hands Made hard with hourely falshood (falshood as With 
labour] JOHNSON: That is, hard by being often griped with frequent change of 
hands. RANN : ' With hourly falshood ' means with frequent pressure. M. MASON 
(p. 324): One of these 'falsehoods' should be expunged. [The omission had been 
made from the Fourth Folio to Capell.] HUDSON: Made hard by hourly clasping 
hands in vowing friendship, or in sealing covenants, falsely. [Is ' friendship' strong 
enough in this connection? or a thought of legal formality possible? ED.] 
INGLEBY: The hands were (metaphorically) hardened by familiar sin, habituated 
to vicious ministrations, as much as if they had been (literally) hardened by 
honest labour. STAUNTON (Athenaum, 14 June, '73): 'Falsehood' here implies 
robbery, dishonesty, as in Sonnet, xlviii: 'How careful was I when I took my way, 
Each trifle under truest bars to thrust: That to my use it might unused stay From 
hands of falsehood, in sure wards of trust!' and hence the 'as' in 'as with labour' 
may be suspected to have been borrowed from the neighbouring lines : the genuine 
lection being, 'hourly falsehood (falsehood, not With labour).' 

130. then by peeping in an eye] JOHNSON: I read, 'then lye peeping.' 
KNIGHT: 'By-peeping,' so in the original. [An oversight? ED.] It appears 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 

Bafe and illuftrious as the fmoakie light 131 

131. illujlrious] unluftrious Rowe, Pope, Han. illustrous Tieck, Coll. Wh. Sing. 
Ktly. ill-lustrous Ingl. inlustrous Anon. ap. Cam. unlustrous Theob. et cet. 

to us that 'by-peeping' is clandestinely peeping. COLLIER (ed. ii.): The happy 
emendation of the MS. is bo-peeping. The allusion is to the game of bo-peep, often 
mentioned in the old dramatists; thus in The London Prodigal, 1605, a play im- 
puted to Shakespeare, Frances says, 'Ha, ha! sister, there you played bo-peep with 
Tom.' [ad. fin.]. In The Captain (IV, iii, Beau. & Fl., ed. Dyce) Jachimo says to 
Frederick, 'Nay, an' you play bo-peep, I'll ha' no mercy.' In Patient Grissel, 
I, i, Babulo observes, 'The sun hath played bo-peep in the element any times 
these two hours.' Nothing could be more easy than to multiply instances. [Be 
the instances multiplied a hundredfold, they would not suffice to prove that, at 
such a moment, in such a presence, and in such a connection, lachimo used a 
word suggestive of an innocent game in a child's nursery. ED.] LETTSOM (Preface 
to Walker, Of/., p. xxv.) : Johnson mentioned the [original reading] with approbation 
[Where? Not in Johnson's ed.- ED.] in a note, and at the same time proposed 
to read lie for 'by.' His advice was taken in both cases by some succeeding editors 
[it appeared in seven successive editions before 1860, when Lettsom wrote], and 
it might have been expected that a passage, so successfully treated, might for the 
future have been left alone. But in the eyes of still later critics nothing is so 
terrible as the slightest conjecture, nothing so precious as an old typographical 
blunder. In every recent edition [this can refer only to Knight's, Collier's i. and 
ii, Dyce's i, Singer's, and Delius's, the last Lettsom probably never saw]. Johnson's 
conjecture, so slight, so easy, and so indispensable, had been unceremoniously 
rejected, and the sore has been salved, not cured, with the help of a hyphen, by 
reading by-peeping or bo-peeping. Neither of these reading satisfies the construc- 
tion. Mr Knight is mistaken in saying that 'by-peeping' is the reading of the old 
copy; the old copy omits the hyphen, the insertion of which is as much a conjec- 
ture as any other alteration. Not that it restored what the poet wrote. This I 
cannot think the case here. Johnson saw, what the more recent editors seem to 
have overlooked, that 'slaver' and 'join' require to be connected, not with a 
participle, but with another verb. The same error occurs in Goffe, Courageous 
Turk, II, i, 'Make him by snoring on a wanton breast, And suck the adulterate 
and spiced breath,' etc., and in Beau. & Fl., Mad Lover, I, i, 'Your cold sallads 
without salt or vinegar By wambling in your stomachs,' where Mr Dyce properly 
adopts Sympson's correction, Lie. [LETTSOM is too sound and keen a critic to be 
ever overlooked. In the present case I can say only, perhaps he is right. If, 
however, by-thinking (with a hyphen) can mean looking furtively or clandestinely, 
or winking on the sly, it befits the passage better, I think, than to lie peeping, 
wherein I fail to see the force of a recumbent position for the purpose of peeping. 
The addition of a hyphen is certainly a less violent change than the substitution of a 
word, and as for rejecting a participle because it is preceded by two verbs in the 
subjunctive, it seems to me too late a week to demand a strict sequence in tenses 
from Shakespeare, a chartered libertine in a grammar which he helped us to form. 

131. Base and illustrious] MALONE (reading 'unlustrous'): Corrected by Mr 
Rowe [see Text. Notes; this error has been many times repeated, even by the 
Cam. Ed.]. That ' illustrious ' was not used by our author in the sense of inlustrous 
or unlustrous is proved by a passage in the old comedy of Patient Grissel, 1603: 

9 6 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

That's fed with ftinking Tallow : it were fit 132 

That all the plagues of Hell fhould at one time 
Encounter fuch reuolt. 

lino. My Lord, I feare 135 

Has forgot Brittaine. 

lack. And himfelfe, not I 
Inclined to this intelligence, pronounce 
The Beggery of his change : but 'tis your Graces 1 39 

132. Tallow:} tallow? Rowe, Pope, 137. himfelfe,]himfelf,F 3 F 4 . himself; 

Han. tallow, Coll. Dyce i. Rowe, Cap. himself. Pope et cet. 

'the buttons were illustrious and resplendent diamonds.' STEEVENS: A 'lack- 
lustre eye' has been already mentioned in As You Like It. TIECK (vol. ix, p. 377, 
1833) quotes the word as illustrous, thus anticipating Collier, and translates it 
glorreich, with the remark that those editors who adopt the tame word 'unlustrous' 
miss the bitter irony involved in the contrast. COLLIER (ed. ii.): All modern 
editors (anterior to 1843) change illustrous to unlustrous, which may be more 
strictly correct; but the word is illustrous (misprinted 'illustrious') in all the folios, 
and it ought on every account to be preferred, as that which came from the author's 
pen. [This is, as Capell would say, a 'wipe' on Dyce, whose text reads unlustrous. 
Dyce felt it, and revenged himself by adducing a quotation of which Collier was 
ignorant.] DYCE (ed. ii.): But Chapman at least uses illustrous in a sense the very 
reverse of what they [i. e., Collier and those who followed him] would have it 
convey in our text: 'Telemachus, into a roome built hie, Of his illustrous court, 
and to the eie Of circular prospect, to his bed ascended,' &c., Homer's Odyssey, B. i, 
p. 15, ed. fol. THISELTON (p. 15): The expression 'Base and illustrious' signifies 
the conjunction of baseness and lustre, and is infinitely more forcible than any 
alteration that would merely couple the ideas of baseness and lack of lustre. 
DOWDEN: Perhaps Thiselton is right. [Whether we use illustrous or unlustrous, 
the meaning, lustreless, is the same, and, for all Tieck's 'bitter irony,' the proper 
meaning, I think, in the present passage. I have little doubt, however, that 
'illustrious' is Shakespeare's own word, or his compositor's, and is akin tojealious, 
dexterious, prolixious, robustious, beautious, all to be found in the Folio and Quar- 
tos; this tendency survives even to this day in vulgar speech, in stupendious and 
mischievious. Wherefore, if we are to prefer 'that which came from the author's 
pen,' I am afraid we should have to reject any alteration of 'illustrious.'' ED.] 

134. Encounter such reuolt] JOHN HUNTER: Meet such apostacy. DEIGHTON: 
Meet and punish such a revolt from fealty due to you. 

T-37> J 38- not * inclin'd to this intelligence] JOHN HUNTER: It is not that I 
having any inclination to impart this to you, pronounce, etc. INGLEBY: It is not 
because I am inclined to convey such intelligence, that I pronounce, etc. [Neither 
of these paraphrases brings out, I think, the exact meaning of lachimo's words. 
He wishes to throw indirectly the obloquy of these revelations on Imogen. 'It is 
not,' he says in effect, 'I who divulge the utter depths of his change, inclined 
though I be to impart the news, but 'tis your loveliness that has conjured up this 
report from the innermost silence of my consciousness.' It seems not impossible 
that in the word ' intelligence ' there lies a suggestion of information obtained in an 
underhand way, by stealth, or by spying. ED.] 

ACT I, SC. vii.] 



That from my muteft Confcience, to my tongue, 
Charmes this report out. 

lino. Let me heare no more. 

lack. O deereft Soule : your Caufe doth ftrike my hart 
With pitty, that doth make me ficke. A Lady 
So faire, and faften'd to an Emperie 145 

Would make the great/ft King double, to be partnered 
With Tomboyes hyr'd, with that felfe exhibition 
Which your owne Coffers yeeld : with difeas'd ventures 148 

143. Sonic:] soul, Cap. Dyce, Sta. 
Cam. himself! Rowe et cet. 

144. ficke.] sick! Dyce, Sta. Cam. 

145. 146. So faire... double] In paren- 
theses Ktly. 

and... double] In parentheses 

Emperie.. double] Ff. Han. 
Dyce ii, iii, Huds. Sta. (in parentheses). 
empery,.. .double, Rowe i, Coll. Dyce i, 
White, Del. Glo. Cam. Dtn, Rife, Dowd. 
empery, ...double; Rowe ii, Ingl. em- 

pery, ...double! Pope, Theob. Warb. 
Johns. Cap. Varr. Ran. Mai. Steev. 
Varr. Knt, Sing. 

147. Tomboyes hyr'd, with] F 2 F 3 . 
Tomboys hir'd, with F 4 , Rowe i. Tom- 
boys, hir'd with Rowe ii et seq (subs.) 

felfe exhibition] F 4 , Rowe, Cap. 
Coll. Cam. Dyce iii. jelfc-exhibition 
F 2 F 3 , Pope et cet. 

148. yeeld:] yield: F 3 F 4 . yield! Rowe 
et seq. 

ventures] venters Rowe ii, Pope. 

141. Charmes] This verb in the singular after a plural subject, ABBOTT ( 412) 
calls 'confusion by proximity' inasmuch as it is close to 'tongue.' Older gram- 
marians call it 'singular by attraction.' BR. NICHOLSON (see Ingleby, ii, p. 48) 
gives a concise rule for this idiom, as follows: 'When that intervenes between the 
noun and the verb in Elizabethan English, usage places the verb in the singular, 
even though the noun be in the plural.' 

145, 146. and fasten'd to an Emperie Would make] It is difficult to deter- 
mine the meaning of this line. Does it mean : ' A Lady so fair and fastened to an 
Empiry, which Empiry would thereby make the greatest King double'? according 
to the punctuation of the Folio; or does it mean, according to the punctuation of 
ROWE (ed. i.): 'A Lady so fair, wlto fastened to an empery, Would make the 
great'st King double'? The solution largely depends on the presence or absence 
of a comma after 'Emperie.' The Text. Notes will, therefore, reveal the opinions of 
the various editors, without rehearsing them here. ED. 

145. Emperie] BRADLEY (N. E. D., s. v., Empery 2. a.): The territory ruled 
by an Emperor, b. In wider sense: The territory of an absolute or powerful ruler. 
[As here, probably.] 

147. Tomboyes] HUNTER (ii, 293) : This meant in Shakespeare's time pretty much 
what it means now. Golding applies it to Arethusa, who was indeed quite a tomboy. 

147. selfe exhibition] JOHNSON: That is, hired with the very pension which 
you allow your husband. NARES (Gloss., s. v., exhibition): W T hen Lear complains 
of being 'confined to exhibition,' he means put upon a stated allowance. I, ii. 
The same is the intent of Othello when he requires for his wife, 'Due reference of 
place and exhibition.' I, iii. Still used in the universities, where the salaries 
bestowed by some foundations are called 'exhibitions.' INGLEBY: Now restricted 
to a stipend awarded for proficiency in learning. 

148. ventures] CAPELL (p. 106): Put figuratively for ventures, i. e., traders. 


.-B 3U861 

r TfT ' 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

That play with all Infirmities for Gold, 

Which rottenneffe can lend Nature. Such boyl'd ftuffe 150 

As well might poyfon Poyfon. Be reueng'd, 

Or (he that bore you, was no Queene, and you 

Recoyle from your great Stocke. 

Imo. Reueng'd : 

How mould I be reueng'd? If this be true, 155 

(As I haue fuch a Heart, that both mine eares 
Muft not in hafte abufe) if it be true, 
How mould I be reueng'd ? 

lacli. Should he make me 1 59 

149. That play] To play Rowe ii, 152. and you] or you Ingl. conj. 
Pope, Han. That pay Coll. MS. Ktly 154. Reueng'd:} Ff. Reveng'd, alas! 
conj. Han. Revenged! Rowe et cet. 

150. can lend] lends Pope, + . 155. reueng'd? If... true,} reveng'd if 
Nature.} Nature, Ff. nature! this be true, Rowe. reveng'd, if this be 

Rowe et seq. true? Pope, + , Var. '73. 

151. Poyfon.} poison! Rowe et seq. 156, 157. (As. ..abufe)} No parenthe- 
reueng'd,] Ff, Rowe i, Coll. ses Rowe, Pope. 

Cam. reveng'd Rowe ii, Han. re- 157. abufe)} abuses, Rowe ii,+, Var. 

veng'd; Theob. et cet. '73. 

158. fliould} Jhatt F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. 

DYCE (Gloss.}: Chance lemans [The true interpretation, as I think. ED.]; or 
else equivalent to venturers. VAUGHAN (p. 380): 'With those diseased gamblers 
who stake against money all the infirmities which rottenness can lend nature.' 
DOWDEN: Perhaps 'ventures' means things risked in the way of trade, as in 
Mer. of Ven., I, i, 42: 'My ventures are not in one bottom trusted.' 

149. That play with . . . for Gold] KEIGHTLEY (Exp., 376): We might 
make a transposition, and read 'That play for gold,' etc., i. e., stake their diseases 
against gold. 

150. boyl'd stuffe] On this unsavory subject, STEEVENS quotes passages from 
Shakespeare and elsewhere to prove that this phrase refers to the treatment for dis- 
graceful diseases, and closes well enough with the remark that, 'all this stuff about 
boiling, scalding, etc., is a mere play on stew, which is afterwards used for a brothel 
by Imogen.' 

153. Recoyle from your great Stocke] ROLFE: That is, fall off, prove de- 
generate; as in Macb., IV, iii, 19: 'A good and virtuous nature may recoil In an 
imperial charge.' 

156. As I haue] This 'as' is here, I think, equivalent to inasmuch as. See FRANZ 
(Grammatik, p. 305). 

159. Should he make me] WHITE (Sh. Scholar, p. 457): Should we not read, 
' Should he make you '? What power had Posthumus over the conduct of lachimo? 
[etc., etc. This unhappy conjecture was not repeated in White's edition; it is, 
therefore, to be inferred that it was happily withdrawn. Unfortunately, however, 
in that edition White adopted a reading which was almost as prosaic, namely: 
' Should he make thee,' unmindful of the impropriety of addressing a princess with 
the familiar, or contemptuous Second Person, in one line, and, in a few lines after, 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 99 

Liue like Diana's Prieft, betwixt cold fheets, 160 

Whiles he is vaulting variable Rampes 

In your defpight, vpon your purfe : reuenge it. 

I dedicate my felfe to your fweet pleafure, 

More Noble then that runnagate to your bed, 

And will continue faft to your Affection, 165 

Still clofe, as fure. 

Imo. What hoa, Pifanio ? 167 

1 60. Line] Lie Walker, Huds. 162. purfe:} purse? Pope et seq. 
Priejl, betwixt] priestess, 'twixt reuenge it.] revenge it! Pope, 

Han. priest, between Cap. Theob. Han. Johns. 

Jheets,] sheets; Rowe, Cap. Varr. 163. your] you Pope ii. 

Mai. Steev. Varr. Sing. sheets?Pope,-\-. 166. clofe, as] close as Han. Dyce. 

161. vaulting] vailing F 2 . 167, 176, 183. hoa] ho F 4 et seq. 

speaking of 'your despite,' l your purse.' Throughout this interview both Imogen 
and lachimo have used the respectful 'you'; it is not until Imogen pours out on the 
Italian her indignation and scorn that she uses for the first time the contemptuous 
'thee.' DYCE (ed. ii.), after expressing his surprise that White should have thought 
it necessary to make such a substitution, justly observed that 'lachimo evidently 
means "If I were you, should you make me,"' etc. THISELTON (p. 16) accepts 
the text literally, and paraphrases it, 'Ought it to be a consequence of Posthumus's 
gross infidelity, that I, your devoted worshipper, should be restricted to a life of 
celibacy owing to my constancy to you?' ED.] 

160. Diana's Priest] M ALONE: Hanmer supposed that the text was inac- 
curate, and that we should read ' Diana's priestiss,' but the text is as the author 
wrote it. So, in Pericles, Diana says: 'My temple stands at Ephesus; hie thee 
thither; There where my maiden priests are met together.' V, i, 243. 

162. reuenge it.] Imogen has asked how she is to be revenged. Should not 
these words of lachimo echo her question, and be followed by an interrogation 
mark? 'Revenge it?' Then comes his answer, 'I dedicate myself,' etc. ED. 

1 66. Still close, as sure] Always as secretly, as faithfully. 

167. What hoa, Pisanio] R. G. WHITE (Sh, Scholar, p. 459): The exquisite 
purity, the firm undallying chastity of Imogen are indicated with unsurpassable 
tact and skill in this Scene, and by her first exclamation. She is slow to under- 
stand lachimo; but the moment he makes his proposition plainly, without an 
instant's delay, before a word of anger or surprise passes her lips, she calls for the 
faithful servant of her lord, to remove him who has insulted her and his friend's 
honor. Then her indignation bursts from her; but again and again she interrupts 
its flow with ' WTiat ho, Pisanio! ' She holds no question with him who made such 
a proposition to her; she enters into no dispute of why or wherefore, draws no 
contrast herself between her truth and her husband's falsehood : she seeks nothing 
but the instantaneous removal of a man who has dared to attempt her chastity. 
Not only does she refuse all consideration of the right or wrong of his proposition, 
all going into the metaphysics of the question, but the mere proposal changes, on 
the moment, all previous relations between her and the proposer, although they 
were established by her husband himself. It is not until her pure soul, as quick to 
believe the good as it was slow to imagine ill, is quieted by the entire withdrawal 

I0 o THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

lack. Let me my feruice tender on your lippes. 168 

Imo. Away, I do condemne mine eares,that haue 

So long attended thee. If thou wert Honourable 170 

Thou would'ft haue told this tale for Vertue, not 

For fuch an end thou feek'ft, as bafe,as ftrange : 

Thou wrong'ft a Gentleman, who is as farre 

From thy report, as thou from Honor: and 

Solicites heere a Lady, that difdaines 175 

169. Away,] Away! Theob. Warb. et cet. 
et seq. 175. Solicites] Solicit/I F 2 F 3 . Solid? ft 

172. feek'ft,] Ff > Rowe, Pope, Coll. F 4 et seq. 
Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. seek'st; Theob. 

of lachimo's advances, and the assignment of a comprehensible, though not 
excusable reason for them, that she ceases to call for him who is in some sort the 
representative of her husband. 

168. Let me my seruice, etc.] It seems a little strange that after Imogen's 
call for Pisanio, lachimo should persist in his attempt and not take instant alarm. 
But he knew that a few minutes must certainly elapse before the servant could 
appear in fact, he does not come at all and from Imogen's imperative 'Away!' 
is it not to be inferred that he had actually drawn very close, his face almost touch- 
ing hers, to tender the kiss. Possibly it is always so represented on the stage. ED. 

169. condemne] COLLIER (ed. ii.): This is amended to contemn, a much more 
forcible word, in the MS. 'Condemn' is certainly intelligible, but we cannot 
doubt that Shakespeare's expression was, 'I do contemn mine ears,' i.e., 'I do 
despise mine ears that have so long,' etc. [It is hardly worth while to discuss the 
needlessness of this change. COLLIER himself, after having adopted it in his 
Second Edition, deserted it in his Third. ED.] 

172. end thou seek'st, as base, as strange] VAUGHAN: I am not confident 
that this most obvious sense [as base as it is strange] is the right one. 'The base 
end' alluded to was in some senses not a 'strange' end. The line may mean, 'for 
such an end as you are aiming at, who are as low a fellow as you are foreign and 
unknown.' Imogen has said to him, 'if thou wert honorable,' etc. She also says 
below of him 'a saucy stranger.' [It is true enough that 'in some senses,' as 
Vaughan says, the end alluded to was not strange, but Imogen could not say that 
lachimo was 'unknown' to her; he had brought high commendations from Posthu- 
mus. For a man, however, to make base advances to a Princess, already married, 
at a first interview, is certainly 'strange'; it can hardly be a matter of common 
occurrence. It is hardly admissible to interpret ' strange ' as foreign. In an un- 
happy hour Theobald substituted a semi-colon after 'seek'st,' for the comma of the 
Folio. ED.] 

175. Solicites] One of WALKER'S valuable chapters (Crit., ii, 126) is devoted to 
examples where s is substituted for st in the second person singular of a verb, and 
chiefly in verbs ending in /, as in the present instance. I cannot but believe that this 
substitution was intentional wherever used, indeed, in some cases, the rhyme re- 
quires it. There is a notable instance when Hamlet addresses his father's ghost: 
'That thou, dead Corse . . . Revisits thus the glimpses of the Moon,' where 
'revisit'st thus' is almost unpronounceable. There is another example in this 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE IO i 

Thee, and the Diuell alike. What hoa, Pifanio? 176 

The King my Father fliall be made acquainted 

Of thy Affault : if he fhall thinke it fit, 

A fawcy Stranger in his Court, to Mart 

As in a Romifh Stew, and to expound 180 

His beaftly minde to vs ; he hath a Court 

178. thy] this Walker (Crit., ii, 179. to Mart} to match Vaun. 

238). 181. to vs;] to us, Han. Var. '73, Coll. 

AJJault] insult Coll. conj. Dyce, Sta. Ktly, Glo. Cam. 

present play, 'Thinking to barre thee of succession, as Thou refts me of my lands' 
-III, iii, 112, where, as in the present 'solicits,' I think the Folio should be followed. 
Grammar is dearly purchased in poetry at the price of invincible cacophony. 

178, 179. thinke it fit, A sawcy Stranger] VAUGHAN (p. 382): The con- 
struction of this phrase, as appears by the punctuation, has been universally mis- 
understood. In truth it means, 'if he shall think that it becomes a saucy,' etc., 
'Fit' is a verb, not an adjective; and this view of it makes quite regular the other- 
wise awkward and abnormal infinitives 'to mart' and 'to expound.' [The chief 
objection to this truly excellent interpretation, and chief though it be it is trifling, 
is the use of the subjunctive instead of the indicative fits. Where no doubt is 
expressed, the indicative may follow an 'if (see Abbott, 363), and the punctua- 
tion of the Folio shows that the compositors, at least, accepted 'fit' as an adjective. 
Dowden thinks that 'perhaps Vaughan may be right'; and he adopts his interpre- 
tation so far as to omit the comma after 'fit.' Vaughan is, I think, a little hasty in 
saying that the infinitives 'to mart' and 'to expound' are 'awkward and abnormal.' 
The instances in Shakespeare are many where the infinitive is used indefinitely. 
(See ABBOTT, 356.) ED.] 

180. Romish] STEEVENS asserts that 'Romish' in Shakespeare's time was used 
for Roman, and quotes three instances hi proof. He is, of course, correct in his 
assertion; it was so used; but had he quoted thirty examples, it would not have 
explained the use of the word here and by Shakespeare. There is to this day a 
subtle atmosphere of nobility and grandeur surrounding the word 'Roman.' 
Shakespeare had to use it many times; a glance at Bartlett's Concordance will show 
more than a column and a half of instances. But the present word 'Romish' 
from Imogen's impassioned and indignant lips is full of scorn and contempt; and 
here, and here only, is it used by Shakespeare. In ' suum cuique is our Roman 
justice, substitute Romish, and mark the contempt.' ED. 

181. His beastly minde to vs] R. G. WHITE (Sh. Scholar, p. 458): Here 
is an exquisite touch of the master's hand in a single pronoun. Born a princess, 
she has given herself to Posthumus, a nameless man, as freely as if she were a 
peasant's daughter; and she is remarkable, with all her dignity, for her unassuming 
deportment; but the insult of lachimo stings her into pride, and for the first and 
only time she takes her state and speaks of herself in the plural number. She 
says, 'to expound his mind,' not to me, but 'to us.' Mrs Jameson's delicate 
perception doubtless saw this, as well as the constrained brevity of Imogen's 
replies, even after she has admitted the excuses of lachimo. 


THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

He little cares for, and a Daughter, who 182 

He not refpe6ls at all. What hoa, Pifanio ? 

lack. O happy Leonatus I may fay, 

The credit that thy Lady hath of thee 185 

Deferues thy truft, and thy moft perfect goodneffe 
Her affur'd credit, Bleffed Hue you long, 
A Lady to the worthieft Sir, that euer 
Country call'd his ; and you his Miftris, onely 
For the moft worthieR fit. Giue me your pardon, 190 

I haue fpoke this to know if your Affiance 
Were deeply rooted, and mall make your Lord, 
That which he is, new o're : And he is one 
The trueft manner'd : fuch a holy Witch, 194 

182. a Daughter} Daughter F 3 F 4 . 187. long,] long! Cap. Var. '78 et 

who] Dyce, Glo. Cam. Wh. ii. seq. 

whom Ff et cet. 189. his;] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 

184. fay] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. Cap. Coll. his! Theob. et cet. 

say; Theob. et cet. 190. moft worthiejl] most worthy Pope, 

1 86. truft,} Rowe, Pope, Theob. Han. 

Warb. Johns. Sta. Glo. Cam. trust; fit.} Ff, Rowe, Pope, Coll. Ktly. 

Han. et cet. fit! Theob. et cet. 

187. credit. Bleffed] Cap. Coll. Dyce, 194. trueft manner'd] truest-manner' d 
Glo. Cam. credit, Bleffed F 2 . credit, Var. '73. 

bleJfed^F 4 . credit; blessed Rowe, Han. manner'd:] manner'd, Pope,-|-, 

credit! blessed Pope et cet. Cam. 

182. who He little cares for] Recent editors wisely retain this 'who,' char- 
acteristic as it is of Shakespeare and his times. See also, 'who the King . . . 
called,' III, iii, 96; 'To who.' IV, ii, 102. 

185. The credit that thy Lady hath of thee] ECCLES: The confidence 
which she reposes in thee deserves an equal return on thy part, and thy unsullied 
virtue and integrity is the surest foundation for that confidence in her or possibly, 
'credit' may signify the good opinion which you entertain of her. 

189. Country call'd his] That is, called its own. 

190. most worthiest] For instances of double comparatives and double super- 
latives, see, if need be, ABBOTT, n. 

191. Affiance] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. 3.): The pledging of faith; solemn en- 
gagement; especially, the plighting of troth between two persons in marriage, a 
marriage contract. 

193, 194. one The truest] ABBOTT (18): 'one' is used for above all in Eliza- 
bethan English with superlatives. 

194. a holy Witch] WALKER (Crit., ii, 88) : 'Witch' in the sense of a male sor- 
cerer, or without any specific reference to sex, frequently occurs in the old writers 
[whereof many examples follow, among them the present passage. In Wint. Tale, 
an example which Walker did not note, Leontes calls Paulina a 'witch/ and to add 
to it an especial roughness calls her a 'mankind witch.' Walker concludes his 
article with a quotation from Minsheu's Guide Into the Tongues, 1617 (s. v. ' Coniura- 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 

That he enchants Societies into him : 195 

Halfe all men hearts are his. 

luw. You make amends. 

lacli. He fits 'mong'ft men, like a defended God; 198 

195. into] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. Theob. ii. et seq. 

Warb. Johns. Dyce, Sta. Ktly, Glo. 198. 'mongfl] mongfl F 2 . amongfl 

Cam. unto Han. et cet. F 3 F 4 , Rowe i. 'mong Theob. ii, Warb. 

196. men] mens Ff, Rowe, Pope, Johns. 

Theob. i, Han. mens' Var. '73. men's defended] defcended Ff et seq. 

tion') where the difference is set forth 'betueene Conjuration, Witchcraft, and 
Inchantment'; 'the Coniurer seemeth by praiers and inuocation of Gods powerfull 
names, to compel! the Diuell to say or doe what he commandeth him; The Witch 
dealeth rather by a friendly and voluntarie conference or agreement betweene him 
or her and the Diuell or Familiar, to haue his or her turne serued in lieu or stead of 
blood, or other gift offered vnto him, especially of his or her soule; So that a Con- 
iurer compacts for curiositie to know secrets, and work maruels; and the Witch 
of meere malice to doe mischief e: And both these differ from Inchanters or Sor- 
cerers, because the former two haue personall conference with the Diuell, and the 
other meddles but with Medicines and ceremoniall formes of words called Charmes, 
without apparition.' Walker quotes only a portion of the foregoing, but the whole 
of it seems interesting. CHURTON COLLINS (Note in The Pinner of Wakefield, III, 
ii, 703) quotes from Latimer: 'We run hither and thither to witches or sorcerers 
whom we call wise men.' Sermons preached in Lincolnshire, V. (ed. not given). 
In my edition of 1572, however, this passage runs, 'we runne hither and thither 
to wyssardes, or sorcerers, whome we call wyse men.' Fol. 98, verso. The fore- 
going note is reprinted from Commentary on Ant. & Cleop., I, ii, 42, of this edi- 
tion. ED.] 

195. he enchants] That is, as a Witch. M ALONE: So, in Shakespeare's Lover's 
Complaint: 'That he did in the general bosom reign Of young of old; and sexes 
both enchanted . . . Consents bewitch'd, ere he desire, have granted.' 

195. into] DYCE: There are other passages in these plays where our author 
(like the writers of his day) uses ' into ' for unto. 

196. Halfe all men hearts are his] It will be deemed, possibly, a flagrant 
instance of 'Foliolatry' to suggest that we should not too hastily change 'men 
hearts' into ' 'men's hearts.' Yet may not something be pleaded in its favour? 
Shakespeare could hardly say all 'male hearts' nor all 'wow-hearts.' And yet is it 
not the idea which he intended to convey that 'half of all men who have manly 
hearts are his'? It is because they are 'men' that they sympathise with Posthu- 
mus, not because they have hearts. ED. 

198. defended God] UPTON (p. 220), whose laudable zeal it was to prove that 
Shakespeare, bred in a learned age, was equal in learning with his contemporaries, 
here points out that 'there is no less learning than elegance in this expression.' 
The Greeks called a 'descended God' /carcti/Sdr^s, and that Jupiter was peculiarly 
worshipped as such. 'Agreeable to this opinion, Paul and Barnabas were thought 
by the people of Lycaonia to be descended Gods.' Acts, xiv. n. CAPELL (p. 106): 
This very learned allusion never enter'd into the head of the Poet. PORTER and 
CLARKE: There is some appropriateness in the unusual adjective 'defended God,' 

I04 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

He hath a kinde of Honor fets him off, 

More then a mortall feeming. Be not angrie 2OO 

( Moft mighty Princeffe) that I haue aduentur'd 

To try your taking of a falfe report, which hath 

Honoured with confirmation your great Judgement, 

In the election of a Sir, fo rare, 

Which you know, cannot erre. The loue I beare him, 205 

Made me to fan you thus, but the Gods made you 

(Vnlike all others) chaffeleffe. Pray your pardon. 

Imo. All's well Sir : 
Take my powre i'th'Court for yours. 

lac/i. My humble thankes : I had almoft forgot 210 

T'intreat your Grace, but in a fmall requefl, 
And yet of moment too, for it concernes : 
Your Lord, my felfe, and other Noble Friends 213 

199. Honor] F 2 . honour F 3 F 4 . 208, 209. One line Rowe et seq. 
202. your taking of a] you with a Han. 209. i'th J ]ith' 2 F 3 . i'the Cap. et seq. 

you by a Cap. your taking a Steev. - 211. T'intreat] Ff, Rowe,-f, Coll. 

Var. '78. your taking, a Knt. your Dyce ii, iii. To intreat Cap. et cet. 
taking of Vaun. 212. concernes:} Ingl. ii. concernes, 

Sir,fo rare,] sir so rare, Var. '78 F 2 . concerns, F 3 . concerns F 4 et cet. 
et seq. 213. Lord,] Ff, Dyce, Coll. ii, Sta. 

rare,] rare. F 2 . Lord; Rowe et cet. 

meaning that he sets aloof from others, defended as a God from mortal contact or 
degradation by the Honor that sets him off. So royalty was set off by sitting apart, 
fended off from rude contact, on a dais or at a table by itself. A 'descended' 
God is not thought of readily as sitting, but as alighting. Hence we suspect 
that 'defended' was intended, and the 'correction ["descended"] is really a 

200. More then a mortall seeming] CAPELL (p. 106): 'Honor' in the line 
before this, is: dignity of carriage and thinking; and that such as seem'd more than 
'a mortal one,' or than might belong to a mortal; the expression were less ambigu- 
ous, if we read 'more than a mortal's,' or, 'more than of mortal.' 

202-204. which hath ... a Sir, so rare] ECCLES and others have given 
profuse paraphrases of these lines; they seem to me superfluous. Language can 
hardly be less obscure than the original. The only point wherein there seems to lie 
any doubt is the antecedent to 'which'; it has been taken as 'false report.' Is it 
not rather the trial of Imogen's fidelity by a false report? ED. 

205. Which you know, cannot erre] That is, you yourself know your judge- 
ment of your husband's character cannot be mistaken. 

212, 213. for it concernes : Your Lord,] H. INGLEBY (Rev. ed.}\ Editors have, 
without sufficient justification, placed a stop at 'Lord' instead of at 'concernes,' 
as in the Folio. ' It concerns ' is equivalent to ' it concerns you,' it is your business. 
We find exactly the same use in Wint. Tale, III, ii, 85: 'Which to deny concernes 
more than avails,' where you is similarly understood. As Posthumus is mixed up 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 105 

Are partners in the bufmeffe. 

lino. Pray what is't ? 215 

lack. Some dozen Romanes of vs, and your Lord 

(The beft Feather of our wing) haue mingled fummes 

To buy a Prefent for the Emperor : 

Which I (the Factor for the reft) haue done 

In France : 'tis Plate of rare deuice, and Jewels 220 

Of rich, and exquifite forme, their valewes great, 

And I am fomething curious, being ftrange 

To haue them in fafe ftowage : May it pleafe you 

To take them in protection. 

Into. Willingly : 225 

And pawne mine Honor for their fafety, fince 

My Lord hath intereft in them, I will keepe them 

In my Bed-chamber. 228 

217. (The bejl] Best Pope,+. Ttibest seq. 
Cap. 222. ft range] ft range, Ff et seq. 

220. deuice,] device; Vaun. 224. protection.] Ff, Rowe, Pope, 

221. forme,] form. Coll. form; Cap. Var. '73. protection? Theob. et cet. 

et seq. 226. fafety,] F 3 F 4 . Rowe. fafty, F 2 . 

valcwes] values F 3 F 4 . value's safety. Pope,+. safety: Cap. et cet. 
Coll. ii, iii, Ktly. 228. Bed-chamber.] F 4 . Bedchamber: 

great,] Ff, Coll. great; Rowe et F 2 . Bed chamber. F 3 . 

in this business, it naturally concerns Imogen; and the change of punctuation, be 
it noted, still leaves something to be desired. [In addition to this instance from 
The Wint. Tale, SCHMIDT (Lex.) gives a second, where 'concern' is used intransi- 
tively, from Love's Lab. L.: 'deliver this paper into the royal hand of the king; it 
may concern much.' IV, ii, 146. To these two instances the present should 
unquestionably be added as a third, and if so, it is not necessary to suppose that 
yon is understood; it means simply, 'for it is of much importance,' thereby justi- 
fying the assertion that the request, though small, was yet of moment. This just 
adherence to the Folio by H. Ingleby obviates the necessity of the semi-colon after 
'Lord' in the next line, which was placed there by Rowe and adopted by every 
subsequent editor, except Dyce, Collier (ed. ii.), and Staunton, who retained the 
comma of the Folio, 'Lord,' and remarked that 'who' or 'that' has to be supplied 
before 'Are partners,' etc., which is presumably what H. Ingleby refers to in his 
concluding remark that the modern punctuation 'still leaves something to be 
desired.' ED.] 

222. curious] This has been defined as careful, accurate, scrupulous, particular, 
anxious, and painstaking. The 'curious' student may, therefore, take his choice. 

222. strange] HALLIWELL: That is, being a stranger. So in Lyly's Euphues and 
his England, 1623, ' at the last they came to London where they met with divers 

228. In my Bed-chamber] OHLE (p. 65) in an exhaustive discussion of the 

I0 6 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT i, sc. vii. 

lack. They are in a Trunke 

Attended by my men : I will make bold 230 

To fend them to you , onely for this night : 
I muft aboord to morrow. 

lino. O no, no. 

lack. Yes I befeech : or I fhall fhort my word 
By lengthening my returne. From Gallia, 235 

I croft the Seas on purpofe, and on promife 
To fee your Grace. 

Imo. I thanke you for your paines : 
But not awav to morrow. 


lack. O I muft Madam. 240 

229. Trunke] Trunk F 3 F 4 , Rowe, et cet. 

Pope, Han. trunk, Theob. et seq. 234. befeech] beseech you Rowe, + - 

230. men] man Elze. 236. purpofe,] purpose Dyce, Sta. 

231. night:] night. Knt. night, Coll. Glo. Cam. 

232. aboord] aboard F 3 F 4 . a-board 239. to morrow.] Ff, Rowe, Cap. to- 
Var. '73. -morrow? Pope,+, Varr. Mai. Varr. 

to morrow.] F 4 . to morrow, - Coll. to-morrow! Knt, Dyce, Sta. Glo. 

F 2 F,. Cam. 

233.0 no] Ff, Ro\ve,+. 0! no, 240. O I] F 2 F 3 . / Pope, Han. OH 

Coll. i, iii. Oh! no, Coll. ii. O, no, Cap. Coll. i, iii. Oh, I Coll. ii. 0, / F 4 et cet. 

sources of the Plot, criticises the introduction of the trunk into the story. It was 
well enough in the early versions of the story, because the scene was laid among the 
common people, but here in Shakespeare's version the characters are of the highest 
nobility. 'The trunk is, therefore, unnecessary, nay, unbefitting. By virtue of 
his letter of introduction, lachimo had received a free admittance to Imogen's 
presence. He petitions that he should bring the trunk to her; she at once volun- 
tarily offers to take it into her bed-chamber. But this offer of hers, with its 
specific place of concealment at once arouses the suspicion of a spectator at the 
improbability of any predetermined scheme; for lachimo himself had forgotten the 
main item of his petition, namely, that the trunk should find a place of conceal- 
ment in her bed-chamber. His scheme would have utterly failed had not Imogen 
come to his aid. No original narrator of the story could have made so clumsy an 
intrigue. It is clear, therefore, that both lachimo and Imogen were well-drilled 
actors who had, in some way or other, read or heard the Italian novel.' Beneath 
Ohle's humour there lies the question more or less serious, as to what would have 
been lachimo's course had Imogen not made the offer of her bed-chamber, Shake- 
speare foresaw this difficulty, I think, and, therefore, it is that lachimo dwells on 
the interest Posthumus had in the safekeeping of the imperial presents, and it is this 
fact that prompts Imogen's offer. ED. 

234. short my word] SCHMIDT (Lex.}: That is, to take from, to impair, to 
infringe (antithetically). [The present passage is Schmidt's only example of its 
use with this meaning. 'Short' as a verb occurs in 'Short, night, tonight, and 
length thyself tomorrow.' Pass. PHg., 210, but this bears a different signification. 

ACT i, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE IO ; 

Therefore I fhall befeech you, if you pleafe 241 

To greet your Lord with writing, doo't to night, 
I haue out-ftood my time, which is materiall 
To'th'tender of our Prefent. 

Imo. I will write : 245 

Send your Trunke to me, it fhall fafe be kept, 
And truely yeelded you : you're very welcome. Exeunt. 

244. To'th'] F 2 . To th' F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Han. 

+ . To the Cap. et seq. 247. you're] Ff, Rowe,+, Cap. Coll. 

245. write:] write. Cap. et seq. Dyce, Glo. Cam. you are Var. '73 et 

246. me,] me; Cap. et seq. cet. 

fafe be] be fafe F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Exeunt] Fxeunt F 2 . 

243. out-stood] COLLIER (ed. ii.): In the MS. it is oulslay'd, and perhaps the 
line was sometimes so delivered, but alteration would be unadvisable. It may be 
added that in short-hand 'outstood' and outstay' 'd would be spelt with the same 

246. Send your Trunke to me] HORN (iv, 162): We must bear in mind that 
Imogen cannot possibly be as fortunate as we are, who can, at any time, from 
any moderately sized circulating library, reap such a harvest of the knowledge of 
human nature that we can hardly carry it. We would assuredly not have taken 
lachimo's trunk into our bed-chamber, simply because we have read Boccaccio 
and Shakespeare, which poor Imogen cannot very well have done. 

246. it shall safe be kept] WALKER (Crit., ii, 247): I am not quite sure that 
we ought not to read, 'it shall be safe kept.' [Walker was evidently unaware he 
had been long anticipated in this change. See Text. Notes.] 

247. yeelded you : you're very welcome] BR. NICHOLSON (N. &* Q., VII, 
ii, 23): suggests a dash after 'you,' because 'lachimo, like a true courtier, and as a 
private gentleman answering a princess, acknowledges her gracious assent to his 
request by a low bend of the knee or head, perhaps even kisses her hand, for most 
dutiful observance is now his cue. And it is to this that she replies, 'You're very 
welcome/ that is, as the hearer likes, either generally welcome to the court, or to 
this granted assent, or to both. 

247. Exeunt] HAZLITT (p. 5): Imogen's readiness to pardon lachimo's false 
imputations and false designs against herself is a good lesson to prudes; and may 
show that where there is a real attachment to virtue, it has no need to bolster itself 
up with an outrageous or affected antipathy to vice. 


Aftiis Secundus. Scena Prima. 

Enter Clotten ,and the two Lords. 

Clot. Was there euer man had fuch lucke ? when I kift 
the lacke vpon an vp-caft ? to be hit away ? I had a hun- 
dred pound on't : and then a whorfon lacke-an-Apes, 5 
muft take me vp for fwearing, as if I borrowed mine 
oathes of him, and might not fpend them at my pleafure. 

1. What got he by that ? you haue broke his pate 
with iyour Bowie. 

2. If his wit had bin like him that broke it : it would 10 
haue run all out. 

1. Scena Prima] Scene n. Eccles. Sta. Coll. iii, Glo. Huds. Cam. 
Scene. The Palace. Rowe i. A 5. I acke-an- Apes] jackanapes Cap. et 

Palace. Rowe ii. Cymbeline's Palace, seq. 

Pope. Court before the Palace. Cap. 8, 10, etc. i. 2.] i Lord. 2 Lord, etc. 

2. the two Lords.] Ff. two Lords. Rowe. 

Rowe et cet. the two lords, as from 10. [Aside. Theob. 

the Bowling-alley Coll. MS. had] had not Kinnear. 

4. lacke vpon an vp-caft, to] jack,' him] his Han. Cap. 

upon an up-cast to Knt, Dyce, Sing. 

i. Actus Secundus] ECCLES: The time is the evening of the same day con- 
tinued, and, perhaps, pretty far advanced. The sport of bowling, however, must 
be pursued in the open air and by daylight, and Cloten appears to have but 
lately retired from the scene of his amusement. DANIEL still continues Day 3. 

3. 4. I kist the lacke vpon an vpcast,] JOHNSON: He is describing his fate 
at bowls. The 'jack' is the small bowl at which the others are aimed. He who is 
nearest to it wins. 'To kiss the jack' is a state of great advantage. STEEVENS: 
The expression frequently occurs in the old comedies. So, in A Woman Never Vex't, 
by Rowley, 1632: 'Yon city bowler has kissed the mistress at the first cast.' 
[IV, i.] MURRAY (N, E. D., s. v., Jack. 18) quotes the present passage as an illus- 
tration that the 'Jack' is 'a smaller bowl, placed as a mark for the players to aim at.' 
Also from Taylor, the Water Poet's Comedy, Wit and Worth (Works, ii, 193): 
'The which they ayme at hath sundry names and Epithets, as a Blocke, a Jacke, 
and a Mistris.' M. MASON (p. 325): Cloten means to lament his ill-fortune in 
being hit away by an 'upcast when he kissed the jack.' The line should, therefore, 
be pointed thus: 'When I kissed the jack, upon an upcast To be hit away.'- 
[KNIGHT adopted this punctuation, because, as he said, 'the jack was kissed by 
Cloten 's bowl, and the up-cast of another bowler hit it away.'' But is any change 
necessary? Might not an opponent's upcast make Cloten's bowl kiss the jack 
quite as easily as drive it away? Dowden thinks that the punctuation of the Folio 
may be right and that the 'upcast' was made by Cloten himself, and not by his 
opponent. Whatever obscurity may surround the phrase, is hardly worth the 
time spent in removing it. ED.] 

6. must take one vp] SCHMIDT (Lex., 9): That is, rebuke, rate, scold. 
10, ii. it would haue run all out] That is, because it was so thin, watery, and 
so little of it. 

ACT II, SC. i.] 



Clot. When a Gentleman is difpos'd to fvveare: it is 1 2 
not for any ftanders by to curtail his oathes. Ha ? 

2. No my Lord; nor crop the eares of them. 

Clot. Whorfon dog : I gaue him fatisfa<5tion ? would 15 
he had bin one of my Ranke. 

2. To haue fmell'd like a Foole. 

Clot. I am not vext more at any thing in th'earth : a 
pox on't. I had rather not be fo Noble as I am : they dare 
not fight with me, becaufe of the Queene my Mo- 20 
ther : euery lacke-Slaue hath his belly full of Fighting, 
and I muft go vp and downe like a Cock, that no body 
can match. 

2. You are Cocke and Capon too, and you crow 24 

13. ftanders by] slander s-by Pope et 
seq. stander-by Walker (Crit., i, 245). 

curtail] F 2 . ciirtal F 3 . curtail 

F 4 . 

oathes. Ha?} Ff, Rowe, + 
Var. '73. oaths, ha? Coll. Dyce, Sta. 
Glo. Cam. oaths: Ha? Cap. et cet. 

14. 2. No... nor... them ] i Lord. No 
my lord. 2 Lord. Nor.. .them. [Aside. 
Johnson con]., Ran. 

15. dog:] dog! Rowe et seq. 
gaue] give Ff et seq. 

1 6. bin] been F 4 . 

17. [Aside. Pope. 

17. JmclVd] fmelt F 3 F 4 et seq. 

1 8. th'earth:} F 2 . the earth: F 3 F 4 , 
Glo. Cam. the earth. Coll. the earth, 
Rowe et cet. 

21. belly full] belly-full Cap. Sta. 
Belly fully Rowe ii. bellyful Dyce, 
Glo. Cam. 

24. [Aside. Rowe. 

Cocke and Capon] F 2 . Mai. Steev. 
Knt, Coll. Sing. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 
a cock and capon Cap. Var. '03, '21. a 
Cock and a capon F 3 F 4 et cet. 
crow] crow, Theob. et seq. 

13, 14, 16, 17, curtail . . . crop . . . Ranke . . . smell'd] All this cheap punning 
and quibbling is unworthy of Shakespeare, and so, indeed, is the whole scene, 
if he ever wrote it, whereof there may be a doubt. It is dramatically necessary, 
however, that a scene, preferably light and airy, should intervene between lachimo's 
failure and his success. His estimate of Shakespeare's fertility of invention must 
be low indeed, who does not know that Shakespeare could have devised some scene 
better than this, and one which could at the same time have informed us that 
lachimo's visit was not unknown at Court, which seems to be all that the present 
scene accomplished. ED. 

13. Ha] Thus Shylock says, 'What says that fool of Hagar's off-spring? ha? 
Where, as here, I think we should pronounce it 'Hey'? ED. 

15. I gaue him satisfaction ?] In order to retain the interrogation, all editors 
have adopted 'give' of the Ff. The Cam. Ed. records a suggestion by BR. NICHOL- 
SON which retains 'gave,' but changes the interrogation into an exclamation, for 
the better, I think. Cloten had given satisfaction by an ignoble blow on the pate 
with a bowl, and in these words exults in it, but immediately wishes that the jacka- 
napes had been one of his own rank that he might have fought and wounded him. 
I suppose that this was Nicholson's idea; I do not know where his explanation of the 
suggestion is to be found. ED. 

24. Capon] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. 1. c.): As a type of dullness, and a term of 

1 10 THE TRAGEDIE OF [ACT n, sc. i. 

Cock, with your combe on. 25 

Clot. Sayeft thou f 

2. It is not fit you Lordfhip fhould vndertake euery 
Companion, that you giue offence too. 

Clot. No, I know that : but it is jfit I fhould commit 
offence to my inferiors. 30 

2 I, it is fit for your Lordfhip onely. 
Clot. Why fo I fay. 

1. Did you heere of a Stranger that's come to Court 
night ? 

Clot. A Stranger, and I not know on't? 35 

2. He's a ftrange Fellow himfelfe,and knowes it not. 
i. There's an Italian come, and 'tis thought one of 

Leonatus Friends. 

Clot. Leonatus t A banifht Rafcall; and he's another, 
whatfoeuer he be. Who told you of this Stranger ? 40 

1. One of your Lordfhips Pages. 

Clot. Is it fit I went to looke vpon him ? Is there no 
de r ogation in't ? 

2. You cannot derogate my Lord. 44 

25. your combe on] your cap-on Ran. 36. [Aside. Theobald, 
conj. 37. thought] though F 2 . 

26. Sayeft] Say'st Rowe,+, Var. '73. 38. Leonatus] Ff. Leonatus's Rowe, 

27. 2.] i Lord. Johns. +, Var. '73. Leonatus' Cap. et cet. 
you] your F 3 F 4 . 39. another,] another. F 2 . 

28. Companion] Ff, Rowe,+. 40. what/oeuer] F 2 . wheresoever F 3 F 4 , 
too.] FI. Rowe, Pope, whosoever Han. Cap. 

31. /,] Ay, Rowe. Om. Johns. 43. derogation] F T . 

34. night?] to night. Ff. to night? 44. 2.] i Lord. Johns. Var. Mai. 

Rowe. Steev. Varr. Knt, Coll. 

reproach. 1551. T. Wilson, Logike, n: 'Some [men] are capones by kinde, and so 
blunt by nature, that no arte at all can whet them.' 1590. Com. of Err., Ill, i, 32: 
'capon, coxcomb, idiot, patch!' 

25. with your combe on] JOHNSON: The allusion is to a fool's cap, which hath a 
comb like a cock's. STAUNTON: A cock's comb was one of the badges of the house- 
hold fool, and hence the compound became the synonym for simpleton. 

28. Companion] JOHNSON: The use of 'companion' was the same as of fellow 
now. It was a word of contempt. 

29, 30. commit offence] This bears, at times, a coarse meaning. It is in 
reference to this meaning that the Second Lord levels his sarcasm in the next line. 
The phrase ' do no offence ' occurs in the exquisite Song by the Fairies in Mid. N. 
Dream, II, ii, 23. ED. 

44. derogate] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. 6 intrans.}: To do something derogatory 

ACT ii, sc. i.] CYMBELINE MI 

Clot. Not eafily I thinke. 45 

2. You are a Foole graunted, therefore your Iffues 
being foolifh do not derogate. 

Clot. Come, He go fee this Italian : what I haue loft 
to day at Bowles, He winne to night of him. Come : go. 

2. He attend your Lordfhip. Exit. 50 

That fuch a craftie Diuell as is his Mother 
Should yeild the world this Affe : A woman, that 
Beares all downe with her Braine, and this her Sonne, 
Cannot take two from twenty for his heart, 

Aud leaue eighteene. Alas poore Princeffe, 55 

Thou diuine Imogen, what thou endur'ft, 
Betwixt a Father by thy Step-dame gouern'd, 
A Mother hourely coyning plots : A Wooer, 
More hatefull then the foule expulfion is 

Of thy deere Husband. Then that horrid Act 60 

Of the diuorce, heel'd make the Heauens hold firme 

46. [Aside. Pope. ii, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

47. foolijh] F 2 . foolish, F 3 F 4 . Rowe, 55. PrinceJJe\ princess! alas, Ktly. 
Pope, Cap. et seq. 58. plots:] plots, Glo. Dyce ii, iii, Cam. 

49. Bowles,] bowls Knt, Dyce, Glo. 59. expulfion] cxpufeon Fi, CapelPs 
Cam. Copy, ap. Cam. 

Come:] Come, Cap. et seq. 60. Husband. Then] husband, Then 

50. Exit.] Exit Glov. Rowe. Exit F 2 . husband, then F 3 . husband. From 
Cloten and i Lord. Cap. Knt. Husband, than F 4 et cet. 

50. 51. 2. He. ..That] i Lord. /'//... 61. diuorce, heel'd make the] Ff. 
2 Lord. Thai Elze, 305. divorce he'll make the Rowe, Pope. 

51. is] Om. Pope,+, Cap. Varr. divorce he'ld make. The Theob. Glo. 
Mai. Rann. divorce hell made. The Han. divorce 

52. yeild ]F 2 . Hell-made. The Warb. divorce he'd 
AJfe:} ass! Cap. et seq. make, the Knt. divorce he'd make! 

54. twenty for] twenty, for Dyce, Coll. The Cap. et cet. (subs.) 

to one's rank or position. (Cf. French deroger, deroger a noblesse, to do anything 
entailing loss of the privileges of nobility.) [The present passage is quoted.] 

46. Issues] DOWDEX: That is, what proceeds from you, your acts, with a play 
on issues meaning offspring. Compare Jul. Cces., Ill, i, 294: 'the cruel issue of 
these bloody men.' 

51 That such a craftie] SCHMIDT (Lex., s. v. 'That,' conj. i) gives many exam- 
ples where 'that' is used 'when the principal sentence is omitted, and the sub- 
ordinate clause (with should) express indignant surprise.' The omission here is, 
possibly, some such phrase as can it be possible, who would believe, etc. ED. 

56. Thou diuine Imogen] ROLFE: 'Divine' is accented on the first syllable, 
because preceding the noun. [Not of necessity, in the present case; iambic metre 
admits of a choriamb in the first two feet. ED.] 

60, 61. Then that horrid Act of the diuorce, heel'd make the Heauens 
hold firme] THEOBALD: I dare be positive, I have reformed the pointing and by 

112 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. ii. 

The walls of thy deere Honour. Keepe vnfhak'd 62 

That Temple thy faire mind, that thou maifb ftand 

T'enioy thy banifh'd Lord : and this great Land. Exeunt. 64 

Scena Secunda. 

Enter Imogen, in her Bed, and a Lady. 
Imo. Who's there ? My woman : Helcne ? 3 

62. Honour.]F 4 . honor. F 2 F 3 . honour; A magnificent Bedchamber, in one 

Rowe et seq. part of it a large Trunk. Rowe. 

64. T'enioy] Ff, Rowe,-f-, Coll. Sing. 2. Enter...] Imogen is discover'd 

Ktly. To enjoy Cap. et cet. reading in Bed, a Lady attending. 

Lord:] Ff, Rowe, Pope, lord Rowe. 

Dyce, Glo. Cam. lord, Theob. et cet. 3. woman: Helene?] F 2 . woman, 

Exeunt.] Exit. Cap. Helen? Coll. woman Helen? F 3 F 4 et 

i. Scena Secunda.] Scene ni. Eccl. cet. 

that retrieved the true sense. 'This wooer,' says the speaker, 'is more hateful to 
her than the banishment of her lord, or the horrid attempt to make that banish- 
ment perpetual by his marrying her in her lord's absence.' Having made this 
reflexion, he subjoins a virtuous wish, that Heaven may preserve her honour 
unblemished, and her to enjoy her husband back and her rights in the Kingdom. 
[See Text. Notes. This punctuation with its consequent interpretation is one of 
Theobald's happy emendations, and has been followed, substantially, from that 
day to this; the exceptions are HANMER, WARBURTON, and KNIGHT, the last be- 
lieves that a 'clearer sense is attained by the change of "Then that horrid act" 
to "From that horrid act," than by altering the construction of the sentence. 
The Lord implores that the honour of Imogen may be held firm, to resist the horrid 
act of the divorce from her husband which Cloten would make.' VAUGHAN 
(p. 387) would retain the 'Then' in 'Then that horrid Act,' and emphasize it, and 
he may be right. 'The wooer,' he says, could not be 'more hateful' than the 
'horrid act' by which he would 'divorce' Imogen from her husband. 'Then' 
introduces a final and crowning misery and the prayer to 'Heavens.' THISELTON 
(p. 17): Divorces were under the jurisdiction of the Spiritual Courts and were 
allowed only within certain clearly defined limits. The 'Act' is here the judicial 
Act; as we might say 'the Desire.' In modern style the comma after 'divorce' 
would be represented by a note of exclamation. 

i. Scena Secunda] ECCLES: The time, midnight, succeeding the same day. 
INGLEBY: In the course of this lovely scene one is frequently reminded of pas- 
sages in the Second Act of Macbeth; a fact which may be of use in determining an 
earlier date (1606) for parts of this play. One would naturally infer that this 
scene was written while Macbeth, II, i, ii, and iii were fresh in the writer's mind. 
There is little else to be done, in the way of comment, but to note some of these 
resemblances: lines 5, 6, Cf. Macb., II, i, 3: 'Ban. How goes the night, boy? 
Fie. The moon is down: I have not heard the clock. Ban. And she goes down at 
twelve.' Lines 12-15. Cf. Ibid., 6-9: 'A heavy summons lies like lead upon me. 
. . . Merciful powers! Restrain in me the cursed thoughts that nature gives 
way to in repose!' Lines 17, 18. Cf. Ibid., II, ii, 38: 'Sore labour's bath.' Lines 
18, 19. Cf. Ibid., II, i, 55, 56: 'With Tarquin's ravishing strides, towards his 

ACT II, SC. ii.] 


La. Pleafe you Madam. 

lino. What houre is it ? 

Lady. Almoft midnight, Madam. 

lino. I haue read three houres then : 
Mine eyes are weake, 

Fold downe the leafe 1 where I haue left ; to bed. 
Take not away the Taper, leaue it burning : 
And if thou canft awake by foure o'th'clock, 
I prythee call me : Sleepe hath ceiz'd me wholly. 
To your protection I commend me, Gods, 
From Fayries, and the Tempters of the night, 
Guard me befeech yee. Sleepes. 

lacJdmo from the Trunke. 

lack. The Crickets fing,and mans ore-labor'd fenfe 



4. Madam.] Madam Rowe, + . 

5. houre] hone FI. Capell's copy, 
ap. Cam. 

7, 8. One line Rowe et seq. 

7. then:] then. Coll. 

8. iveake,] weak: Cap. et seq. 

9. bed.] F 2 . Johns. Var. '73, Coll. 
bed F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Theob. Han. 
bed: Cap. et seq. 

11. o'th'] o'the Cap. et seq. 

12. me:] me Rowe, Pope, Han. 

Warb. me. Johns, et seq. 

12. ceiz'd] feiz'd Ff. 

[Exit Lady. Rowe et seq. 

13. Gods,] Ff, Rowe. gods; Pope, + , 
Cap. Var. '73. gods! Var. '78 et cet. 

15. me] me, F 4 et seq. 

yee.] ye! Han. Cap. et seq. 

16. lachimo...] lachimo rises... Rowe. 
lachimo comes... Coll. i. Enter lachi- 
mo... Coll. ii. lachimo rises out of the 
trunk. Coll. iii. 

design Moves like a ghost.' Lines 28, 29. Cf. Ibid., II, iii, 118: 'His silver skin 
laced with his golden blood.' Line 37. Cf. Ibid., II, iii, 81: 'Shake off this downy 
sleep, death's counterfeit.' Add to these the slight resemblance in the mention of 
'heaven' and 'hell' at the end both of this scene and of Macb., II, i. 

14. From Fayries, and the Tempters of the night] RITSON (p. 27): Fairies 
are supposed by some to have been malignant, but this, it may be, was mere 
calumny, as being utterly inconsistent with their general character, which was 
singularly innocent and amiable. It must have been the Incubus (now called the 
nightmare) Imogen was so afraid of. [Steevens, Dyce, Ingleby, and others have re- 
ferred to Banquo's words as here parallel to Imogen's or, at least, suggestive of hers, 
which is to me more than doubtful. In Banquo's mind dark suspicions of Macbeth 
were rising; he himself tells Macbeth that the night before he had dreamt of the 
Witches and of the verification thus far of their prophecies; such 'cursed thoughts' 
he prays may not again visit him when his reason is not alert to dispel them. 
That Imogen couples the tempters of the night with fairies shows how innocent 
and pure was the temple of her fair mind. That she and Banquo both prayed before 
going to sleep seems to be the sole point of resemblance. ED.] 

17. lach.] MORELY (p. 293): Mr Anderson's bedroom scene, spoken throughout 

in an oppressively ostentatious stage-whisper, is an intolerable blunder. Does he 

suppose that Shakespeare's soliloquies are pieces of mere realism, representing the 

defects of people who can't keep their tongues still even when they are alone? 


II 4 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. ii. 

Repaires it felfe by reft : Our Tarquine thus 18 

Did foftly preffe the Rufhes,ere he waken'd 

The Chaftitie he wounded. Cythcrea, 20 

How brauely thou becom'ft thy Bed;frefh Lilly, 

And whiter then the Sheetes : that I might touch, 

But kiffe, one kiffe. Rubies vnparagon'd, 23 

20. Cytherea,] Cytherea! Eccl. Ktly. et cet. 

21. Bed;frejh Lilly,] Ff. Bed! fresh 23. kiffe, one kiffe.] Ff, Ingl. kiss, 
lilly, Rowe,+, Var. '73. bed, fresh one kiss Rowe,-f. kiss; one kiss! 
lily, Glo. Bed! fresh lilly! Cap. Var. Cap. et cet. kiss one kiss! Vaun. kiss! 
'78 et seq. one kiss! John Hunter. 

22. Sheetes... touch] Ff. Sheets!... [Kissing her. Cap. Coll. iii. 
touch, Rowe,+. sheets!... touch! Cap. (MS.) 

In all the soliloquies, and lachimo's part in Imogen's bedroom is especially 
and most necessarily of this sort, we are supposed only to be following a train 
of secret thought. We can thus, by slight exercise of imagination, pass into the 
innermost recesses of the mind depicted for us, watch its secret workings, and look 
for the mainspring of its action. It would be the densest stupidity to suppose that 
lachimo uttered a sound he could suppress while he was at his base work around 
the sleeping Imogen. Let his part here be unostentatiously spoken, and we under- 
stand well enough that, in the usual way, we are enabled to penetrate to the thoughts 
that direct his silent action. But let it all be ostentatiously whispered, and we 
have the foolish spectacle of lachimo, with a tongue too loosely hung, making noise 
enough to wake fifty Imogens, and huskily struggling to keep his importunate hiss- 
ing and breathing as much as he can below the standard of an engine blowing off 
its steam. The laboured stage-effect hopelessly ruins the illusion of the scene. 

17. The Crickets sing] When Macbeth, in a frenzy of terror, after murdering 
Duncan asks Lady Macbeth if she heard no noise, she, in order to give a proof of 
the deepest silence, replies, 'I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry.' Thus, 
here, lachimo, in three words, hushes the chamber into a silence so profound that 
the chirp of a cricket is audible. And, in ' man's oer-laboured sense repairs itself 
by rest,' this quiet and repose are extended to the whole house. So also Macbeth's 
'now o'er the one half- world nature seems dead.' ED. 

1 8. Our Tarquine] JOHNSON: The speaker is an Italian. 

19. Did softly presse the Rushes] JOHNSON: It was the custom in the time 
of our author to strew chambers with rushes, as we now cover them with carpets; 
the practice is mentioned in Caius de Ephemera Britannica. [A needless, and, I 
fear, pedantic reference. Shakespeare himself is an all-sufficient authority for the 
custom. Thus, Romeo says : ' let wantons light of heart Tickle the senseless rushes 
with their heels.' I, iv, 35. And Grumio, in Tarn, of the Shrew, says: 'is supper 
ready, the house trimmed, rushes strewed, cobwebs swept?' etc., IV, i, 48. If the 
student need examples from other sources, they may be found in the Variorum of 
1821, and in Halliwell. ED.] 

20. Cytherea] ECCLES: This should be considered, I think, as an exclamation ad- 
dressed to the goddess who presided over beautiful objects upon the first view of so 
much beauty. [This interpretation seems, to me, to carry conviction. It is also pro- 
posed by VAUGHAN (p. 387) and had occurred independently to the present ED.] 

ACT IT, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 115 

How deerely they doo't : 'Tis her breathing that 

Perfumes the Chamber thus : the Flame o'th'Taper 25 

Bowes toward her, and would vnder-peepe her lids. 

To fee th'inclofed Lights, now Canopied 27 

24. they doo't:] they do't Rowe, o'the Cap. et seq. 

Pope, they'd do't! Nicholson, ap. 26. lids.] Ff. lids Cam. lids, Rowe 

Cam. Vaun. they do't! Theob. et et cet. 

seq. 27. th'] Ff, Rowe, + , Dyce. the Cap. 

25. o'th'] F 4 , Rowe, + . oiV F 2 F 3 . et cet. 

22, 23. that I might touch, But kisse, one kisse] COLLIER (ed. ii.): It seems 
by the MS. that lachimo actually 'kissed Imogen' at these words. [CAPELL here 
adds the stage-direction, 'kissing her,' without comment, as though it were an act 
so generally accepted and so manifest as to need no remark. Therein, I think, he 
erred. I doubt that, in recent times, this passage has been generally thus 
interpreted. There are few notes on it none at all before the foregoing note 
by Collier. Apart from the disgust, instinctively felt at the sight of such a lib- 
erty, by such a man, at such a time, the risk of discovery is too great. Into 
such a peril, lachimo was too cautious and too self-controlled to venture; his 
whole fortune, nay, his very life, was at stake; everything depended on Imogen's 
profound slumber. INGLEBY asserts roundly that lachimo 'does not kiss her,' 
and denounces Capell's stage-direction as 'vulgar' and 'too monstrous to need 
refutation.' ED.] 

24. How deerely they doo't :] VAUGHAN (p. 387) having suggested the punc- 
tuation, 'But kiss one kiss!' accordingly adds the amendment, 'How dearly 
they'd do't!' i. e., 'kiss one kiss.' 'As the passage stands,' he asserts, 'there is no 
action to which 'do't' can possibly refer.' This dogmatic assertion is well-nigh 
incomprehensible. I should rather say that the action is so clear that it cannot 
possibly be missed. lachimo yearns to steal a kiss, but this cannot be done, 
whereas her lips ' two kissing cherries ' how dearly they do it. Rev. JOHN HUNTER 
explains 'How dearly they do't' as meaning 'at what peril they take the kiss,' 
which implies, I think, his assumption that lachimo kisses Imogen. DOWDEN, 
on the other hand, says that 'dearly' is equivalent to exquisitely, but makes no 
reference to an actual kiss by lachimo, wherefrom we may hopefully infer his dis- 
belief in it. ED. 

24, 25. "Tis her breathing that Perfumes, etc.] MALONE: Thus, in The 
Metamorphosis of Pigmalions Image, by J. Marston, 1598: 'Then view's her lips, 
no lips did seeme so faire In his conceit, through which he thinks doth flie so sweet 
a breath, that doth perfume the ayre.' [Stanza 7, ed. Grossart.] 

26. Bowes toward her] FLETCHER (p. 44): Was ever the victory of silent 
beauty, elegance, and purity, over the awe-struck spirit of a sensualist, so ex- 
quisitely painted or so nobly celebrated as in the lines of this soliloquy? It is not 
'the flame o' the taper' that here 'bows toward her,' but the unhallowed flames in a 
voluptuary and a treacherous breast, that render extorted yet grateful homage to 
that lovely, spotless, and fragrant soul! [Is there herein a suggestion that the 
atmosphere of the chamber is so absolutely quiet and still that the mere move- 
ment of lachimo's body, as he glides past, causes the flame to follow his motion 
toward the bed? ED.] 



[ACT ii, sc. ii. 

Vnder thefe windowes, White and Azure lac'd 
With Blew of Heauens owne tin<5t. But my defigne. 


28. thefe] the Ff, Rowe, Pope, Cap. 

28, 29. thefe windowes... With] those 
curtains white with azure lac'd, The 

28. windowes,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Dyce, Glo. Cam. windows: Theob. 
et cet. 

28, 29. and Azure lac'd With] Ff, 
Sta. Glo. with azure lac'd, The Warb. 
and azure! lac'd With Johns. Varr. 
and azure, lac'd: With Cap. ' Mai. 
with azure lac'd With Ran. and azure- 

-lac'd With B. Nicholson, ap. Cam. 
Ingl. ii. and azure, lac'd With Rowe et 

29. tincl.] tinct, Ff. tinct Rowe, 

defigne.] F 2 , Var. '21, Knt i. 
defigne' s F 3 . defign's F 4 , Rowe,+, 
Eccl. Dyce ii, iii, Huds. Coll. iii. 
design Var. '73, Knt ii, Ingl. design, 
Coll. i, ii, Dyce i, Sta. Glo. Cam. 
design? FI (Capell's copy, ap. Cam.), 
Cap. et cet. 

27, 28. th'enclosed Lights, now Canopied Vnder these windowes, White 
and Azure lac'd] CAPELL asserts that the comma after 'windows' ('which 
the Poet would have called shutters, for that's his meaning, had the dignity of his 
subject permitted it ') maims the sense by making ' White and Azure' refer to them; 
'whereas there is much more propriety in applying those words to all the visible 
parts of the lady, pronouncing them rapturously, Here is "white and azure!" 
the white "lac'd" with't, as 'twere! with an azure as rich as that of the heavens!' 
[I believe no editor or commentator has adopted this extended and comprehensive 
view of Capell. ED.] M ALONE: These words, I apprehend, refer not to Imogen's 
eye-lids (of which the poet would scarcely have given so particular a description), 
but to the inclosed lights, i. e., her eyes, which, though now shut, lachimo had seen 
before, and which are here said in poetical language to be blue, and that blue celes- 
tial. [That the 'windows' are the eye-lids, Malone shows by Friar Laurence's 
words: 'thy eyes' windows fall, Like death, when he shuts up the day of life.' 
Rom. and Jul., IV, i, 100. PORTER and CLARKE are, I think, Malone's sole fol- 
lowers in the belief that 'lac'd with blue' refers to the blue of the enclosed lights; 
'As fancied not seen,' they say, 'beneath the fringe of the lashes interlaced over 
them, this is not unlikely.' ED.] KNIGHT: We are disposed to agree with 
Warburton that the eye-lids were intended. The eye-lid of an extremely fair young 
woman is often of a tint that may be properly called ' white and azure, ' which is 
produced by the network of exceedingly fine veins that runs through and colours 
that beautiful structure. In the text before us, the eye-lids are not only of a 
'white and azure' hue, but they are also 'lac'd with blue of heaven's own tinct' 
marked with the deeper blue of the larger veins. The description here is as accurate 
as it is beautiful. It cannot apply with such propriety to the eye, which certainly 
is not 'laced' with blue, nor to the skin generally, which would not be beautiful 
as 'white and azure,' It is, to our minds, one of the many examples of Shake- 
speare's extreme accuracy of observation, and of his transcendant power of making 
the exact and the poetical blend with and support each other. STAUNTON: 
The beauty of this image is not enhanced by the usual punctuation. [That is, 
with a comma after 'azure,' whereby 'white and azure' are made to refer to 
'windows.' Staunton's text reads 'white, and azure lac'd With,' etc. 'Perhaps,' 
says DOWDEN, 'this reading of Staunton is right.'] HUDSON: Observe, 'lac'd' 
agrees with 'windows,' not with 'white and azure'; for the 'azure' is the 'blue 
of heaven's own tinct.' 'Perhaps the sense would be clearer thus: 'white with 

ACT ii, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE \\-j 

To note the Chamber, I will write all downe, 30 

Such, and fuch pictures : There the window, fuch 
Th'adornement of her Bed; the Arras, Figures, 32 

30. Chamber, ...downe,] Ff. chamber 32. adornement] adronement FI (Ca- 
...down, Rowe,+. chamber, ...down: pell's copy, ap. Cam.). 

Cap. et cet. Bed;] bed Rowe,-f-. 

[Takes out his tables. Coll. MS. Arras, Figures] arras-figures M. 

(monovol.) Mason, Ran. Wh. i. arras; figures Glo. 

31. pictures:} pictures Rowe,-f-. Wh. ii. 

window,] window; Cap. et seq. Figures^ figures Rowe,-j-, Ran. 

32. 77*'] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. Dyce. figures? Cap. Varr. 
The Cap. et cet. 

azure lac'd, the blue.' [Herein Hudson is anticipated by Warburton. In referring 
'lac'd' to 'windows' Hudson anticipates Vaughan,who thinks the sense would be 
made clearer by reading: 'These windows white and azure, lac'd With blue,' etc. 

29. But my designe.j When Shylock replies, 'I'll not answer that; But say it is 
my humour,' there is, I believe, an absorption of to in the final / of 'But'; thus: 
'I'll not answer that But [to] say,' etc., which might be printed 'But' say. Thus 
here, there is, I think, another case of similar absorption, and lachimo's words, 
slightly changing the punctuation of FI, should be printed 'But my design To 
note the Chamber. I will write all down,' etc. (Since writing these lines, I find, 
on referring to the Cam. Ed., that I have been anticipated in the insertion of to by 
'Nicholson.' If this be the late Brinsley Nicholson I am happy in recording that 
there are very few whom I would more gladly follow than that keen-sighted, 
well-equipped, accurate scholar.) ED. 

29. designe.] CAPELL: The interrogation at the end of 'design 'is only in theF,. 
[See Text. Notes.] Here the speaker pulls out his tables; and having minuted some 
of his items is stopped by a reflection upon their little significance in comparison 
with some others he specifies, but in lines that were neither grammatical nor sense 
as they have been written and pointed hitherto. [In the conclusion of this note by 
Capell, see Comment on lines 34-36.] 

30. I will write all downe] COLLIER (ed. ii.): It seems by a marginal note 
in the MS. that, at these words, lachimo 'took out his tables,' and noted at the 
moment the particulars which he observed in the Chamber. It may be doubted 
whether the poet intended that he should do so at the time; but we take it for 
granted that such was the course when the old annotator saw the play, and such 
may certainly have been the custom on our early stage. 

32. the Arras, Figures] M. MASON (p. 325): This should be pointed thus, 
'the Arras-figures?' That is, the figures of the Arras. WHITE (ed. i.) adopted this 
hyphen of Mason, but, in his ed. ii, following the Globe, he placed an emphatic 
semicolon between the two words. MALOXE: I think Mason is mistaken. It 
appears from what lachimo says afterwards [II, iv, 87], that he had noted not only 
the figures of the arras, but the stuff of which the arras was composed. Again in 
[V, v, 238] 'averring notes of Chamber-hanging, Pictures,' etc. [That these 
'Figures' have any connection with the Arras is, I think, doubtful. When lachimo 
afterwards describes this chamber to Posthumus, he refers to the ' story ' on the 
'tapistry' or arras, which was that of Cleopatra; he then describes the chimney- 
piece where the 'figures' were carved. Is it not to these 'figures' which he now 
refers? ED.] 

n8 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT 11, sc. ii. 

Why fuch, and fuch : and the Contents o'th'Story. 33 

Ah, but fome naturall notes about her Body, 

Aboue ten thoufand meaner Moueables 

Would teftifie, t'enrich mine Inuentorie. 36 

33. and fuch:} and such Rowe,+. 34. naturall} natural Pope,+. 

o'th] of the Cap. o'the Var. '73 35. Moueables} moveables, Theob. 

et seq. Warb. Johns, moveables they Cap. 

Story.] story, Cap. et seq. 36. Would} They' Id Elze. 

34. fome] foJJie F 2 . t' enrich] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. 

Sing. Dyce. to enrich Cap. et cet. 

34-36. Some naturall notes about her Body, Aboue ten thousand meaner 
Moueables Would testifie, t'enrich mine Inuentorie] CAPELL: If the 
reader shall think it permissible, and the lines improved by it, they might be 
ranged thus: 'Ah, but some natural notes about her body | To enrich mine inven- 
tory! they would testify | Above ten thousand meaner moveables.' While the 
speaker is about making search for those 'natural notes,' his eye is caught by the 
bracelet, and having taken it off, spies the ' mole ' : at finding of which he expresses 
much exultation, and is going to enter that in his tables, but stops, asking himself a 
question, that has much dramatical beauty when relieved from those impertinent 
words ['No more']. The book is spied next; of which he makes another memento, and 
then shuts up his tables. VAUGHAN (p. 389): This passage has been universally 
misunderstood. The universal punctuation shows that 'would testify,' etc., is 
interpreted 'would testify in such a way as to enrich my inventory.' But the 
enrichment of his inventory would be a very paltry effect of their testimony; nor, 
as their testimony must follow the possession of his inventory, could they well be 
said to testify to enrich his inventory at all? 'To enrich mine inventory' really 
depends on 'sleep lie dull upon her, and be her sense,' etc. This would give him the 
precious bracelet, 'to witness outwardly'; and thus enrich the inventory of his 
possessions, and also of his proofs, by a proof as strong as conscience. A full 
period should be placed after 'testify,' where the sense is completed. I would 
read, therefore, and punctuate: 'some natural notes about her body Above ten 
thousand meaner moveables would testify. To enrich mine inventory O sleep, 
thou ape,' etc. [This remarkable comment is given unabridged, and, possibly, 
would not have been given at all, were it not that in his punctuation Vaughan 
anticipated Dowden, as Dowden himself tells us, whence we may infer that he 
substantially agrees with Vaughan. It seems to me that it is Vaughan (and not 
the 'universe') who, misled by the virtual parenthesis in the second line, has 
misunderstood the whole passage. Attention to the punctuation, here faultless, 
of the Folio, or even to Capell's proposed reading, as recorded in the Cam. Ed., 
would never have induced the belief that lachimo intended the 'meaner moveables' 
to testify so as to enrich his inventory, or even to testify at all. It is the 'natural 
notes ' about Imogen's body that are to enrich the inventory as nothing else could. 
In effect, lachimo says: let me enrich my list by a few birthmarks, the proof 
afforded by these would outweigh the testimony of ten thousand articles of furni- 
ture, whereof the knowledge could be gained by hearsay. It was while gazing 
in search of these natural notes that his eye catches sight of the bracelet. Then 
follows the adjuration to Sleep to make Imogen as insensate as marble so that he 

ACT ii, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE ! ! 9 

O fleepe, thou Ape of death, lye dull vpon her, 37 

And be her Senfe but as a Monument, 

Thus in a Chappell lying. Come off, come off; 

As flippery as the Gordian-knot was hard. 40 

'Tis mine, and this will witneffe outwardly, 

As ftrongly as the Confcience do's within : 

To'th'madding of her Lord. On her left breft 43 

37. Jleepe,] sleep! Coll. ii, Ingl. 40. Gordian-knot] Gordian knot Pope 
her,} Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. Sta. et seq. 

her; Coll. ii. her! Theob. et cet. hard.} hard! Cap. et seq. 

38. Monument} monument's Vaun. 41. mine,} Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 

39. lying.} lying! Theob. et seq. mine! Coll. i, ii. mine; Theob. et cet. 
Come off,] O/, Cap. conj. will witnejje} witnejje F 3 F 4 . 
com-e off;] come off Rowe i, 42. within:] within, Rowe et seq. 

Var. '73. come of.-- Rowe ii, + . 43. To'th'] To th' Ff,+. To the Cap. 

[Taking off her bracelet. Rowe. et seq. 

can secure it. The very word 'sense' (that is, feeling, sensation) intimates this, 
and his 'Come off, come off' proves it. ED.] 

38. Sense] WHITE: That is, her sensuous part, her body. 

38. a Monument, Thus in a Chappell lying] MALONE: Shakespeare was 
here thinking of the recumbent whole-length figures, which, in his time, were 
usually placed on the tombs of considerable persons. The head always reposed 
upon a pillow. He has again the same allusion in his R. of L.: 'Where like a vir- 
tuous monument she lies, To be admired,' etc. [line 391]. 

39, 40. come off; As slippery as] VAUGHAN: All editors have, it seems to me, 
slightly misunderstood this. [Yaughan then proceeds to prove the proper under- 
standing by proposing to consider 'slippery' an adverb qualifying 'come off,' thus 
'come off As slippery as,' etc. If this be the true interpretation, it is obtained, I 
think, at the expense of the dramatic action and of all appreciation of the scene. 
There is a pause after the first, 'Come off!' and a second pause, longer and more 
breathless, after the latter, 'Come off!' as the bracelet was nearing the wrist and 
hand. Then as the bracelet is almost free lachimo breathes forth, 'As slippery as 
the Gordian knot, was hard.' It is, of course, the bracelet that was slippery. If 
Vaughan's construction be correct and 'slippery' qualifies the coming off, then to 
maintain the analogy he should read 'as the Gordian knot was hard in untying.' 
As the text stands, ' slippery ' qualifies bracelet and ' hard ' qualifies the Gordian knot. 
In the use of 'slippery,' may we not detect one of Shakespeare's stage-directions? 
Posthumus, when he gave the bracelet to Imogen, called it a 'manacle.' Manacles 
are fastened with a clasp. To unclasp the bracelet would have been an easier and 
more momentary task than to free it with infinite delicacy of touch, and with eyes 
glancing every tenth of a second at the sleeper's closed lids, along the arm, down 
the wrist, and over the hand. By using 'slippery' Shakespeare tells us that it was 
not to be unclasped, but removed by a way more perilous and dramatic, and one 
which sustains the thrill of suspense until there comes the triumphant, 'Tis mine!' 

42. Conscience] DYCE (Few Notes, 155): It may not be useless to observe that 
' conscience ' is used here for consciousness. (' As strongly as his inward conscious- 

120 THE TRACED IE OF ACT n, sc. ii. 

A mole Cinque-fpotted : Like the Crimfon drops 

V th'bottome of a Cowflippe. Heere's a Voucher, 45 

Stronger then e'uer Law could make; this Secret 

Will force him thinke I haue picked the lock, and t'ane 

The treafure of her Honour. No more : to what end? 48 

44. J 'potted:] spotted Rowe, spotted, 47. / haue] I've Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii, 
Pope et seq. Huds. 

45. Fth'] I'the Cap. et seq. t'ane] Ff. ta'en Rowe. 
Cowflippe.] cowslip: Cap. et 48. No more:] Ff. No more Rowe, 

seq. +, Om. Cap. No more. Var. '78 et seq. 

44. A mole] In reference to this mole, MALONE notes that Shakespeare derived 
it from Boccaccio, and not from Westward for Smelts. See Appendix: Source of the 

44. the Crimson drops] STEEVENS: This simile contains the smallest out of a 
thousand proofs that Shakespeare was an observer of nature, though, in this 
instance, no very accurate describer of it, for the drops alluded to are of a deep 
yellow. BEISLEY (p. 20): This description shows how particularly Shakespeare 
observed natural objects. The five spots in the corolla of the cowslip have escaped 
the attention of some of our botanists. ELLACOMBE (p. 49): 'Cowslips! how 
the children love them, and go out into the fields on sunny April mornings to 
collect them in their little baskets, and then come home and pick the pips to make 
sweet unintoxicating wine, preserving, at the same time untouched, a bunch of the 
goodliest flowers as a harvest-sheaf of beauty! and then the white soft husks are 
gathered into balls and tossed from hand to hand till they drop to pieces, to be 
trodden upon and forgotten. And so at last, when each sense has had its fill of 
the flower and they are thoroughly tired of their play, the children rest from their 
Celebration of the Cowslip. Blessed are such flowers that appeal to every sense!' 
So wrote Dr Forbes Watson in his pretty and Ruskinesque little work, Flowers and 
Gardens, and the passage well expresses one of the chief charms of the cowslip. 
It is the most favourite flower with children. It must have been also with Shake- 
speare. GRINDON (p. 5) : The solitary Shakespearian botanical slip is, like all his 
other lapses, so palpable as to be detected on the instant. ... A certain amount of 
latitude is always permissible in descriptions designed to be vivid and picturesque, 
but it is going quite beyond the reality to say that the spots in the cup of the 
cowslip are 'crimson.' The nearest approach to that colour ever seen could be 
described only as rosy orange. [It is not the flower but the leaves which receive 
the fullest description, both in Lyte's Niewe Herbal, 1578, and in Gerarde's Herball, 
1623 (2d and larger ed.). The latter rather provokingly says of the flower that it 
'is so commonly knowne that it needeth no description,' not that any description 
can equal Shakespeare's, but it seemed to me worth while to examine these ancient 
books and see if, by chance, the spots were anywhere called 'drops,' which, pos- 
sibly, Shakespeare used to avoid the repetition involved in 'cinque-spotted.' 
-MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. f 9) : A spot of colour (like the mark or stain of a drop). 
1607. Topsell, Fourc-footed Beasts, 91: 'Their belly is parted with black strokes or 
drops.' As for the 'botanical error,' in calling the drops crimson, we must bear in 
mind how extremely difficult it is to determine the value of colours. Here Steevens 
and Grindon are not precisely at one. Shakespeare frequently terms blood crimson, 
and yet Macbeth speaks of Duncan's 'silver skin lac'd with his golden blood.' ED.] 

ACT ii, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 12 \ 

Why fhould I write this downe, that's riueted, 

ScrewM to my memorie. She hath bin reading late, 50 

The Tale of Tcrcus, heere the leaffe's turn'd downe 

Where Philomcle gaue vp. I haue enough, 

To'th'Truncke againe,and fhut the fpring of it. 

Swift, fwift, you Dragons of the night, that dawning 

May beare the Rauens eye : I lodge in feare, 55 

49. riueted] riveteds F 2 . rivitted F 3 . up Rowe,+, Cap. Varr. Ran. up; 
rivetted F 4 . riuete F x , Capell's copy, ap. Mai. et cet. 

Cam. 53. ///'] the Cap. et seq. 

50. memorie.} mem'ry? or memory? 54. night,] Knt, Coll. Dyce, Sta. 
Theob. et seq. Glo. Cam. night! Pope et cet. 

She hath] Sh'hath Pope, Theob. i, 55. beare. ..eye:] F 2 . bear. ..eye: F 3 F 4 , 

Han. Rowe, Theob. Warb. Cap. ope. ..eye: 

bin] been F 4 . Pope, bare it's raven-eye: Han. Johns. 

late,] Ff, + , Varr. late: Cap. bare. ..eye! Knt, Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

late Mai. et seq. Ingl. ii. bear. ..eye! Ingl. i. bare the 

51. Tereus,] F 2 . Terus, F 3 F 4 . Te- heaven's eye Leo (withdrawn), dear 
reus; Theob. et seq. Uie raven's eye Vaun. bar or bier the 

52. Philomele] Philomel Johns, et raven's eye. Thiselton. bare. ..eye: Var. 
seq. '73 et cet. 

vp.] Ff, Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. feare,] fear; Cap. et seq. 

51. The Tale of Tereus . . . Where Philomele gaue up] M ALONE: 
Tereus and Progne is the second ['pretie hystorie'] in A Petite Pallace of Pettie his 
Pleasure, in Qto, 1576. The same tale is in Gower's Confessio A mantis, lib. V 
[p. 313, ed. Pauli.], and in Ovid, Metam., lib. vi. ['frustra clamato saepe parente, 
Saepe sorore sua, magnis super omnia divis.' line 524. Golding's Trans., p. 74, 
verso, 1567.] HERFORD: It is characteristic that Imogen should stop at this 
point. WALKER (Crit., i, 152) devotes a chapter to Ovid's Influence on Shakespeare. 

54. you Dragons of the night] STEEVENS (Note on 'night-swift Dragons, '- 
Mid. N. D., Ill, ii, 400, of this ed.): The task of drawing the chariot of the night 
was assigned to dragons on account of their supposed watchfulness. MALONE: 
This circumstance Shakespeare might have learned from Golding's Ovid, which 
he has imitated in The Tempest: 'And brought asleep the dragon fell, whose eyes 
were never shet.' 

54, 55. that dawning May beare the Rauen's eye] THEOBALD (Nichol's 
Illust., ii, 265) wrote to Warburton: 'I think "beare" should be either bore, or bare, 
i. e., make bare. Though the raven be a night-bird, it does not prey during that 
whole season, but slumbers towards morning, and is disturbed by the first approach 
of dawn. Now making bare the eye seems to me peculiarly proper, as most birds 
and many quadrupeds have a membrane for nictation, wherewith they can at 
pleasure cover their eyes, though their eyelids be open, and with this membrane 
they often defend their eyes from too strong a light, and draw it over the pupil, 
when they do not shut down the eyelid at all.' Theobald did not again refer to his 
conjecture, bore, so we may consider it as withdrawn. In his subsequent edition, 
he has, after severely criticising Pope for the reading ope, the following: 'I could 
help Mr Pope to an emendation with a very minute change of letter: May bare 
the raven's eye, i. e., make bare, naked; and this would be a much more poetical 

122 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. ii. 

[54, 55. that dawning May beare the Rauen's eye] 

word than ope. 1 After writing thus sensibly, and offering an emendation, which 
has been ever since generally adopted, he succumbed, in an unhappy hour, to the 
domineering influence of 'thought-swarming, but idealess, Warburton,' as Cole- 
ridge calls him, and retained 'bear,' as 'a very grand and poetical expression' 
(Warburton himself, having devised it, pronounces it ' sublime ') , inasmuch as it is 
'a metaphor borrowed from Heraldry; as in Much Ado, "if he have wit enough to 
keep himself warm, let him bear it for a difference between himself and his horse." 
I, i, 66.] Theobald then goes on to say, ' that the Dawn should bear the Rauen's eye, 
means that it should rise and show that colour. Now the Raven's eye is remark- 
ably grey: and grey-eyed, ' tis known, is the epithet universally joined to the morn- 
ing,' Here follow five or six quotations where grey is thus 'joined to morning,' 
which need not be here repeated; a Concordance will furnish them. WARBURTON: 
Had Shakespeare meant to bare or open the eye, that is, to awake, he had instanced 
rather in the lark than raven as the earliest riser. Besides, whether the morning 
bared or opened the raven's eye was of no advantage to the speaker, but it was much 
advantage that it should bear it, that is, become light. HEATH (p. 476): I am 
inclined to think that bare, that is, open it, is the genuine text. Our poet says of 
the crow (a bird whose properties resemble very much those of the raven) in Tro. 
6 Cress., 'O Cressida! but that the busie day, Wak'd by the lark, has rous'd the 
ribald crows.' [IV, ii, 8.] Mr Warburton objects that ' the opening of the raven's 
eye was no advantage to the speaker'; no more was the dawning, decking itself in 
grey, considered in itself, but both were of equal advantage to him, considered as 
the constant forerunner of day. STEEVENS : The poet means no more than that the 
light might wake the raven; or, as it is poetically expressed, bare his eye. KNIGHT: 
We are not quite sure of the propriety of Theobald's correction, bare. . . . The 
dawning may bare that eye; or the dawning may bear, may sustain, may be distinct 
enough to endure the proof of that acute vision [attributed to the raven in search 
of his prey.] COLLIER (ed. i.) notes a suggestion of Barren Field that 'night' is 
here poetically described as 'the raven.' 'This may certainly be so,' adds Collier, 
and the suggestion deserves attention, though we are not acquainted with any other 
instance where night is so personified, admitting that the 'raven' and its plumage 
are often mentioned as accompaniments of or similes for night; as in the well- 
known words of Milton: 'smoothing the raven down Of darkness till it smiled.' 
DYCE (Remarks, etc., 254) quotes this note of Collier, and scorns it: 'That "you 
dragons of the night" mean "you dragons that draw the chariot of the Night," 
neither Mr Field nor Mr Collier will, I presume, dispute; here, therefore, Night 
is spoken of as A GODDESS; and is it to be supposed for a moment that in the very 
next line Shakespeare would turn her into A RAVEN? Besides, how could the 
"dawning" said to open the eye of Night? do not poets invariably describe Night as 
betaking herself to repose at the dawn of Day? ' Darknesse is fled: looke, infant 
Morne hath drawne Bright siluer curtains 'bout the couch of Night.'" Marston's 
Antonio's Reuenge, 1602, sig. B. 2. COLLIER (ed. ii. reading 'may dare the raven's 
eye'. (Perhaps the letter d was mistaken by the old printer, and thus dare might 
become bare or 'beare.' 'May dare the raven's eye' must have reference to the 
practice of daring, or dazzling, the eyes of larks by pieces of looking-glass. On the 
other hand, the true reading of 'beare' may be bleare, in the sense of 'blear the eye,' 
which was a very common expression in the time of Shakespeare. . . . To 'blear 
the raven's eye' would mean to render it dim, like any other night-bird by the 

ACT ii, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 123 

[54, 55. that dawning May beare the Rauen's eye] 

brightness of the morning; but having no authority for blear, we adopt dare from 
the MS. [In his ed. iii. Collier abandoned dare and returned to bare.] SINGER 
(Text Vindicated, etc., p. 304): How any one could have conceived that he could 
amend this passage, and suggest dare and bleare, is past my comprehension! One 
must be blear-eyed indeed not to perceive that 'dawning may bare the raven's 
eye' is a highly poetical image for returning day opening the eye of night. The 
celebrated passage in Macbeth: 'Come, seeling night Scarf up the tender eye of 
pitiful day,' alone might have opened the eyes of the correctors of this passagem 
and spared us their dare and bleare. LETTSOM (? Blackwood's Maga., Oct., 1853, 
p. 470) : We have little doubt that ' the raven's eye here means night's eye. 'May 
bare the raven's eye' that is, may open the eye of darkness and thus usher in the 
day. Has not Milton got 'smoothing the raven down of darkness till it smiled'? 
This interpretation must be placed to the credit of Mr Singer, although it had 
occurred previously to ourselves. [Who the author was of these Notes in Black- 
wood has never, as far as I know, been made authoritatively known. Ingleby 
(N. & Q., V, vii, 224, speaks of them as 'by the late Mr Lettsom'; but Lettsom 
himself, in his Preface to Walker (Grit, i, p. liv.), quotes a sentence from them with 
which he utterly disagrees and holds the author of them up to ridicule. ED.] 
DYCE (ed. ii.) refers to a passage in Drout's Pityfull Historic of Ganlfrido and Bar- 
nado le vayne, etc., Sig. F. 2. Then, after quoting the note in Collier's ed. ii, just 
given, repeats the note from his Remarks, etc., and adds, '1865. Mr Collier . . . 
also proposes (most ridiculously) "May blear the raven's eye." [KEIGHTLEY 
so far from finding it ridiculous, adopts it in his text.] CARTWRIGHT (p. 38) pro- 
poses cheer for 'bare,' because the raven wanted his breakfast. The Misses 
PORTER and CLARKE: lachimo had reason to fear the Raven's eye, reason to fear 
the prompt guard of the loyal servant, Pisanio, to whom he may here refer under 
this figure. . . . He longs for that dawning when he, no longer there in the trunk, 
subject to discovery, may thus beare, stand the Raven's scrutiny. THISELTON 
(p. 1 8) : The Raven here is clearly the Night-raven; hence the usual modern reading 
bare is singularly out of place. Why did not Theobald conjecture bar, which would 
be written barre? . . . We might then have had a really neat allusion to the 
membrana nictitans, though the sense might shift well enough without it. Com- 
pare ' The Night-raven or Crowe is of the same manner of life that the Owle is, for 
she onely commeth abrode in the darke night fleeing the daylighte and sunne' 
(Maplet's A Greene Forest, Cent. Did.; 'this Birde [" the night crowe"] is called 
Noctna, as it were sharply seeing by night; for by night she maye see, and when 
shining of the sunne commeth, her sight is dim') [Batman, Bk, 12, chap. 27. 
In Batman's own addition to this chapter, the bird is spoken of as 'this kinde of 
Owle.' In Batman's chap. 10 'of the Rauen,' there is no reference to its nocturnal 
habits. ED.] I am indebted to a friend for another interpretation of the original 
text, which has the advantage of dispensing with any suspicion of alteration therein. 
According to this, lachimo calls upon the Dragons of the Night so to accelerate 
their flight that dawning may for once undergo or endure the Night-raven's eye, 
which it usually avoids by its gradual approach. There is a further possibility 
that in 'beare' we may have the word bier used as a verb, and that by 'the Raven's 
eye' lachimo may mean his own, boding ill-luck to Imogen. His thought would 
then be 'Let it be dawning that carries the Raven's eye' into its seclusion as of the 
grave; and slipping into the 'Trunke' which sufficiently resembles a coffin, he would 



Though this a heauenly Angell : hell is heere. 

Clocke flrikes 
One, two, three : time, time. Exit. 

[ACT ii, sc. ii. 



56. Angell:] angel, Rowe et seq. 

57. [Counting the clock. Cap. 

58. time.] time! Pope et seq. 

58. [He goes into the Trunk, the 
Scene shifts. Rowe i. (closes. Rowe ii.). 
Shuts the trunk upon himself. The 
scene closes. Cap. 

imagine himself as dead, Imogen appearing as an Angel, and the darkness of the 
' Trunke ' as Hell. . . . Such an interpretation will, however, probably be regarded 
as too fanciful, if not grotesque. [In the Shakespeare Jahrbuch (iv, 383, 1869), 
JULIUS MARTENSEN rehearses various interpretations that have been given of this 
passage, and comes to the conclusion that they are all insufficient, and that the true 
meaning is that the 'raven' is 'the trunk itself with its raven-black darkness. 
The raven's eye is, therefore, the opening of the trunk, the opening, which the lid 
of the trunk holds fast shut like an eyelid,' etc. Further amplification or comment 
is needless; in the Jakrbuch for 1875 (p. 382) the suggestion was judiciously with- 
drawn. We have thus seen that the Raven has been supposed to be Night, the 
Trunk, and Pisanio. What, we may ask, has lachimo himself done that he should 
be overlooked? Is he not to join the sable group? Thiselton has just answered. 
Verily, a whole flock of ravens could not yearn for dawning to bare their eyes 
more bitterly than the stifled prisoner. After mentioning the Raven's eye, does 
he not instantly refer to himself: '/ lodge' one eye almost in grammatical 
apposition to the other? Assuredly, the Raven is lachimo. In conclusion, it 
seems to me that the meaning of the phrase can be expressed hardly better or more 
tersely than it has been by Steevens. ED.] 

56. Though this a] WALKER (Vers., 85) regards this as one of the many in- 
stances when an absorption occurs of is in 'this.' DYCE (ed. ii.) quotes Walker, 
and remarks that 'he is probably right.' It is difficult to come to any other con- 
clusion in view of the numerous examples gathered by Walker in his Article VI, 
not only from Shakespeare, but from his contemporaries. Indeed, the number is so 
great that the theory of absorption is threatened, and one might almost affirm 
that 'This' is used absolutely in Elizabethan English. ED. 

56. hell is heere] If there be anywhere a comment on these words I have failed 
to find it, and to me they are not so clear as to need none. DEIGHTON, it is true, 
remarks that 'hell' is 'torment,' but this does not help us much; it is hardly to be 
supposed that hell is a synonym of comfortable ease. Of course, it has no reference 
to the trunk. Does not lachimo strike his breast? and is not 'here' used Sei/cn/ccos? 
(I dislike the pedantic word, but no other will precisely fit.) Is it that after the 
deed is done a wave of sudden remorse overwhelms him, like Macbeth's, 'Wake 
Duncan with thy knocking? I would thou couldst ! ' Or, as Wordsworth expresses 
it: ' 'Tis done and in the after vacancy We wonder at ourselves as men betrayed.' 
Or is it one of Shakespeare's ways of preparing us for the future, like Brabantio's 
warning to Othello in reference to Desdemona: 'She has deceived her father and 
may thee'? lachimo's final repentance must be represented in the last Act as 
deep and long, and is this a preparation for it? ED. 

58. One, two, three] M ALONE: Our author is often careless in his computation 
of time. Just before Imogen went to sleep, she asked her attendant what hour it 
was, and was informed by' her it was almost midnight. lachimo, immediately 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 125 

Scena Tertia. 

Enter Clotten , and Lords . 2 

i. Your Lordfhip is the moft patient man in loffe, the 
moft coldefl that euer turned vp Ace. 4 

i. Scena Tertia.] Scene iv. Eel. Cap. The same. An ante-chamber 

The Palace. Rowe. The Palace adjoining Imogen's apartments in the 

again. Pope. Scene changes to another same. Dyce. 

Part of the Palace, facing Imogen's 3. /.] i Lord. Rowe. 

Apartments. Theob. Without the Pal- 4. moft coldefl] coldest Pope,+. 

ace, under Imogen's Apartment. Han. euer] Om. Ff. 
An Anti-Room to the above Chamber. 

after she has fallen asleep, comes from the trunk, and the present soliloquy cannot 
have consumed more than a few minutes, yet we are now told that it is three 
o'clock. [This shallow remark is admirably answered by] DANIEL (New. Sh. Soc. 
Trans., 1877-79, p. 242, foot-note): Surely the many dramatic camels Malone 
must have swallowed should have enabled him to pass this little fly without 
straining. Stage-time is not measured by the glass, and to an expectant audience 
the awful pause between the falling asleep by Imogen and the stealthy opening of 
the trunk from which lachimo issues would be note and mark of time enough. 
Instances of the night of one day passing into the morning of the next in one un- 
broken scene is too frequent in these plays to need more than a general reference. 

58. time, time] INGLEBY: This means that 'four' is struck, the hour when 
Helen was to call Imogen. [But 'four' has not struck, only three. When Lady 
Macbeth counts ' One ! Two ! ' are we to suppose she means ' three ' o'clock? More- 
over, would it not be foolhardiness in the extreme for lachimo to wait until the 
very moment when he was liable to be caught by Helen? ED.] 

58. Exit] COLLIER (ed. ii.): It seems likely that the traverse-curtain, which 
sometimes separated the back from the front of the stage, was used on the occasion. 
Thus, what was left of the stage would form an ante-chamber to Imogen's bedroom. 

2. Enter Clotten] ECCLES: The time is early the following morning. Accord- 
ing to DANIEL (p. 242) Day 4 begins when lachimo issues from the trunk; and 
his scheme agrees with Eccles's as to early morning. 

4. turn'd vp Ace] Assuming that a game of cards is here intended, INGLEBY 
(Revised ed.) observes that the 'ace is evidently here, contrary to expectation, 
a losing card; but if we can apply "turned up" to the cutting of the pack, the 
ace would naturally be, as it always has been, the lowest card; and, as Dr Nichol- 
son observes, the game of cutting for stakes (if it can be dignified with the title 
of "game") would best suit Cloten's impatience and limited comprehension.' 
But MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v.) assumes, and rightly, that dice are referred to, and 
gives as his first definition of 'ace' (with this present line as an example), 'one at 
dice, or the side of the die marked with one pip or point.' This, as we all know, is 
the lowest throw. SCHMIDT (Lex.) says that 'ace' is here used with a quibble; 
this means, of course, that it was pronounced much like ass. And that this in- 
terpretation is not astray we learn from the only other passage where Shake- 
speare uses it. In Mid.N. D., after Pyramus has exclaimed 'dye, dye, dye,' there 

I2 6 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT n, sc. Hi. 

Clot. It would make any man cold to loofe. 5 

I. But not euery man patient after the noble temper 
of your Lordfhip ; You are moft hot, and furious when 
you winne. 

Winning will put any man into courage : if I could get 
this foolifh Imogen, I fhould haue Gold enough : it's al- 10 
moft morning, is't not ? 

I Day, my Lord. 

Clot. I would this Muficke would come : I am adui- 
fed to giue her Muficke a mornings, they fay it will pene- 
trate. Enter Mufitians. 15 
Come on, tune : If you can penetrate her with your fin- 
gering, fo : wee'l try with tongue too : if none will do, let 
her remaine : but He neuer giue o're. Firft, a very excel- 
lent good conceyted thing; after a wonderful fvveet aire, 
with admirable rich words to it, and then let her confi- 20 


5. loofe] Om. Ff. 14. a mornings] a-mornings Pope, 

9. Winning] Clot. Winning F 4 . Han. o'mornings Theob. et seq. 
(Clot, is the catchword on preceding 16. her] here Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 

page in F!F 2 F 3 .) 18. giue] Om. Cap. 

10. Jhould] shall Rowe ii, Pope, Han. 18, 19. excellent good conceyted] Ff, 
enough:] enough. Johns. Knt, Rowe,+, Knt, Coll. excellent good- 
Coll. Dyce, Sing. Sta. Ky, Glo. Cam. conceited Cap. et cet. excellent- good- 

14. Muficke a mornings] music; -conceited B. Nicholson ap. Cam. 
o'mornings Anon. ap. Cam. 19. after a] after, a Pope et seq. 

follows this colloquy: 'Demetrius. No die, but an ace for him; for he is but one. 
Lysander. Lesse than an ace, man. For he is dead, he is nothing. Duke. With the 
helpe of a surgeon, he might yet recover, and proue an Asse.' V, i, 310. Of 
course, Cloten is too obtuse to note the quibble. ED. 

7, 8. most hot, and furious when you winne] A back-handed compliment; 
betokening boisterous and domineering manners. ED. 

14. a mornings] What scholarly reason can be given for changing this into 
o'mornings? especially here, where, if it be an illiterate pronunciation, it is in 
character? ED. 

14, 15. it will penetrate] The present passage is the only instance given by 
MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v.) of the intransitive use of this verb. He defines it: 'To 
touch the heart, affect the feelings.' 

21. SONG] STEEVENS: Compare the 29th Sonnet. 'Like to the lark, at break of 
day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate.' REED quotes some 
of the lines from Lyly's Compaspe. The whole song is as follows, from Bond's ad- 
mirable edition, vol. ii, p. 351: 'TRico singeth. Song. What bird so sings, yet 
so dos wayle? O t'is the rauish'd Nightingale. Jug, Jug, Jug, Jug tereu, shee cryes, 
And still her woes at Midnight rise. Braue prick song! who is't now we heare? 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE I2 / 

Hearkc , hcarke , the Larke at Heauens gate fings, 22 

and Plicebus gins arife , 
His Steeds to ivater at thofe Springs 

on chalic'd Flowres that lyes : 25 

22. Hearke, hearke] Hark, hark! 23. gins] 'gins Rowe et seq. (except 

Theob. + . Hark! hark! Var. '73 et Dyce, Ingl. Rife), 
seq. (subs.) 25. on. ..lyes] Each chalic'd flower 

supplies: Han. 

None but the Larke so shrill and cleare; How at heauens gate she claps her wings, 
The Morne not waking till shee sings. Heark, heark, with what a pretty throat 
Poore Robin red-breast tunes his note; Heark how the jolly Cuckoes sing Cuckoe, 
to welcome in the spring, Cuckoe, to welcome in the spring.' DOUCE contributed 
to Steevens's edition the following passages from other poets; he says, of course, 
that Shakespeare 'might have imitated' them, for which remark it is not Douce 
that is to be blamed, but the tinsel times in which he lived: 'The busy larke, mes- 
sager of. day, Saluteth in hire song the merwe gray; And fyry Phebus ryseth up so 
bright,' etc. Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 633, ed. Morris. 'Wake now my loue, 
awake; for it is time, The Rosy Morne long since left Tithones bed, All ready to her 
siluer coche to clyme, And Phoebus gins to shew his glorious hed. Hark how the 
cheerefull birds do chaunt theyr laies And carroll of loues praise. The merry 
Larke hir mattins sings aloft, . . . Ah my deere loue why doe ye sleepe thus long.' 
Spenser, Epithalamion, 74, ed. Grosart. 'Again,' says Douce, 'in our author's 
Venus and Adonis: " Lo, here the gentle lark, weary of rest, From his moist cabinet 
mounts up on high, And wakes the morning, from whose silver breast The sun 
ariseth in his majesty." 854. [It is needless either to quote or cite more passages 
wherein occur references to the lark or Phoebus; all aubades contain them, just as 
all serenades refer to the nightingale or the moon. Every one will recall the 
charming dispute between Romeo and Juliet, on the morning after their marriage 
(Act III, sc. v.), whether the song they hear is the nightingale's which betokens 
that it is still night, or the lark's, which heralds the day. This present 'Song' 
is the supreme crown of all aubades, and comes, by Shakespeare's consummate 
art, laden with heaven's pure, refreshing breath, after the stifling presence of 
lachimo in Imogen's chamber. ED.] 

22. Heauens gate] According to WALKER these two words are pronounced 
as one, with the accent on the first syllable. So also 'swannes-nest,' III, iv, 158, 
where the hyphen occurs in the Folio. See III, i, 39. 

23. gins] BRADLEY (N. E. D.}: Aphetic form of BEGIN (in early instances 
perhaps rather of ONGIN) ; in Mid. Eng. chiefly used in the past tense, gan. In 
modern archaistic use sometimes written 'gin. [The present passage is quoted.] 

24. Springs] It seems almost food for babes to note that this refers to what 
Shakespeare elsewhere calls 'the morn-dew on the myrtle leaf.' ED. 

25. chalic'd Flowres] JOHNSON: It may be noted that the cup of a flower 
is called the calix, whence 'chalice.' [Sir, he who calls the 'cup' of a flower the 
chalice should vindicate his assertion by producing his authority. I doubt that 
the 'cup of a flower,' whatever that may be, was ever called the calix. The earliest 
reference I can find to 'Calix' is in Lyte's Nievve Herbal, 1578, p. 655, where it is 
stated that ' the bud of the Rose before the opening is called Calix,' which, barring 
the spelling, is not egregiously at variance with the Botany of today. According 

I2 8 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

And winking Mary-buds begin to ope their Golden eyes 26 

With euery thing that pretty is, my Lady five et arife : 

Arife , arife. 28 

26. Two lines, the first ending: 'be- 27. euery.. .is,] all the things.. .bin; 

gin,' Pope et seq. (except Knt, Wh. i.). Han. everything.. .bin Warb. 

26, 27. eyes With] eyes, With Pope. is] bin Han. Warb. Johns. Cap. 
eyes; with Theob. et seq. Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. Sing. 

27. Two lines, the first ending: 'is' Ktly. 

Pope et seq. (except Knt, Wh. i.). 28. arife.] arise! Coll. et seq. 

to WHITNEY (Cent. Diet., s. v. calyx) : 'In modern use the Lat. calyx, Greek /caXu, 
a calyx, and its derivatives, are often confounded with the Lat. calix, a cup, and its 
derivatives. In Botany, in general, the calyx is the outer set of the envelopes which 
form the perianth of a flower.' From MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Chalice) we learn that 
from the Lat. calix, through Old French, with a phonetic change, we get chalice. 
Under chaliced the present passage is given with the definition, 'Having cup-like 
blossoms.' He also notes that from a quotation, in 1824, the Daffodil was called 
the Chalice-flower, 'from the nectary being shaped like a chalice.' If qnly we 
could trace this name for daffodils back to Shakespeare's time, and could change 
the words to Chalice-flowers, an additional gleam of gold would be possibly flashed 
into these perfect lines, only possibly; we cannot gild refined gold; and we must 
bear in mind that the golden eyes of the Mary-buds are just beginning to wink. ED.] 

25. that lyes] For many examples where 'the relative takes a singular verb, 
though the antecedent be plural,' see ABBOTT, 247. 

26. Mary-buds] LYTE (p. 163 of mary golds. Calendula.}: 'At the toppe of the 
stalkes [of the Marygold] growe pleasant bright & shining yellow flowers, somewhat 
strong in savour, the whiche do close, at the setting downe of the Sunne, and do 
spread and open againe at the Sunne rising.' R. C. A. PRIOR (p. 146,5. v., Mary- 
bud) quotes that portion of Lyte's observation which refers to the opening and 
shutting of the flower, and adds: 'a phenomenon to which the older poets allude 
with great delight, both in respect to this flower and the daisy'; he gives its botan- 
ical name, Calendula officinalis. BRITTEN and HOLLAND (p. 326): This has given 
rise to some discussion, but [the Calendula officinalis] is almost certainly meant 
[here in Cym.]. Chatterton speaks of 'The marybud that shutteth with the light.' 
[The discussion just referrred to is, probably, that which was carried on in Notes 
& Queries, in 1873. It began by P. P. C's demurring to the marigold, and asserting 
that it is the daisy. BR. NICHOLSON replied, and quoted Perdita, who says, 'Here's 
flowers for you: . . . The marigold that goes to bed wi' the sun, And with him 
rises weeping.' Wint. Tale, IV, iv, 103. JAMES BRITTEN continued the discus- 
sion, and quoted Dr Prior, as above; he then added, 'but if it is thought that a 
common British plant is indicated, it is probably the Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus 
ficaria). I do not think the daisy was meant, nor was that plant, as far as I am 
aware, ever dedicated to our Lady.' C. A. W. thinks that 'there is very little 
difficulty in asserting that these "Mary-buds" are marigolds, but which of the 
marigolds is meant, of course, nobody can settle positively, and there is no need to 
settle it at all. Every one of them is classed by Withering under the genus Syn- 
genesia, and the daisy comes under the same head.' The painful student may find 
the full discussion in Notes & Queries, IV, xii, 243, 283, 363, 456; V, i, 24. I think 
the betossed soul may find peace in Calendula officinalis. ED.] 

27. that pretty is] It is not easy to recall any needless emendation of Shake- 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE I29 

So, get you gone : if this pen trate, I will confider your 29 

29. So] Clo. So Dyce, Glo. Cam. 29. pen trate] F f . 

gone:] gone Rowe,+. 

speare which is become so imbedded in the popular mind as this substitution by 
Hanmer of bin for 'is.' This is due partly to the mistaken idea that a rhyme is 
needed to 'begin,' partly because Hanmer's was the edition of the 'nobility and 
gentry,' and partly, I think, because 'bin' is adopted in the version which Schubert 
set to peerless music. JOHNSON observes that Hanmer 'very properly restored' 
bin; 'but,' he added, 'he too grammatically reads: "With all the things that pretty 
bin.' 1 And hereby hangs a tale. Johnson says that bin is 'too grammatical,' and 
yet every one of the four quotations which his fellow-editor, STEEVENS, adduced 
to prove the proper use of 'bin' shows that the authors of these quotations properly 
used bin as a plural. Hanmer must have known this, and, therefore, changed 
'every thing' into all the things for the sake of concord, which Johnson pronounced 
'too grammatical.' Not one of Hanmer's twelve critical followers, save only 
Keightly, has noted the necessity of providing a plural nominative to the plural 
bin, possibly because they found a plural use in 'every thing,' which is the excuse 
put forward by Keightley, and, too, a legitimate one. That his predecessors were 
aware of it may be doubted, else, I think, they would have instantly availed them- 
selves of it. CAPELL gives the strangest of excuses for following Hanmer's bin; 
he grants that the word is 'both rustick and antequated,' but says that it is in keep- 
ing with the character of the 'owner' of the song, that is, Cloten. Angels and 
ministers of grace, defend us! MURRAY, in his monumental article on 'Be,' notes 
(A. 1, 1-3 plural, 7 , T-) that 'Been, bin was erroneously used by i6th century Scotch 
writers, in supposed imitation of Chaucer, and by Byron (in supposed imitation 
of Shakespeare) as singular. . . . Don Juan, XIII, xxvi, "Also there bin another 
pious reason,"' etc. Lo, here there is another excuse for the advocates of bin; 
Cloten, Capell's Cloten, lapsed into Scotch, and was imitating Chaucer! As to 
the needlessness of Hanmer's change, had Pope not tampered with the division of 
the lines as they stand in the Folios and in Rowe, the necessity for a rhyme to 
'begin ' would have, possibly, occurred to no one. (It is temerarious rashness to deny 
the possibility of any change in Shakespeare's text.) Knight's is the first loyal 
voice to be raised in protest against this division. He remarks that as the lines 
are printed in the Folio, 'in all probability, a different time of the air was indicated, 
a more rapid movement.' GRANT WHITE'S voice is the second in protest, and 
as far as I know, the last. 'The stanza or stave of this song is,' he says, 'one of four 
fourteen-syllable verses and a refrain. The subdivision of such verses into alter- 
nate lines of eight and six syllables was at first an irregularity caused by the intro- 
duction of rhymes at the caesural pauses. These ca5sural rhymes were sometimes 
introduced in one part of a song and omitted in others.' Thus reads his First 
Edition; in his Second, which he printed from the Globe Text, he adopted Pope's 
division. ED. 

29. consider] STEEVENS (note on 'gently consider'd,' Wint. Tale, IV, iv, 882, of 
this ed.): This means, 'I having a gentlemanlike consideration given me,' i. e., 
a bribe. So in The Three Ladies of London, 1584: 'Sure, sir, I'll consider it here- 
after if I can. Dissimulation. What? consider me? does thou think I am a bribe- 
taker?' [p. 279 ed. Hazlitt-Dodsley]. DYCE (Gloss.}: That is, requisite. [The 
present instance, and the foregoing from Wint. Tale, are the only examples given by 
Dyce where ' consider ' bears the meaning to requite. SCHMIDT (Lex.} adds a third, 


THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

Muficke the better : if it do not, it is a voyce in her eares 30 
which Horfe-haires, and Calues-guts, nor the voyce of 
vnpaued Eunuch to boot, can neuer amed. 
Enter Cymbaline , and Queene. 

2 Heere comes the King. 

Clot. I am glad I was vp fo late, for that's the reafon 35 
I was vp fo earely : he cannot choofe but take this Ser- 

30. voyce] F 2 . voice F 3 F 4 , Knt. 32. vnpaued] Castratus, i. e. sine tes- 
jault Coll. MS. Vice Rowe et seq. ticulis, i. e. stones. 

31. and] Om. Eel. can neuer] can ever Vaun. 
Calues-guts] cat's- guts Rowe, amed] amend Ff. 

Cap. cats-guts Pope, Theob. i, Johns. [Exeunt Musicians. Theob. 

Varr. Mai. Steev. Varr. cats' -guts 33. Enter...] Enter Queen and Cym- 

Theob. ii, Warb. cat-guts Rann. beline. F 3 F 4 . After fatherly, line 37 

nor] with Han. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

of] of an Coll. MS. 34- 2] 2 Lord. Rowe. 

also from Wint. Tale, IV, ii, 19, which, I think, is open to doubt; nevertheless, 
including it, we have but three examples bearing the meaning of bribing or requit- 
ing. But be it noted that the last word Cloten utters before the Song begins is 
'consider,' where it can have no reference whatever to payment, but means simply 
'let her lay it to heart.' Why should Cloten, after speaking ten or a dozen words, 
use the identical expression in an entirely different meaning? Why should he 
not intend in this second use of ' consider' to say, ' If your music touches her soul 
I will more highly appreciate it'? At the same time, it is possible that Cloten uses 
the word a second time, with the meaning given by Steevens. ED.] 

30. voyce in her eares] KNIGHT (ed. i.): 'Voice' has been changed to vice. 
But why? DYCE (Remarks, p. 254): The answer is, because common sense 
shews the absolute necessity of the change. [When a character is described to us 
as so utterly stupid that he ' cannot take two from twenty, for his heart, and leave 
eighteen,' does it behoove us to reform his language to meet the requirements of 
'common sense'? On the contrary, does not the attempt show a lack of common 
sense in us? Possibly, vice, i. e., defect, is the meaning here; but it is, I think, open 
to doubt. WALKER (Crit., i, 319) points out, however, an instance in Mer. of Ven. 
(Ill, ii, 81), where all the Folios have 'vice' and the Quartos 'voyce,' the true 
word. It is the application of ' common sense ' to the uncouth words or expressions 
of such characters as Cloten, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, and Clowns and Peasants 
which is, I think, to be deprecated. The Misses PORTER and CLARKE stoutly 
uphold 'voyce,' for the reason that 'music, as the natural voice of love, is nothing 
of practical use to Cloten, otherwise it is a mere "voice in her ears." ED.] 

31. Horse-haires, and Calues-guts] Of course, 'Horse-hairs' refers to the 
violin-bow. MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Catgut): So far as the name can be traced 
back, it distinctly means guts or intestines of the cat, though it is not known that 
these were ever used for the purpose. (Some have conjectured a humourous refer- 
ence to the resemblance of the sound to caterwauling), i. The dried and twisXed 
intestines of the horse and ass, used for the strings of musical instruments. 

35, 36. I was vp so late . . . vp so earely] Sir Toby Belch says, 'not to 
be abed after midnight, is to be up betimes.' Twel. N., II, iii, i. 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE j^ 

uice I haue done, fatherly. Good morrow to your Ma- 37 
iefty, and to my gracious Mother. 

Oym.Attend you here the doore of our ftern daughter 
Will fhe not forth ? 40 

Clot. I haue affayl'd her with Mufickes, but fhe vouch- 
fafes no notice. 

Cym. The Exile of her Minion is too new, 
She hath not yet forgot him, fome more time 
Muft weare the print of his remembrance on't, 45 

And then fhe's yours. 

Qu. You are moft bound to'th'King, 
Who let's go by no vantages, that may 
Preferre you to his daughter : Frame your felfe 
To orderly folicity, and be friended 50 

38. to my] Om. F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 45. on'/] F 4 , Dowden. ou't F 3 F 4 . 

39. daughter] F 2 . daughter. F 3 F 4 . out Rowe et cet. 

daughter? Rowe et seq. 47. to'tti] F 2 . to th' F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. 

41. Mufickes] F 2 . Muficks F 3 F 4 , to the Cap. et seq. 

Rowe,+, Cap. Varr. Rann, Herford, 48. let's] F r . 

Knt, Dowden. music Han. Mai. et 50. folicity, ]folicits, Ff, Rowe. solicit- 

cet. ing Coll. ii, Ktly, Glo. Cam. solicits; 

43. new,] Johns, new. Ff, Rowe, Pope et cet. 

Pope, Han. new; Theob. et cet. be friended] befriended Rowe ii, 

44. him,] him: Pope et seq. Pope, Han. Knt, Sing. Coll. ii. 

41. Musickes] For other instances of this interpolated s, if it be one here, see 
Walker's note on I, v, 84. On the present passage LETTSOM, Walker's editor, 
remarks, in a foot-note (Crit., i, 240), that, since many editors have retained 
'musics' (see Text. Notes), 'it is, therefore, not superfluous to show that in this 
particular point [the interpolated s] the authority of the First Folio is next to noth- 
ing.' Lettsom, albeit an admirable critic, keen and well-equipped, sometimes 
was, I think, unduly severe on the First Folio. HERFORD ingeniously upholds 
'musics,' which, he says, is 'a Clotenism for "pieces of music." He has assailed her 
as yet with only one; but the plural gives a heightened impression of Imogen's 
obstinacy.' He may be right; albeit, we have 'Musicke' in lines 13, 14, and 30, just 
above. 'Tis dangerous to meddle with anything Cloten says, at least here, com- 
paratively in the beginning of our acquaintance. His character changes much 
before the curtain falls. ED. 

44, 45. time Must weare . . . remembrance on't] If 'on't' were without 
the apostrophe, it is likely that there would be no hesitation in pronouncing it a 
misprint for out; but the persistent apostrophe in all the Folios must give us pause; 
and I cannot but follow DOWDEN in retaining it, and in reading 'on't.' It is time 
which must wear the remembrance imprinted on it a little longer. In 'his remem- 
brance,' 'his' is an objective genitive. ED. 

49. Preferre] SCHMIDT (Lex.) : That is, recommend. Thus also IV, ii, 476, and 
IV, ii, 490. 

50. orderly solicity] STEEVENS: That is, regular courtship, courtship after 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

With aptneffe of the feafon : make denials 5 1 

Encreafe your Seruices : fo feeme, as if 

You were infpir'd to do thofe' duties which 

You tender to her : that you in all obey her, 54 

51. feafon:] season, Pope, Han. Knt, 53. were] are Rowe ii, Pope, Han. 

Sing. Coll. ii. 54. her: that. ..her,] her: that. ..her. 

Ff. her, that. ..her, Knt. 

the established fashion. [The large number is eminently noteworthy of the in- 
stances 'of a certain class of noun substantives (accuse for accusation, begin for 
beginning, depart for departure}' which WALKER (Crit., ii, 313) has furnished. 
The present word or, rather, its correction, solicits, from the Second Folio, is among 
them; and another example of it is given by Walker from Shirley, The Arcadia, 
V, ii, p. 245, ed. Dyce: 'tir'd with his solicits I had no time to perfect my desires.' 
Cf. 'Speak, Prince of Ithaca; and be't of less expect.' Tro. & Cress., I, iii, 70. 
'Again. What's his excuse? Ulyss. He hath none, But carries on the stream of his 
dispose Without observance.' Ib. II, iii, 173. LETTSOM, in a foot-note, observes 
that 'Dispose is found in DRYDEN, Rival Ladies, ii, about fifty-five lines from the 
end: "Your dowry is at my dispose." Milton uses retire as a substantive in 
Par. Lost, xi, 267. COLLIER (ed. ii.) reads soliciting, ' the old printer having mistaken 
the termination ting for ty, a not unlikely error.' ED.] 

50-52. and be friended With aptnesse of the season : make denials 
Encrease your Seruices] In ROWE'S ed. ii. 'be friended' is changed to 
befriended. This change was adopted by sundry editors (see Text. Notes'), and 
proposed ('stumbled on/ says Dyce) by M. Mason as a new reading. DYCE, 
however, disapproved of it and asks, 'what has Cloten's being "befriended with 
aptness of the season" to do with his "making denials increase his services"?' 
Although ' be friended ' seems the better reading, as more in accord with the other 
imperatives, 'make denials' and 'so seem,' yet it is not easy to perceive the per- 
tinency of Dyce's question; befriended merely changes an imperative into a parti- 
ciple, and makes the phrase parenthetical. 'And,' says the Queen (favoured by 
the fitness of the occasion), 'make denials increase,' etc. This parenthesis is indi- 
cated by commas in the text of KNIGHT, thus: 'and, befriended With aptness 
of the season, make denials Increase,' etc. This reading and exactly the same 
punctuation is proposed by Vaughan (p. 34) as his own, and, therefore, the correct 
one. ED. 

52-54. so seeme, as if ... tender to her : that you in all obey her] 
Here again the colon after 'to her,' in line 54, presents the same difficulty as the 
colon after 'Seruices,' in line 52. KNIGHT again replaces the colon by a comma, 
and connects 'that you in all obey her' with 'so seem,' and gives as the 'clear 
meaning,' 'so seem that you in all obey her, as if you were inspir'd, etc.' The 
cutting off,' says Knight, 'of the last member of the sentence [whereby he refers, 
I suppose, to the colon ED.] is destructive to the sense. 'You are senseless" 
has the meaning of be you senseless.' Again Vaughan's punctuation is the same as 
Knight's. This time, however, he is aware of the fact, but, apparently, begrudges 
Knight all credit, because, he says, though Knight gives the right punctuation, he 
gives the wrong interpretation, and fails to see that the force of 'so,' in the first 
line, extends to therein 'you are senseless,' in the last, to which Knight 'unwarrant- 
ably' gives the wrong meaning. The right meaning, according to Vaughan, is 'so 

ACT ii, sc. in.] CYMBELINE ^ 

Saue when command to your clifmiffion tends, 55 

And therein you are fenfeleffe. 

Clot. Senfeleffe ? Not fo. 

Mef. So like you (Sir) Ambaffadors from Rome; 
The one is Cains Lucius. 

Cym. A worthy Fellow, 60 

Albeit he comes on angry purpofe now ; 
But that's no fault of his : we muft receyue him 
According to the Honor of his Sender, 
And towards himfelfe, his goodneffe fore-fpent on vs 
We muft extend our notice : Our deere Sonne, 65 

57. [Enter a Messenger. Rowe. 64. his] for's Han. for his Cap. 

58. from] fr from F 2 . Ktly. 

59. The one is] One's Han. his... fore-fpent] for his goodness 
64. himfelfe,] himself Mai. Steev. spent Anon. ap. Cam. 

Varr. on vs] on Rowe ii, Pope. 

seem . . . that you do not in such case [of your dismission] even understand her 
in doing so.' To which, I think, Knight could retort that his interpretation is 
much the more vigorous; it is, in effect: 'appear to be inspired to do everything 
you tender her, and that you will obey her implicitly until she commands you to 
leave her then (not tamely put on an appearance, but ) be you senseless!' ED.] 

56. senseless e] The CowDEN-CLARKES: The cunning Queen uses this word 
with the signification of 'unconscious,' 'purposely without perception'; her obtuse 
son affrontedly disclaims it, as signifying 'stupid,' 'devoid of sense.' The angry 
susceptibility and tetchiness of ignorance, just sufficiently aware of its own in- 
capacity to be perpetually afraid that it is found out and insulted by others, 
blended with the stolid conceit that invariably accompanies this inadequate self- 
knowledge, are all admirably delineated in Cloten: he is a dolt striving to pass for 
an accomplished prince, a vulgar boor fancying himself, and desirous of being taken 
for, a thorough gentleman. He presumes upon his position; believes that it con- 
stitutes him the exalted personage who ought to command respect; not perceiving 
that it renders the more conspicuous those natural disqualifications which deprive 
him of all respect, even from those who flatter and humour him to his face and sneer 
at him behind his back. 

58. So like you] ABBOTT ( 297): 'Like,' in this present instance, is probably 
(not merely by derivation, but consciously used as) impersonal. 

64, 65. towards himselfe, his goodnesse fore-spent on vs We must extend 
our notice] MALONE: That is, we must extend towards himself our notice 
of his goodness heretofore shown to us. VAUGHAN (p. 397) paraphrases: 'we 
must extend our notice to' ('towards') 'his own goodness forespent upon us,' 
which apparently means that notice must be extended to the man's goodness 
instead of to the man himself; it is somewhat difficult to see how Caius can appre- 
ciate this nice discrimination. Vaughan then goes on to say that '"himself his 
goodness" is identical with " himself 's goodness,"- that is, "his own personal 
goodness." This Dyce would call, I fear, a barbarous construction. It is the 
presence, however, of the comma between ' himself and ' his ' which causes Vaughan 

134 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

When you haue giuen good morning to your Miftris, 66 

Attend the Queene, and vs, we fhall haue neede 

T'employ you towards [this Romane. 

Come our Queene. Exeunt. 

Clot. If me be vp, He fpeake with her : if not 70 

Let her lye ftill, and dreame : by your leaue hoa, 
I know her women are about her : what 
If I do line one of their hands, 'tis Gold 
Which buyes admittance (oft it doth) yea, and makes 
Diana's Rangers falfe themfelues, yeeld vp 75 

68. T'employ] Ff, Rowe, + , Dyce, 73. hands,} F 2 . hands: F 3 F 4 . hands 

Sing. Ktly. To employ Cap. et cet. Rowe. hands! Ktly. hands? Pope et 

68, 69. One line Rowe et seq. cet. 

69. Exeunt.] Exeunt Cym. Queen, .- 74. buyes] buys F 4 . buy Pope (mis- 
Mess, and Lords. Cap. Exeunt all but print). 

Cloten. Glo. (oft it doth}} oft' doth; or oft 

Scene iv. Pope, Han. Warb. doth; Vaun. 
Johns. yea] Erased, Coll. MS. 

71. leaue hoa,] F 2 F 3 . leave ho, F 4 . and] Om. Pope,-)-. 

leave ho! Rowe, Pope, leave, Ao/Theob. 75. Rangers] rangers, Coll. (mono- 

et seq. vol.) 

[Knocks. Theob. Calls. Coll. yeeld vp] and yield up Rowe. 

(monovol.) and yield Pope, Han. 

72. her:] her Rowe,+. her. Johns. 

to assert that 'all editors and critics' who retain it are proved thereby to misun- 
derstand the construction. ED. 

75. Diana's Rangers] CRAIGIE (N. E. D., s. v. Ranger. 2): A first officer, a 
gamekeeper. Now only archaic, and as the official title of the keepers of the royal 
parks. MADDEN (p. 241): To carry out this scheme the aid of the forester was 
needed. It was by his directions that the company were to be conducted to the 
special stands assigned to them. This aid, however, might be bought. In these 
days (I write of three hundred years ago) there could be found foresters and 
keepers [i. e., rangers] willing to accept gold at the hands of their masters' guests. 
'Take this for telling true.' So saying, the Princess in Love's Lab. Lost rewards the 
forester who leads her to what he describes as 'a stand where you may make the 
fairest shoot.' When Cloten would gain admittance to Imogen, he bethinks him 
thus: [here follow lines 72-76]. I know not whether this thought was suggested 
by the venality of Master Shallow's forester. But it is certain that he was somehow 
induced to lend his aid. It was arranged that he should himself attend to the 
driving of the deer, leaving to assistants the placing of the company in their stands. 
Thus it would be easy to persuade the Justice afterwards that these varlets mistook 
his directions and he would escape scot free. [Of course, the rangers of Diana are 
Imogen's ' women,' the foresters of the Goddess of hunting and of chastity.] 

75. false themselues] 'False' cannot here be classed with any certainty either 
as a verb or as an adjective. BRADLEY (N. E. D.) places it under the heading of a 
verb, and, if a verb, it is the sole example of its reflexive use; but not only does he 
precede it with a '?,' but after defining it, 'To betray one's trust,' adds in paren- 
theses, '(Doubtful; the word may be an adjective.)' There is no objection to urge 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE ^5 

Their Deere to'th'ftand o'th'Stealer : and 'tis Gold 76 

Which makes the True-man kill'd, and faues the Theefe: 
Nay, fometime hangs both Theefe, and True-man : what 
Can it not do, and vndoo? I will make 

One of her women Lawyer to me, for 80 

I yet not vnderftand the cafe my felfe. 
By your leaue. Knackes. 

Enter a Lady. 

La. Who's there that knockes ? 

Clot. A Gentleman. 85 

La. No more. 

Clot. Yes, and a Gentlewomans Sonne. 

La. That's more 

Then fome whofe Taylors are as deere as yours, 
Can iuftly boaft of : what's your Lordfhips pleafure ? 90 

Clot. Your Ladies perfon, is (he ready? 

La. I, to keepe her Chamber. 92 

76. to'th'...o'th'] to the. ..of thee Steev. 82. leaue.} leave Var. '73. 
Varr. to the. ..o 'the Cap. et cet. (subs.) 86. more.} more? Rowe ii. et seq. 

77. True-man} Ff, Rowe i, Cap. Var. 88-90. That's... boaft of] Aside Del. 
'73. true man Rowe ii. et cet. conj. 

78. fometime] sometimes Rowe,+, 91, 92. Your. ..I,} As one line Han. 
Var. '73. Cap. Steev. et seq. 

True-man:} true-man. Johns. Var. 92. 7, ] A y, Rowe. 

'73. true man: Han. Var. '78 et seq. to keepe her Chamber} Aside Del. 

79. vndoo?] undo: F 3 F 4 . conj. 

against it as a verb. Examples are not lacking of its inflected use. STEEVENS 
quotes an example thereof in Com. of Err., 'Nay, not sure, in a thing falsing.' II, 
ii, 95. And Bradley furnishes others, with varying meanings, from the Ancren 
Riwle down to the beginning of the eighteenth century. ED. 

77, 78. True-man] WALKER'S seventy-eighth Article (Crit., ii, 136) deals with 
'noticeable modes of spelling in the Folio, not, indeed, peculiar to it, being common 
(for the most part at least, if not universally) to all the publications of that age'; 
such as Richman, youngman, oldman, deadman (as in this play, 'the strait pass was 
damm'd with deadmen,' V, iii, 15, 16). 'In fact,' says Walker, 'man, in combina- 
tions of this kind, such of them, I mean, as from their nature are of frequent occur- 
rence, had an enclitic force. This is evident not only from their being so frequently 
printed either in the manner above or with a hyphen [as in the present instance], 
but also from the flow of the verse in many of the passages where they occur.' 

89. Taylors are as deere as yours] INGLEBY (ed. ii.): Dr Nicholson states 
this to be directed at the new knights and others of no birth recently made favour- 
ites at Court. But that the creation of Baronets was a year later than the latest 
date assigned to this play, one might suppose it to be a hit at them. [Is it not a 
universal truth, applicable at all times and in all countries? ED.] 

91. ready] CRAIGIE (N. E. D., s. v. A. i. b.): Properly dressed or attired; 



[ACT ii, sc. iii. 


Clot. There is Gold for you, 
Sell me your good report. 

La. How, my good name ? or to report of you 
What I mall thinke is good. The Princeffe. 

Enter Imogen. 

Clot. Good morrow faireft, Sifter your fweet hand. 

Imo. Good morrow Sir, you lay out too much paines 
For purchafmg but trouble : the thankes I giue, IOO 

Is telling you that I am poore of thankes, 
And fcarfe can fpare them. 

Clot. Still I fweare I loue you. 

Imo. If you but faid fo, 'twere as deepe with me : 104 

93, 94. There is.] One line 
Pope et seq. (except Cap. Dyce, Glo. 

93. There is] There's Var. '78, '85, 
Mai. Rann, Steev. Varr. Coll. Sing. 
Sta. Ktly. 

94. 95. Sell.] As one line Han. 

95. How,] How F 2 . How! Cap. et 

95, 96. or to. ..thinke] One line Cap. 

96. / JJiall thinke is] I think Han. 
good.] good? Pope et seq. 

The Princeffe.] As separate line 
Han. The Princess! Dyce, Sta. Glo. 

Cam. The Princess Pope et cet. 
96. [Exit Lady. Cap. 

98. faireft, Sifter] Ff. Rowe, Pope. 
fairest. Sister Johns. Var. '73, Ktly. 
fairest sister: Cap. Var. '78, '85, Mai. 
Ran. Steev. Var. '03, '13, Sta. fairest: 
sister Theob. et cet. 

99. Sir,] Ff, Rowe. Sir. Coll. Dyce. 
Sta. Ktly, Glo. Cam. Sir; Pope et 

103. Still I fweare] Ff. Rowe, Pope, 
Han. Theob. i, Cam. Still, I swear 
Knt, Dyce, Sta. Glo. Still, I swear, 
Theob. ii. et cet. 

104. you but] you'd but F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 

having finished one's toilet. [Thus in Macbeth when the occupants of the Castle, 
hurried from their beds by the horror of Duncan's murder, and the time comes for 
them to separate, Banquo says, ' when we have our naked frailities hid That suffer 
in exposure, let us meet,' and Macbeth replies, 'Let's briefly put on manly readi- 
ness,' where 'readiness' bears the same meaning as 'ready' here. The Lady, 
however, to spite Cloten gives the ordinary meaning to the word. JOHN HUNTER 
appositely refers to the stage direction in i Hen. VI: II, i, 38: ' Enter the Bastard 
of Orleans, Alencon, and Reignier, half ready, and half unready.' ED.] 

94. your good report] Again, to tease Cloten, the Lady takes 'report' in the 
sense of reputation; as Belarius uses it where he says 'my report was once First 
with the best of note,' III, iii, 63. ED. 

104. as deepe with me] ROLFE: 'Deep' is elsewhere associated with swearing, 
as in Sonn., 152, 9, 'I have sworn deep oaths'; R. of L., 1847, 'that deep vow.' 
['Deep' is one of Shakespeare's favourite adjectives. Naturally, he uses 'good' 
far more frequently than any other adjective. Independently of its general use, 
BARTLETT'S Concordance gives about fourteen columns of its use in especial com- 
binations, such as 'good faith,' 'good credit,' 'good sweet,' etc. 'High' comes 
next, in these especial combinations, with about two columns. 'Brave' next, 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 

If you fweare ftill, your recompence is ftill 105 

That I regard it not. 

Clot. This is no anfwer. 

/;<?. But that you fhall not fay, I yeeld being filent, 
I would not fpeake. I pray you fpare me, 'faith 
I fhall vnfold equall difcourtefie no 

To your beft kindueffe : one of your great knowing 
Should learne (being taught) forbearance. 112 

108. yeeld] Ff, Rowe ii, Dyce, Sta. Theob. ii, Warb. Johns, me; Theob. i. 
Glo. Cam. yield, Rowe ii. et cet. et cet. 

109. me,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, me 109. 'faith] i' faith Var. '03, '13, '21, 

Knt. faith Coll. Dyce, Cam. 

with about a column and a half. Then ' deep,' as the fourth favourite, with over a 
column. 'Bad' and 'light' with about three-quarters of a column each. These, 
of course, are rough approximations, but sufficiently accurate to convey a general 
idea, and it is, at least, highly satisfactory to know that there is far, far more of 
'good' in Shakespeare than 'bad' or any other quality. ED.] 

105. still] That is, constantly, for ever, as in Shakespeare passim. 

no, in. I shall vnfold equall discourtesie To your best kinduesse] 
That is, I shall unfold discourtesy equal to your best kindness. See ABBOTT, 
419 a. on Transposition of adjective phrases, where this line is quoted. WYATT: 
But it is at least equally likely that the more obvious meaning is the right one. 
[What the more 'obvious meaning' is DOWDEN supplies, 'as much discourtesy as I 
have shown.'] 

in, 112. one of your great knowing Should learne (being taught) for- 
bearance] It seems hardly fair to Warburton to record, in the Text. Notes, 
his wild amendments without giving his reasons for them. Accordingly, he ex- 
plains his reading, 'Should learn (being tort) forbearance,' as meaning 'one of your 
wisdom should learn (from a sense of your pursuing a forbidden object) forbearance: 
which gives us a good and pertinent meaning in a correct expression.' He then 
proceeds to say that 'tort is an old French word, signifying being in the wrong' 
and appeals to Skinner's Etymologicon as his authority. Warburton had assailants 
(Edwards, author of the Canons of Criticisms, and Heath, the author of TheRevisal 
of Shakespeare's Text), between them they seriously and deservedly injured the sale 
of his edition. Of them Dr Johnson speaks, in his immortal Preface, in terms that 
we well might commit to memory, so characteristic is it and so vigorous of Dr 
Warburton's chief assailants: 'one [Edwards] ridicules his errours with airy petu- 
lance, suitable enough to the levity of the controversy; the other [Heath] attacks 
them with gloomy malignity, as if he were dragging to justice an assassin or an 
incendiary. The one stings like a fly, sucks a little blood, takes a gay flutter, and 
returns for more; the other bites like a viper, and would be glad to leave inflam- 
mations and gangrene behind him.' In the present instance the chance was too 
good for Edwards to lose; accordingly (p. 100) he shows that tort is not an 'old 
French word' in any sense other than that all French words are old, and that it is a 
noun and not an adjective, and that a reference to Skinner's definition, which he 
quotes in full, gives no manner of authority to Warburton's assertion, and ends 
with the hope that 'for the future Mr Warburton will apply Imogen's advice to this 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

Clot. To leaue you in your madneffe, 'twere my fin, 1 13 

I will not. 

Imo. Fooles are not mad Folkes. 1 1 5 

113. fm,] Ff, Rowe, Pope. sin. 115. are not] cure not Theob. + , Cap. 
Johns. Var. '73. sin; Theob. et cet. White, Huds. Ingl. Baugust, Wyatt, 

114. not.} not do't. Han. are not for Daniel ap. Cam. 

Folkes.} folks, Sir Han. 

liberty he takes of coining words, and according to his own reading, " learn 
(being TORT) forbearance.'" HEATH'S 'gloomy malignity' is as follows: 'For 
this most extravagant and ridiculous imagination of Mr Warburton's we must, 
it seems, discard the natural easy sense of the common reading. But Mr Warbur- 
ton objects, that "whoever is taught necessarily learns, and that learning is not 
the consequence of being taught, but the thing itself." Which is just the same as 
to say that there is no manner of distinction between the means and the end. Do 
we not every day see glowing examples of people who are taught what they never 
do, and, indeed, are never able to learn? Hath not, for instance, a well-known 
an tick [i. e., Warburton] been on many occasions abundantly taught modesty 
and good manners, and that teaching sometimes accompanied with very severe 
discipline, of the pen at least? But would it, therefore, be a just conclusion to say 
that he hath learned them? I appeal to the reader, who will find [in the foregoing 
quotation from Edwards] the common text well explained and fully justified, and 
this idle whimsey unanswerably, and with great spirit and pleasantry, fully 
exploded.' JOHNSON: That is, a man being taught forbearance should learn it. 
CAPELL (p. 108): 'Being taught' means being so often desired to it, [i. e., being 
so often desired to forbear], which had been a teaching to any other but Cloten. 
-THISELTON (p. 19): Cloten misunderstood Imogen to mean merely that she 
wishes him to withdraw, in accordance with a frequent signification of the word 
'forbear.' [This ingenious suggestion seems clearly right. ED.] 

115. Fooles are not mad Folkes] THEOBALD: The reasoning is perplexed 
in a slight corruption; and we must restore as Mr Warburton likewise saw: 'Fools 
cure not madness.' You are mad, says he, and it would be a crime in me to leave 
you to yourself. Nay, says she, why should you stay? A Fool never cured madness. 
Do you call me Fool? replies he, etc. All this is easy and natural. And that cure 
was certainly the Poet's word I think is very evident from what Imogen imme- 
diately rejoins: 'If you'll be patient, I'll no more be mad, That cures us both,' i. e., 
If you'll cease to torture me with your foolish solicitations, I'll cease to show 
towards you anything like madness; so a double cure will be effected, of your 
folly and my supposed frenzy. [This note, without any acknowledgment to 
Theobald, is copied word for word (except the reference to Mr Warburton), but 
not signed by Warburton, and consequently to him it is accredited by Johnson, 
by the Van. 1773, 1778, and 1785, and by several other editors; it is as clear a 
piece of literary dishonesty as one may wish to see in a summer's day. ED.] 
STEEVENS: This, as Cloten very well understands it, is a covert mode of calling 
him fool. The meaning implied is this: if I am mad, as you tell me, I am what 
fools can never be. 'Fools are not mad folks.' WHITE: Even admitting such a 
very subtle and recondite meaning [as this of Steevens], what fitness has it to the 
passage? Cloten says he must stop with Imogen to take care of her because she 
is mad; and she being provoked by his boorishness to 'unfold equal discourtesy,' 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 

Clot. Do you call me Foole? 116 

Imo. As I am mad_ I do : 
If you'l be patient, He no more be mad, 
That cures vs both. I am much fony (Sir)i 

You put me to forget a Ladies manners 120 

By being fo verball : and learne now, for all, 

118. patient} prudent Warb. conj. 118. mad,] mad; Theob. et seq. 

(probably withdrawn). 

indirectly calls him a fool by telling him that the attendance of fools is of no 
service to the mad. This reading is confirmed [by 'cures' in her reply]. HUDSON: 
Cloten had just implied that his purpose is to cure Imogen of her imputed madness. 
She, in her reply, insinuates that he is a fool; and so he understands her. Her 
next reply is in accordance with this; meaning, 'If you will desist from your folly 
in making suit to me, I will leave off being mad; that act of yours will cure us both.' 
[DEIGHTON'S text follows the Folio, but in his note he cites Ingleby as adopting 
Theobald's cure, and adds, 'rightly, I think,' in MS. in the copy which Deighton 
kindly sent me. He quotes Ingleby's note in full, which is virtually the same in 
effect as White's and Hudson's; as is also B AUGUST'S.] WYATT quotes Steevens's 
interpretation, with this comment: 'If Cloten understood this, he must have been 
as clever as a Shakespearian commentator. It is certainly not the most obvious 
inference from "Fools are not mad folks," which rather is: "Whether I am a fool 
may be a matter of question, but even fools are not necessarily mad." I am com- 
pelled to adopt Warburton's [sic] conjecture: (i) because it makes Imogen's reply 
to Cloten perfectly apposite, and his following question most natural and pertinent; 
(2) because of the added force it gives to "That cures us both"; (3) because, though 
there are plenty of obscurities in the later plays, there is hardly a trace of obscurity 
in all Imogen's very plain speaking to Cloten. To this I need only add, that when 
Imogen says she'll "no more be mad," she does not refer to the madness that 
Cloten meant, that of her love, but to the madness which made her call him fool.'- 
HERFORD: That is, you are in no danger of such 'madness' as mine. THISELTON 
(p. 20) : That Imogen herself means ' though you may think me a Fool, you have 
no right to class me, a Princess, with Bedlamites,' is, I think, clenched by the 
initial capital ('Folkes'). She has overheard Cloten's mention of 'This foolish 
Imogen' (line 10). He, of course, has no idea of this, and takes her to mean 'I had 
rather be mad than a Fool like you.' DOWDEN: I take it to mean: 'I am not mad, 
I am only a fool, and so you may safely leave me to my folly.' ... If we are to 
emend, I may add the conjecture 'Fools spare not mad folks,' fools exercise 
no forbearance to mad folks, but torment them. The word 'spare' is commonly so 
used by Shakespeare, and Imogen has prayed (line 109) to be spared. But no 
emendation should be made. ROLFE : Cure certainly gives a simpler sense, and is 
favoured by cures just below, but no change is imperatively demanded. [I say 
'ditto to Mr Burke.' ED.] 

121. so verball] JOHNSON: That is, so verbose, so full of talk. KNIGHT: 
But neither Cloten nor Imogen have used many words. Imogen had been parrying 
her strange admirer; but she now resolves to speak plainly, to be verbal, and 
thus to forget a lady's manners. TIECK (p. 378): 'Verbal' does not mean prolix, 
talkative, but outright, that is, to speak out bluntly or without mincing matters. 

1 40 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

That I which know my heart, do heere pronounce 122 

By th'very truth of it, I care not for you, 

And am fo neere the lacke of Charitie 

To accufe my felfe, I hate you : which I had rather 125 

You felt, then make't my boaft. 

Clot. You finne againft 
Obedience, which you owe your Father, for 
The Contract you pretend with that bafe Wretch, 129 

122. which] who Pope,+. myself) Cap. et seq. (subs.) 
125. To accufe] Taccuse Pope, + , 126. make't} make Pope, + . 

Dyce ii, iii. 128. Father, for] Ff. father; for 

To accufe my felfe,] (To accuse Rowe,+. father. For Cap. et seq. 

SCHMIDT (Lex.) adopts this view. SINGER: That is, so explicit, not verbose. 
HUDSON: Imogen refers to his forcing her thus to the discourtesy of expressing 
her mind to him, of putting her thoughts into words. WHITE (ed. ii.): That is, 
wordy and ready to catch at words. TNGLEBY: That is, by expressing in words 
what is ordinarily understood by implication. VAUGHAN (p. 398): This imports: 
'I am sorry, sir, that you provoke me to forget a lady's good manners in speaking 
so plainly to you.' DEIGHTON: To me it seems plain that Imogen refers to Cloten's 
worrying her with so many protestations. ' You will take no denial,' she says, ' you, 
by pestering me with so many words, cause me to lose my temper ' ; thus, Middle- 
ton, A Chaste Maid, etc., I, line 64, 'He's grown too verbal,' i. e., as the context 
shows, too fond of words. [Deighton's interpretation is essentially that of Herford, 
and of Wyatt.] DOWDEN: If this refers to Imogen, as I think, it may mean, pro- 
fuse of words, or perhaps plain-spoken. MINSHEU (1627) explains 'verbal' as 'full 
of words.' [I cannot but think that this refers to Cloten. If it refer to Imogen, it 
will make no difference in the meaning wherever the phrase occurs in the sentence. 
Transpose it, and it will then clearly seem, I think, to refer to Cloten; thus: 'I 
am much sorry, sir, By being so verball, you put me to forget A lady's manners.' 
We must bear in mind the tension of Imogen's mood at this moment, over the 
loss of her bracelet her mind was distracted, and while every nerve was quivering 
with dismay and anxiety she was sprighted with a fool, frighted, and angered worse. 
She had begged him to forbear further words (line 109), and would have held her 
peace but for the fear that silence would seem to give consent. And yet there still 
came from Cloten those intolerable bursts of speaking, with the snatches in his 
voice, which fairly maddened her. But mistress of herself, she retained her calm 
dignity until she saw that he must receive an outspoken refusal, this, she says, is 
to forget a lady's manners. ED.] 

124, 125. Charitie To accuse myselfe] CAPELL (p. 108): If, instead of the 
long notes [on cure, the editors] had bestowed their attention upon Imogen's next 
speech, they had perceived the wrong pointing in the last line but one of it, and 
amended it as it is in this copy, [i. e., CapelPs text. See Text. Notes, where Capell's 
parenthesis corrects the faulty punctuation of the Folio, and makes it evident that 
Imogen herein accuses herself of lack of charity. ED.]. 

129. The Contract] JOHNSON: Here Shakespeare has not preserved, with his 
common nicety, the uniformity of his character. The speech of Cloten is rough and 
harsh, but certainly not the talk of one 'Who can't take two from twenty, for his 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 

One, bred of Almes, and fofter'd with cold dimes, 1 30 

With fcraps o'th'Court : It is no Contract, none ; 

And though it be allowed in meaner parties 

(Vet who then he more meane) to knit their foules 

(On whom there is no more dependancie 

But Brats and Beggery) in felfe-figur'd knot, 135 

Yet you are curb'd from that enlargement, by 

The confequence o'th'Crowne, and muft not/oyle 137 

132. allowed] allow' d Rowe et seq. 135. Jelfe-figur'd] felf figur'd F 3 F 4 . 

133. then] than Rowe. 136. enlargement,} Ff, Rowe, Pope. 
meane] F 2 . mean F 3 F 4 . mean, enlargement Theob. et cet. 

Rowe. mean? Pope et cet. 137. notjoyle] not foyle F 2 F 3 . not 

I 33~ I 35- Joules (On... Beggery)] souls foil F 4 , Rowe,+, Mai. Coll. i, Ktly. 
On. ..Beggary, Rowe, Pope. not soil Han. et cet. 'file Ingl. conj. 

heart, And leave eighteen.' His argument is just and well enforced, and its prev- 
alence is allowed throughout all civil nations; as for rudeness, he seems not to be 
much over-matched. [An ill-considered remark, with all respect be it spoken; or 
did Dr Johnson wish to illustrate in this note the 'imbecility' with which he 
charges the whole play? ED.] INGLEBY (Revised Ed.): Dr Nicholson observes 
that Cloten's phrases and perseverance show that there had been no marriage 
between Imogen and Posthumus, but simply a 'contract' or handfasting, which, 
however, was then considered equivalent to it, as far as intercourse was concerned. 
130 bred of Almes] HALLIWELL: 'A foster-father, that keepeth a child of 
almes, or for God's sake.' Withals's Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 275. 

134. dependancie] MURRAY (A 7 . E. D. 4. b.): A body of dependants; a house- 
hold establishment. DEIGHTON understands this differently; thus: 'And though 
with people of lower origin, in the case of whose marriage no other result is de- 
pending except the rearing of brats in begging, it is permitted to them to enter 
into any union they choose,' etc. [And perhaps rightly. 'On whom' in this line 
refers, I think, to 'meaner parties.' ED.] 

135. in selfe-figur'd knot] WARBURTON: This is nonsense. We should read, 
self -finger' d knot, i. e., a knot solely of their own tying, without any regard to 
parents or other more public consideration. [It is not worth contention, but I 
think that this emendation was Thirlby's. See Nichols, Illust., ii, p. 829.] JOHN- 
SON: But why nonsense? A 'self-figured knot' is a knot formed by yourself. 
COLLIER (ed. ii.): We are strongly inclined to think Warburton's emendation, in 
the sense of a knot tied only by themselves, right; we do not alter the text. HUD- 
SOX: That is, marrying to suit themselves; whereas the expectant of a throne must 
marry to serve the interests of his or her position. 

137. must not ( foyle] COLLIER: Here 'foil' seems to have been a misprint for 
soil. INGLEBY: The Folio has ' Joyle,' the point being inverted. If the apostrophe 
were intentional, '<foyle' might be an error for "fyle' or "file/ equivalent to defile. 
But soil seems the most probable correction. BRADLEY (N. E. D., s. v. Foil, 
whereof one of the forms during the i4th and i6th centuries is foyle, verb III, 6): 
To foul, defile, pollute. [As authorities, a quotation is given from Wiclif, in 1380; 
a second from HYLTON, Souls Perfect (in 1440 W. de W., 1497), 1. xxxiv: 'A 
man hath be moche foyled with wordly or flesshely synnes,' which seems to bear 

I4 2 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

The precious note of it; with a bafe Slaue, 138 

AHilding for a Liuorie, a Squires Cloth, 

A.Pantler; not fo eminent. 140 

138. note] robe Elze. hope Wray ap. 140. A.Pantler;] Ff, Rowe,+, Var. 

Cam. '73. A pantler, Sta. Ktly. A p antler, 

138. it; with] it with Pope et seq. Cap. et cet. 

out the meaning to pollute; a third from UDALL, Ralph Roister Doister (1550): 'a 
man Hath no honour to foil his hands on a woman.' V, vi; a fourth is from 
Phineas Fletcher's Purple Island, 1633: 'Ranc'rous Enemies, that hourely toil 
Thy humble votarie with loathsome spot to foil. xi, 33. Of these, the last seems 
fully to authorize the meaning given by Bradley; if the date were only a little 
earlier it would be more appropriate to the present passage from Shakespeare. 
The quotation from Ralph Roister Doister is, I fear, somewhat doubtful. The 
meaning given to 'foil' in that passage by Farmer in his ed. of 1906, p. 127, is 'to 
lay hands on; literally, to make a mark or track: foil is equivalent to the track of a 
deer.' This definition seems quite to exclude an application to Cloten's 'foyle.' 
DOWDEN quotes from Capt. Smith's Advertisements, etc., 1631 (Works, Arber, p. 
926): 'all our Plantations have beene so foyled and abused, their best good willers 
have beene . . . discouraged, and their good intents disgraced,' etc. But the 
context shows, I think, that here the word hardly means to pollute, but rather to 
frustrate, to baulk, owing to the complaints of the people in England; accordingly, 
the quotation would fall, I think, more befittingly under Bradley's 5th head. If 
the word 'foyle' here in the text before us can bear no other meaning than to 
pollute, to disgrace, and it very closely approaches that meaning, we need no author- 
ity for its use. It is all-sufficient that Shakespeare so uses it. Unfortunately, 
editors and critics are not here all of one mind, and many are beguiled by the 
simple change of / into s. VAUGHAN (p. 399) asserts that 'foyle' is here meta- 
phorically used for the leaf of thin metal placed beneath a precious stone to give 
it greater brilliancy; and quotes as a similar instance a passage in Rich. Ill: V, iii, 
250, where, however, 'foil' is a different word, meaning the setting of a ring, 
not the tin-foil placed beneath the jewel. ED.] 

138. note of it] COLLIER (ed. ii.): We may suspect a misprint in the word 
'note.' HUDSON: 'Note' seems a rather strange word for this place. Perhaps it 
should be worth. SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, of the crown. ONIONS: Distinction, 
importance, eminence. 

139. Hilding] MURRAY (N. E. D.): i. Of obscure origin. 2. A contemptible, 
worthless person of either sex; a good-for-nothing. [The present instance quoted.] 

139. for a Liuorie, a Squires Cloth] MALONE: Only fit to wear a livery, 
and serve as a laquey. MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Cloth, III, 13): The distinctive 
clothing worn by the servants or retainers of a master. [A quotation which 
aptly applies to the present phrase, 'a Squire's Cloth,' follows from Flo- 
rio's Epistle Dedicator ie, in his Worlde ofWordes, 1598: 'The retainer doth some 
seruice, that now and then but holds your Honors styrrop, or lendes a hande 
ouer a stile ... or holds a torch in a darke waie: enough to ware your Honors 
cloth,' p. 3.] 

140. A.Pantler] MURRAY (N. E. D.}: Apparently an altered form of Panter. 
? after Butler. Equivalent to Panter, which Murray thus defines: 'originally 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 

hno. Prophane Fellow : 141 

Wert thou the Sonne of /7///&r,and no more, 
But what thou art befides : thou wer't too bafe, 
To be his Groome : thou wer't dignified enough 
Euen to the point of Enuie. If 'twere made 145 

Comparatiue for your Vertues, to be ftil'd 
The vnder Hangman of his Kingdome; and hated 
For being prefer'd fo well. 

Clot. The South-Fog rot him. 149 

141. Fellow:} fellow! Pope. Han. 

143. befides:] besides, Rowe et seq. 147. vnder Hangman] Ff, Rowe, 

143, 144. weSt] Ff. u<ert Rowe. Pope, Cap. tinder-hangman Theob. et 

145. Enuie. If] Envy, If F 2 . Envy, cet. 

if F 3 F 4 , Rowe et seq. Kingdome] realm Pope,+- 

146. Verities, to] verities to Pope, 149. South-Fog] South Fog F 4 . 

meaning " baker," but in Mid. Eng. usually applied to the officer of a household 
who supplied the bread and had charge of the pantry. Thus in Falstaff's descrip- 
tion of Prince Hal "a 'would have made a good pantler, a 'would ha' chipped 
bread well," 2 Hen. IV: II, iv, 258.' [In the Verner &: Hoods Reprint, in Booth's, 
in Craig's there stands a period between 'A' and 'Pantler.' It is not found in 
Staunton's Photolithograph, nor in my own copy of Fi; nor has the Cam. Ed. noted 
it. Note the descending degrees of Cloten's contempt: first, the livery of a 
gentleman's servant; next the cloth of a squire, and last a menial servant. 'Not 
so eminent' must be one of those 'bursts of speaking' which left an impression so 
ineffaceable in Belarius's mind that the lapse of twenty years had not blurred it; 
see note IV, ii, 148. This characteristic is lost without the semicolon of the 
Folio. ED.] 

146. Comparatiue for your Vertues] MALONE: If it were considered as a 
compensation adequate to your virtues, to be styled, etc. INGLEBY: That is, if it 
were a question of your virtues as compared with his. SCHMIDT (Lex.) : That is, 
serving as a comparison, to express the respective value of things. BR. NICHOLSON 
(Ingleby, Revised Ed.) : If your post were made in any way comparable to your 
abilities for it. MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. 5): Serving as a means of comparison. 
But perhaps [it should be] comparable, worthy to be compared. HUDSON: If 
your dignity were made proportionable to your merits, you were honoured enough 
in being styled the under-hangman of his kingdom; and even that place would be 
so much too good for you as to make you an object of envy and hatred. [This free 
paraphrase seems to me to convey the full meaning. ED.] 

149. South-Fog] 'Windes be twelue, foure of them, are called Cardinales, chife 
winds, and eight Collaterals, side windes. . . . The third Cardinall and chiefe 
winde is Auster, the Southerne winde: and he ariseth vnder the South starre, that 
is called Polus Antarticus. . . . And this Southerne winde is hot and moyst, and 
maketh lightning and grose aire and thick, and norisheth myst with heate. . . . 
Also he openeth the pores of bodyes, and letteth vertue of feelyng, and maketh 
heauiness of bodie, as Ipocras sayth. . . . For Southerne winds vnbind humours, 
& moue them out of the inner parts outwarde, & they cause heauinesse of wits & 



[ACT ii, sc. iii. 

Imo. He neuer can meete more mifchance, then come 1 50 
To be but nam'd of thee. His mean'ft Garment 
That euer hath but dipt his body; is dearer 
In my refpecl:, then all the Heires aboue thee, 
Were they all made fuch men : How now Pifanio ? 

Enter Pifanio, \ 5 5 

Clot. His Garments ? Now the diuell. 

Imo. To Dorotliy my woman hie thee prefently. 

Clot. His Garment ? 

Imo. I am fprighted with a Foole, 

151. mean' ft] Sing, meanejl Ff, et 

152. body; is] body, 's Pope,+. body, 
is Ff, et cet. 

153. Heires] haires F 2 . hairs F 3 F 4 . 

154. How now Pifanio?] How now, 
Pifanio? F 4 , Clot. How now? Imo. 
Pisanio! Han. Ho, now, Pisanio! Huds. 
How now? [missing the bracelet] Pisa- 
nio! Anon. ap. Cam. 

155. Enter...] Before line 154. Cap. 
After men: Dyce. 

156. His Garments?} His garment! 


Dyce i. 'His garment'! Glo. Cam. 
Dyce ii, iii. His Garment? Ff et cet. 

156. dwell.] divell. F 2 . devill. F 3 . 
Devil. F 4 , Rowe, Pope, devil Theob. 
et cet. 

157. prefently.] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. 
Presently Theob. ii, Var. '73, Glo. 
Dyce ii, iii. presently, Dyce i, Cam. 
presently: Cap. et cet. 

158. His Garment?] 'His garment!' 
Glo. Cam. Dyce ii, iii. 

159. fprighted] spirited Dyce, Ktly, 
Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. 

of feeling: they corrupt and destroye, they heat, and maketh men fall into sicknesse. 
And they breed the gout, the falling euill, itch, and the ague.' Batman vppon 
Bartholome, 1582, lib. xi, chap. 3. ED. 

153. Heires aboue thee] That is, the hairs of his head; but SINGER considers 
it a 'misprint,' and adopts in his text 'about thee,' wherein he is followed by 

154. How now Pisanio?] HAMMER distributes 'How now' to Cloten, and 
'Pisanio' to Imogen, and with some show of propriety. If Imogen wishes to 
summon Pisanio to her presence, she would hardly call 'How now!' WALKER 
(Crit., iii, 319) makes the same distribution, but changes 'How now' to How! How! 
DYCE (ed. ii.) observes ' we have the same words before [I, vi, 37], and they occur 
afterwards [III, ii, 27]. But qy. are they right here? "How" (as I have several 
times before observed) is frequently the old spelling of "Ho," and we might expect, 
as at [I, vii, 167], "What ho, Pisanio! Enter Pisanio."' Dyce overlooks, I think, 
that in the first two instances which he cites Pisanio is already present or just 
entering, and the expression is not a summons, but a greeting. ED. 

159. sprighted with a Foole] STEEVENS: That is, I am haunted by a fool, 
as by a spright. [Rather a tame paraphrase, it seems to me; and yet it has been 
adopted by every editor who has noted the passage, together with Schmidt (Lex.) 
and Dyce (Gloss.). Can it be paraphrased, 'I am tormented by a legion of sprights 
with this fool here'? 'Guiled' means beset with guiles; 'delighted' means bathed 
with delights; may not 'sprighted' here imply surrounded by sprights with or from 
this fool? When Imogen adds 'frighted,' I doubt that she refers to Cloten. She 
who stood unquailed before lachimo, could hardly be affrighted by Cloten. She 

ACT ii, sc. iii.] 


Frighted, and angred worfe : Go bid my woman 

Search for a lewell, that too cafually 

Hath left mine Arme : it was thy Matters. Shrew me 

If I would loofe it for a Reuenew, 

Of any Kings in Europe. I do think, 

I faw't this morning : Confident I am. 

Laft night 'twas on mine Arme; I kifs'd it, 

I hope it be not gone, to tell my Lord 

That I kiffe aught but he. 

Pif. 'Twill not be loft. 

Imo. I hope fo : go and fearch. 

Clot. You haue abus'd me : 



160. worfe:] worse Rowe,+. worse. 

162. Arme:] arm Rowe,+. 

162. Majlers. Shrew] Ff. master's. 
Shrew Rowe, Pope, master's. 'Shrew 
Theob. Han. Warb. Johns. Var. '73. 
master's: shrew Cap. Var. '78, '85, Ran. 
Dyce. master's: 'shrew Mai. et cet. 

163. loofe] FI. 

164. Kings] Ff, Rowe i. King Pope, 
+ , Var. '73- King's Rowe ii, et 

165. am.] Ff. am Dyce, Sta. Glo. 
Cam. am, F 4 et cet. 

1 66. Lajl night] I saw't last night 


'twas on] it was upon Cap. 

mine] my F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. 

/ kifs'd it,] Ff, Rowe i. 7 
kiss'd it. Rowe ii, Coll. Wh. i. / 
kissed it. Pope,+. For I kiss'd it. 
Ktly. / kiss'd it: Cap. et cet. 7 
kiss'd it then or 7 know I kiss'd it then 
Anon. ap. Cam. 

1 68. aught] ought F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, 
Theob. i, Han. Cap. 

he] him Ff, Rowe,+, Cap. Varr. 
Rann, Coll. iii. 

170. [Exit Pisanio. Han. 

171, 172. You... Garment?] One line 
Rowe, Pope. 

is frightened at the thought of the loss of her bracelet, and 'angered' worse by both 
it and Cloten combined. For a similar use of a past participle, see 'fear'd hopes,' 
II, iv, 9. ED.] 

166. 'twas on mine Arme : I kiss'd it,] If we count the syllables in this 
line with our fingers, in the right butter-woman's rank to market, it is unques- 
tionably deficient, and the Text. Notes show the attempts to supply the gap. To 
my ear, after 'Last night 'twas on mine arme,' there is a mora vacua which will 
fulfill every demand of rhythm; and I plead for these morace vacua, not in the in- 
terest of bald rhythm, but because in highly wrought emotional scenes, like the 
present, they are positively demanded. Shall not Imogen be allowed to pause 
while her betossed soul recalls every instant of the past hours? Must she say, 
as Malone would have her, 'twas on mine arrum,' so that she can reel off the line 
like a school miss? Shall we not here and there, and once in a while, trust to the 
delicacy of Shakespeare's ear, and accept these pauses as gracious openings into the 
mind and heart of his characters? ED. 

167, 168. I hope . . . but he] MRS JAMESON (p. 72): It has been well 
observed that our consciousness that the bracelet is really gone to bear false 
witness against her, adds an inexpressibly touching effect to the simplicity and 
tenderness of this sentiment. 


146 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT n, sc. iii. 

His meaneft Garment? 172 

Imo. I, I faid fo Sir, 
If you will mak't an Action, call witneffe to't. 

Clot. I will enforme your Father. 175 

Imo. Your Mother too : 

She's my good Lady; and will concieue, I hope 
But the worft of me. So I leaue your Sir, 
To'thVorft of difcontent. Exit. 

Clot. He ibereueng'd : ' 180 

His mean'ft Garment ? Well. Exit. 

172, 181. His. ..Garment?] His. ..gar- 174. If.'t.] Call witness to't, if you 
ment! Dyce i. 'His... garment' I Glo. will make't an action Han. 

Cam. Dyce ii, iii. 174. to't] Om. Steev. conj. 

173. /,] Ay, Rowe. 175. enforme] enform F 4 . inform 
173. Sir,] Sir; Theob. + , Cap. Varr. Rowe. 

Rann, Dyce, Glo. Cam. sir. Mai. 178. yoiir Sir,] you, fir, F 3 F 4 et seq. 

Steev. Varr. Knt, Coll. 179. To'th'] To the Cap. et seq. 

181. mean'ft] meaneft Ff et seq. 

172-177. His meanest . . . good Lady] WALKER rearranges these lines 
so as to give them, what he considers, a better form of rhythm, which by no possi- 
bility could be conveyed to an audience by an actor on the stage. As such arrange- 
ments are solely for the eye, Walker's feelings could not be hurt, nor his intentions 
thwarted, if his rearrangement be here referred to the eye of the student in the 
third volume of his Criticisms, p. 320. ED. 

177, 178. She's my good Lady . . . the worst of me] DEIGHTON: 'She 
is my good friend (said ironically), and I may reasonably hope that she will think 
nothing worse of me than the very worst.' 

179. To'th'worst of discontent] CAPELL (p. 108): The lady's words, with 
which she takes her leave of her suitor, have a poignancy something disguised; her 
meaning in them is his own company, for she leaves him alone. 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 1 4; 

Scena Ouarta. 

t~ '^^ 

Enter Pofthum us, and Pliilario. 

Pojl. Feare it not Sir : I would I were fo fure 
To winne the King, as I am bold, her Honour 
Will remaine her's. 5 

Phil. What meanes do you make to him ? 

Pojl. Not any : but abide the change of Time, 
Quake in the prefent winters ftate, and wifh 

i. Scena Quarta] Scene v. Pope, Han. Philario's House. Cap. 
\Varb. Johns. Act III, Scene i. Garrick, 8. "winters Jlatc] winter-state M. 

Eccles. Mason, winter's flawe Walker (Crit., 

Rome. Rowe. Rome. A Room in ii, 294). 

i. Scena Quarta] For this scene ECCLES substitutes the First Scene of Act 
III, on the ground that in the last scene (the Third) Cymbeline observes to Cloten: 
'When you have bid good morrow to your mistress, Attend the Queen and us; we 
shall have need To employ you towards Rome ' ( I, iii, 65), etc., and Imogen remarks 
respecting her bracelet, 'confident I am last night 'twas on my arm,' etc. (II, iii, 
165) ; and, furthermore, lachimo being interrogated whether 'Caius Lucius was in the 
Britain court \Vhen he was there?' replies, 'he was expected then, But not ap- 
proach'd' (II, iv, 46). Wherefore for these reasons Eccles believes that not 
enough time is given for lachimo's journey back to Rome, and a scene should in- 
tervene for this purpose, and with it the Act should close; wherefore he introduces 
the political scene with Caius Lucius. It is quite unnecessary to attempt any 
refutation. It is sufficient to note that Eccles is a victim of Shakespeare's leger- 
demain in hurrying forward the action at an intensely exciting point, and then 
retarding it to give our excitement time to subside. To introduce a political 
scene between the theft of the bracelet and the triumph of the villain will find us 
cold at the very crisis of the plot. Eccles decants the champagne and never notices 
that its effervescence and exhilaration are gone. DANIEL marks 'an Interval' 
between the preceding scene and the present one, which he holds to be DAY 5. 
The sequence of time is here impossible. As we have seen, Eccles boldly transposes 
the scenes, at the cost of breaking the dramatic interest. Daniel more wisely 
accepts the situation and lets our excitement run on to fever heat, as Shakespeare, 
I think, intended it should. Eccles acknowledged that Garrick would not accept 
his arrangement. Garrick was too good a manager, and knew his audience. 

4. I am bold] MURRAY (TV. E. D., s. v. Bold. 6.): Confident (in), certain, sure 
(of). [The present line quoted.] 

6. What meanes do you make] MURRAY (A T . E. D., s. v. Mean. sb 2 . 13. a.): 
Mediation, intercession; exercise influence to bring about something. [Murray 
refers to sense 9, where examples are given with the sense of 'One who acts as a 
mediator, "go-between," or ambassador between others.' Thus Bacon, Essays, 
Suitors (Arber, 471), 'Let a man in the choice of his meane rather chuse the fittest 
meane than the greatest meane.'] 

148 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iv. 

That warmer dayes would come : In thefe fear'd hope 9 

I barely gratifie your loue; they faylingi 

I muft die much your debtor. 1 1 

9. fear'd hope] sear'd hopes Tyrwhitt MS. Knt, Sing. Dyce, C. Clarke, Glo. 
sere hopes Huds. dear hopes Elze. fair hopes Sprenger, Vaun. fair'd hopes. 
Vaun. fear'd hopes Ff et cet. 

9-11. In these . . . debtor] VAUGHAN (p. 402): If these hopes are hand- 
somely realised, I have barely the means of requiting your love; and if, on the 
other hand, they fail me of realisation, I must die deeply in your debt. 

9. fear'd hope] ECCLES: This signifies, I believe, ' hopes blended or intermixed 
with fears' KNIGHT: We have ventured to change the text to 'sear'd hopes.' 
'In the present winter's state' the hopes of Posthumus are sear'd; but they still 
exist, and in cherishing them, wither'd as they are, he barely gratifies his friend's 
love. COLLIER (ed. ii.) : That is, in these hopes which I fear may never be realised. 
The passage has not been understood by those who, in modern times, have printed 
' sear'd hopes.' DYCE (ed. ii.): The alteration of 'fear'd' to sear'd is proposed by 
Tyrwhitt in his copy of F 2 , now in the British Museum; and it has been also made by 
Mr Knight. Since most copies of the Folio, in Mcas. for Meas., II, iv, 19, have the 
misprint, 'Grownefeard, and tedious,' I cannot think that the original reading here 
is to be defended on the supposition that ' fear'd hopes ' may mean ' fearing hopes ' 
or 'hopes mingled with fears,' like Lucan's 'spe trepido' or Petrarch's 'paventosa 
speme.' [Is the single instance, which Dyce adduces of the mistake by the com- 
positor of a long f for an f , quite sufficient to sweep aside all attempts to adhere 
to the only authentic text we have? To understand the following note by Crosby, 
it is to be borne in mind that in regard to the verb Ajfeer, MURRAY (N. E. D.) 
pronounces it the 'regular phonetic descendant of late Latin, afforare, to fix the 
price or market value'; and that it is used in Macb., IV, iii, 34, in the sense of con- 
firmed: 'thy title is affeer'd.' A weak point in Crosby's conjecture is that he gives 
no example of 'affeer'd' abbreviated to 'feer'd; it is not unlikely that such an ex- 
ample might be found, but it would be well to know that Shakespeare used it 
elsewhere.] CROSBY (Shakes periana, vol. i, p. 47) : It is likely that 'feer'd hopes, 
meaning these hopes, or grounds of hope, that I have given, taken for what they are 
worth. Posthumus does not believe that his hopes are altogether sear'd or blasted; 
for he still has hopes of warmer days to come; he sets them before his friend, such 
as they are, begs him to accept them for what they are worth. [It seems to me that 
Eccles was the first and Ingleby the next to understand 'fear'd' aright. In recent 
editions the Folio is almost uniformly followed, albeit the Globe edition, now the 
just and common text of almost all editions, has sear'd, its editors returned, 
however, to the Folio in the Cambridge edition. I doubt that ' fear'd ' is even yet ac- 
cepted in what is to me its truly Shakespearian sense. It is not, I think, a past 
participle of the verb to fear; it is the noun fear with a suffix ed, to make it an 
adjective, and conveys an idea of multitude. In the last preceding scene, where 
Imogen says she is 'sprighted with a fool,' she means, I think, that before, behind, 
and on every side she is pestered with folly, as though by imps. When Lear speaks 
of 'the loop'd and window'd raggedness' of poor naked wretches, he pictures the 
innumerable loops and windows in their rags. When Scarus, in Ant. & Cleop., 
speaks of ' the token'd pestilence ' he gives the idea of the plague spots all over the 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMRELINE 

PJiil. Your very goodneffe, and your company, 12 

Ore-payes all I can do. By this your King, 
Hath heard of great Auguflus : Cains Lucius, 
Will do's Commiffion throughly. And I think 15 

Hee'le grant the Tribute : fend th'Arrerages, 
Or looke vpon our Romaines, whofe remembrance 
Is yet frefh in their griefe. 

Poft. I do beleeue 

(Statift though I am none, nor like to be) 2O 

That this will proue a Warre; and you fliall heare 
The Legion now in Gallia, fooner landed 
In our not-fearing-Britaine, then haue tydings 
Of any penny Tribute paid. Our Countrymen 24 

13. By this] By this, Pope et seq. 17. Or] E'er Theob. + , Cap. 

14. Caius] Caius, F 3 . 21. will] shall Theob. ii, Warb. 

15. do's] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. Dyce, Johns. 

Sta. Glo. Cam. do his Cap. et cet. 22. Legion] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Coll. 

1 6. Tribute:] tribute, Han. Cap. et legions Theob. et cet. 

seq. 23. not-fearing-Britainc] Ff. not 

th'Arreragcs] F 2 F,. th' Arrear- fearing Britain Warb. not-fearing 

ages F 4 , + , Dyce. the arrearages Cap. Britain Rowe et cet. 

et cet. 24. any] a Ingl. 

body. Thus, in the present case, 'fear'd hopes' conveys the meaning of something 
more, I think, than hopes blended with fear or mingled with fear it seems to 
mean hopes so encompassed with fears that the hopes are almost lost. Ingleby 
says that adjectives 'similar' to ' fear'd ' 'occur passim in Shakespeare.' I doubt. 
I have found but comparatively few of them. Adjectives formed from nouns are, 
of course, common enough. ED.] 

15-18. And I think ... in their griefe] VAUGHAX: The right inter- 
pretation is this: 'I think that your King will both grant the tribute and send 
the arrearages, rather than face our Romans, the very memories of whom in their 
power of producing annoyance are still fresh.' 

17. Or looke] THEOBALD (Nichols, Illitst., ii, 266): Surely, you [/. e., War- 
burton] say, this should be not. I have long since cured it with a less 
change: ' Ere lock.' [In his edition Theobald observes that in a note in Til. 
And. he showed, 'from Chaucer, and the old Glossaries, that "Or" was formerly 
used for e'er, before; but this usage had become too obsolete in Shakespeare's 

20. Statist] That is, a statesman; used only here and in Hamlet, V, ii, 33, 
according to Bartlett. 

22. The Legion] THEOBALD: Posthumus is saying that the Britons are much 
strengthened since Caesar's attack upon them; would then the Romans think now 
of invading them with a single legion? [Theobald thereupon changes it to Legions, 
and quotes the following passage, where the plural is found: III, viii, 6 and 
16; IV, ii, 414; IV, iii, 30.] 

150 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iv. 

Are men more order'd, then when Inlius Ccefar 25 

SmiPd at their lacke of skill, but found their courage 

Worthy his frowning at. Their difcipline, 

(Now wing-led with their courages) will make knowne 28 

25. men] now Walker (Crit., iii, will Anon. ap. Cam. 

320). 28. wing-led] Var. '73. mingled Ff 

27, 28. difcipline, (Now. ..will] disci- et cet. 
pline Now, winged with their courages, courages] courage Dyce, Sta. 

26. their lacke of skill] BOSWELL-STONE (p. 8, foot-note 2): Holinshed says 
(ii, The first inhabitation of Ireland, 51/1/14) . . . 'the British nation was then 
vnskilfull, and not trained to feats of war, for the Britons then being onelie vsed 
to the Picts and Irish enemies, people halfe naked, through lacke of skill easilie 
gaue place to the Romans force.' 

27. "Worthy his frowning at] VAUGHAN (p. 405): The frown, as appears by 
Henry the Fifth's advice to his soldiers, is the proper condition of brow and face 
with which to meet a dangerous enemy. 'Worthy his frowning at' does not, there- 
fore, express disapprobation, but the collection of all his spirit and vigour to repel 
such adversaries. See Hen. V: III, i, 9-13. 

28. (Now wing-led with their courages)] STEEVENS: This may mean their 
discipline borrowing wings from their courage, i. e., their military knowledge being 
animated by their natural bravery. M ALONE: The same error that has happened 
here being often found in these plays, I have not hesitated to adopt the emenda- 
tion which was made by Mr Rowe. [Here is revealed how small was the attention 
paid even by Malone to the Folios. See Text. Notes.] Thus in the last Act of 
King John we have 'wind' for mind; in Ant. & Chop., 'winds' for minds; in Meas. 
for Meas., 'flawes' instead of flames, etc. KNIGHT: [Malone's] reason is not very 
strong, for those who have watched the progress of printers' errors know that an 
uncommon word is not ordinarily substituted for a common one. We would 
restore ' wing-led ' to the text because the phrase conveys one of those bold images 
which are thoroughly Shakespearian; but we feel that the speaker is deliberately 
reasoning, and does not use the language of passion, under which state Shakespeare 
for the most part throws out such figurative expressions. The simple word mingled 
is most in harmony with the entire speech. DANIEL (p. 85) would punctuate and 
read: 'Their discipline (Now winged) with their courages will,' etc. That is, now 
fledged. CARTWRIGHT (p. 39) proposes the same change. HUDSON: Mingled 
agrees with the context, as it gives the idea that the Britons had courage before, and 
now discipline has been added to courage. But for this latter consideration I 
should certainly read winged; as it seems to me nothing could well be more in the 
Poet's style than the figure of courage adding wings to discipline. THISELTON 
(p. 21): 'Wing-led' is a magnificent image derived from the acies simiata a dis- 
position under which the wings of an army opened the attack (see Clement Ed- 
monds' Observations on Ccesar's Commentaries, I, 19). For 'courages,' cf. 'which 
great and haughtie courages have often attempted' (Smith's The Common- 
wealth of England, I, v.). . . . In the present passage the metaphor ('wing-led') 
makes the plural ('courages') very appropriate; and there may also be a suggestion 
that discipline has, as it were, doubled in effect the courage of the Britons. 
DOWDEN: 'Wing-led' may be right. Mr Craig notes that in Q t of Rich. Ill: 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE I c I 

To their Approuers, they are People, fuch 

That*mend vpon the world. Enter lachimo. 30 

Phi. See lacJiimo. 

Poft. The fwifteft Harts haue pofted you by land; 
And Windes of all the Corners kifs'd your Sailes, 
To make your veffell nimble. 

Phil. Welcome Sir. 35 

Poft. I hope the briefeneffe of your anfwere, made 
The fpeedineffe of your returne. 

I acid. Your Lady, 38 

30. That] As Pope, Theob. Han. 32. The fwiftejl] Sure the swift Pope, 
Warb. +. 

Scene vi. Pope, Han. Warb. Harts] hearts F 3 F 4 . 

Johns. 35. Phil. Welcome] Post Welcome 

31. See lachimo.] Ff. (Jachimo F 4 ), Theob. ii. (misprint?) Warb. 

Rowe, Pope, Han. See, lachimo 36. Poft. 7 hope] Phil. 7 hope Theob. 

Theob. Warb. Johns. Var. '73. See! ii. (misprint?), Warb. 

lachimo? Coll. Sing. See! lachimo! an/were,] answer Theob. et seq. 

Cap. et cet. 37~39- The. ..Is] One line Ingl. 

[Surprised. Coll. iii. 38. Lady,] lady Theob. et seq. 

II, i, 88, we find 'a wingled Mercury.' If 'wing-led' be right, 'courages' may 
possibly mean 'gallants.' In Hamlet, I, iii, 65, Qi and Q 2 read 'each new-hatched, 
unfledged courage,' meaning 'gallant,' and other examples are cited in N. E. D. 
'Wing-led with their courages' may mean 'led in wings or divisions (a disciplined 
formation) by their gallant commanders.' Compare I, iii, 9, where the 'wings' 
of Cymbeline's army are mentioned. [Had the word in F x been 'wingled' instead 
of 'wing-led,' then the assertion of many editors that wingled was the mere sub- 
stitution by the compositor of a -w for an m, would have been unassailable, but it is 
'wing-led,' and, as Knight truly says, an uncommon word is not usually substi- 
tuted for a common one, thereby merely paraphrasing the sound scholastic rule of 
durior lectio prceferenda est. I do not like the tame expression of ' mingling disci- 
pline with courage' it is inert, and dead, and unShakespearian. If it be the true 
text, then I doubt that Shakespeare wrote the line. Dowden, it seems to me, has 
given the best possible paraphrase of the text. The Misses PORTER and CLARKE 
suggest that Posthumus is thinking of the Roman eagle, as now transferred, by 
discipline, to the Briton ranks. ED.] 

29. Approuers] WARBURTON: To those who try them. 

30. mend vpon the world] SCHMIDT (Lex., s. v. 2) : Equivalent to get the upper- 
hand of the world. [Schmidt refers to ' Begin you to grow upon me?' As You Like 
It, I, i, 91, where, as well as in the present passage, it is possible that the meaning 
is what Schmidt gives. And yet 'To get the upperhand' is, I think, a little too 
strong; in mending is there not implied a steady progress or improvement, upon what 
the world had hitherto found them? ED.] 

33. Windes of all the Corners] MURRAY (N. E. D., s.v. Corner. 8.): An 
extremity or end of the earth; a direction or quarter from which the wind blows. 
[The present line and Much Ado, II, iii, 103, quoted.] 



[ACT ii, sc. iv. 

Is one of the fayreft that I haue look'd vpon 

Poft. And therewithall the beft, or let her beauty 
Looke thorough a Cafement to allure falfe hearts, 
And be falfe with them. 

lachi. Heere are Letters for you. 

Poft. Their tenure good I truft. 

lack. 'Tis very like. 

Poft. Was Cains Lucius in the Britaine Court, 
When you were there ? 

lack. He was expected then, 
But not approach'd. 

Poft. All is well yet, 

Sparkles this Stone as it was wont, or is't not 
Too dull for your good wearing ? 

lacli. If I haue loft it, 




39. one of the] of the Pope,+, 
Var. '73. one the Steev. Var. '03, '13. 

fayrejl] feyrejl F 2 . fair'st Cap. - 

that] Om. Anon. ap. Cam. 

that I haue] that ever I Rowe ii. 
/ e'er Pope,+. that I've Dyce ii, iii. 

vpon] upon. F 4 . upon, Ingl. 

40. bejl,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Cam. best; Theob. et cet. 

41. thorough] through Rowe ii. et seq. 
44. tenure] Ff, Rowe, Pope, tenor 

Cap. tenour Theob. et cet. 
44. [Taking them. Coll. iii. 

46. Poft.] Phil. Cap. Mai. et seq. 

47. [Posthumus reads. Coll. ii. 

49. not] was not yet Han. 

50. All... yet] As an aside, Anon, 
ap. Cam. 

yet,] yet. Rowe ii. et seq. 

51. wont,] wont? Cap. et seq. 

53. / haue lojl it] I've lost it Pope,+. 
/ had lost it Sing. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 
Coll. iii. / had lost Coll. ii. (MS.). 

39. vpon] Does the persistent absence, through the first three Folios, of any 
period after this word betoken a hasty interruption by Posthumus? I think not. 
It is merely an instance of that 'nature of things' that Porson was wont to damn. 

40-42. or let her beauty . . . And be false with them] The best explana- 
tion of the meaning of this brutal speech will be found in Timon, IV, iii, 115, 116. 
Does Shakespeare wish to create in us, at the outset, an aversion to Posthumus, 
so that at the close of this scene our hearts will be duly hardened to endure the sight 
of his misery? ED. 

46. Post.] CAPELL (p. 108): No thinking person will ever be of opinion that 
Posthumus could be the asker of such a question as this. He has that in his hand 
which engages him wholly; and his eagerness to know the contents of it appears in 
his very hasty perusal even now that he is eased of this speech, for the time allowed 
is so short that we must conceive it helped by the action. [The credit of this just 
change was assumed by STEEVENS; it was attributed to him by M ALONE.] 

46. Britaine] See I, vii, 72, for Walker's discrimination between Briton and 

53. If I haue lost] DYCE (ed. i, reading, 'If I had lost'): Though some passages 
occur in our old writers where ' have ' seems to be equivalent to had, the present one 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 


I fhould haue loft the worth of it in Gold, 

He make a iourney twice as farre, t'enioy 55 

A fecond night of fuch fweet fhortneffe, which 

Was mine in Britaine, for the Ring is wonne. 

Poft. The Stones too hard to come by. 

lac/i. Not a whit, 
Your Lady being fo eafy. 60 

Pojl. Make note Sir 

Your loffe, your Sport : I hope you know that we 
Muft not continue Friends. 

lack. Good Sir, we muft 

If you keepe Couenant : had I not brought 65 

The knowledge of your Miftris home, I grant 
We were to queftion farther; but I now 
Profeffe my felfe the winner of her Honor, 
Together with your Ring ; and not the wronger 
Of her, or you hailing proceeded but 70 

By both your willes. 

54. Gold,] gold; Rowe, + . gold. Cap. 65. Couenant:] covenant. Johns. Var. 
et seq. '73, Coll. Dyce, Ktly, Glo. Cam. 

55. t'enioy] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. Dyce 67. farther] Ff,+, Cap. Coll. Sing, 
ii, iii. to enjoy Cap. et cet. Sta. Ktly, Cam. further Var. '73 et cet. 

58. Stones] stone's Rowe. 70. her, or you] her or you, Dyce, Sta. 

61. note] not Ff. Glo. Cam. her, or you, Ff. et cet. 

cannot, I think, be considered as belonging to that class. (In Coriolanus, IV, vii, 
12, the Folio has, 'Yet. I wish Sir [I meane for your particular] you had not loyn'd 
in Commission with him; but either haue borne The action of your selfe, or else to 
him, had left it soly.') WHITE (ed. i.) disagrees with Dyce, and thinks 'haue 'was 
not intended as an equivalent to had; ' the difference made in the sentence by "have" 
and "had" is not merely in grammatical form, but in thought. lachimo says, "If 
I have lost it now, that loss is the consequence of my having then lost the weight 
of it in gold." We do not use this form of thought now-a-days.' [In his second ed. 
White has, apparently, forgotten all about this 'form of thought'; he there prints 
'had' without comment. ED.] COLLIER (ed. ii.): Mr Singer introduces had, [see 
Text. Notes], merely observing that 'the Folios read have.' Whence did he procure 
had? From the MS. which most provokingly anticipated Mr Singer's emenda- 
tion. Perhaps, therefore, it is no wonder that he takes it to himself, and says noth- 
ing about the correspondence of the 'MS.' with his notion. The 'MS.' omits 'it' 
after 'lost,' for it is clear that lachimo would not have lost the ring, but 'the worth 
of it in gold.' Posthumus would have lost the ring; and to make lachimo say 
'If I had lost' renders the whole dialogue consistent. 

66. knowledge] To any one familiar with the Old Testament any reference to 
the meaning of this word is superfluous. 



Pojl. If you can mak't apparant 
That yon haue tafted her in Bed ; my hand, 
And Ring is yours. If not, the foule opinion 
You had of her pure Honour; gaines,or loofes, 
Your Sword, or mine, or Mafterleffe leaue both 
To who fhall finde them. 

lack. Sir, my Circumftances 
Being fo nere the Truth, as I will make them, 
Muft firft induce you to beleeue; whofe ftrength 
I will confirme with oath, which I doubt not 
Yo u 'l giue me leaue to fpare, when you fhall finde 
Yo u neede it not. 

Poft. Proceed. 

lack. Firft, her Bed-chamber 
(Where I confeffe I flept not, but profeffe 
Had that was well worth watching) it was hang'd 
With Tapiftry of Silke, and Siluer, the Story 
Proud Cleopatra, when fhe met her Roman, 
And Sidnus fwell'd aboue the Bankes, or for 

[ACT ii, sc. iv. 




72. mak't] F 2 F 4 . make it Varr. Mai. 
Rann. make't F 3 et cet. 

apparent] apparent F 4 . 

73. yon] Fi. 

Bed;] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. 
Han. Warb. bed, Johns, et cet. 

73. 74. hand, And Ring] Ff, Rowe,+, 
hand And ring Dyce, Ktly, Glo. Cam. 
hand, and ring, Cap. et cet. 

74. is] are Coll. MS. 

yours.} yours; Johns, et seq. 
// not,} If not F 3 F 4 . 

75. pure} poor F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope. 
prov'd Warb. (Nichols, Illust., ii, 

75. loofes] lofes F 4 . 

76. your Sword, or mine} My sword or 
yours Vaun. 

leaue} leaves Rowe et seq. 

79. nere} near F 4 . 

81. oath} Ff, + . oath; Cap. et seq. 

84. Proceed.} Proceed, sir Anon. ap. 

86. not} Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Johns. Coll. Cam. not; Theob. et cet. 

88. Tapiftry} tapestry Rowe. 

Silke, and Siluer] silver and silk 
Pope, silver'd silk Han. 

90. Sidnus] Cidnus Ff, Rowe, Pope. 
Cvdnus Theob. 

76. Masterlesse leaue] 'Leave' is here, I think, a plural by proximity. 

87. well worth watching] STEEVENS: That is, that which was well lying 
awake for. [STAUNTON takes ' watching ' as the term in falconry for taming the 
haggards by keeping them awake. That Shakespeare does use this term of fal- 
conry we all know (Desdemona says of Othello, 'I'll watch him tame'), but I 
think it doubtful that it is so used here. Is it not sufficient to take it as a mere 
equivalent of 'not sleeping.' Furthermore, is there not an absorption of the in 
the th of 'worth': 'Had that was well worth ' [the] watching'? ED.] 

90. And Sidnus] CAPELL changed 'And' to On, and complacently observes: 
The lovers of Shakespeare will not be displeas'd to see his diction a little improved, 
when it can be done at so trifling a change as is [here made] : and if one as trifling 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 155 

The preffe of Boates, or Pride. A peece of Worke 91 

So brauely done, fo rich, that it did ftriue 

In Workemanfhip, and Value, which I wonder'd 

Could be fo rarely, and exactly wrought 

Since the true life on't was 95 

91. Pride.] Johns. Var. '73. pride, 'twas. Coll. ii, iii. (MS.), on't was not 

Warb. Pride: Ff et cet. Walker (Crit., iii, 320). on it was Ktly. 

93. Value,] value; Pope et seq. outdone 'twas. Vaun. was out on't 

95. Since] such Mason, Sing. Anon. ap. Cam. 
on't was ] on't was. Han. on't 

as this can give sense to a passage that never had it before (which, it was appre- 
hended, was the case of one at the end of this speech), they will perhaps be in- 
clined dare manus libenter. [The 'case' just referred to is line 95, 'the true life 
on't was '; this Capell changed, needlessly, into 'the true life was in it.'] 

90. aboue the Bankes] ECCLES : The expression would have been neater had it 
been 'his' or l ils banks.' [That word 'neater' deserves letters of beaten gold.] 

90, 91. or for The presse of Boates, or Pride] WARBURTON: That is, an 
agreeable ridicule on poetic exaggeration, which gives human passions to inanimate 
things; and particularly upon what he himself writes in the foregoing play on 
this very subject: 'And made the water, which they beat, to follow faster, As 
amorous of their strokes.' But the satire is not only agreeably turned, but very 
artfully employed; as it is a plain indication that the speaker is secretly mocking 
the credulity of his hearer, while he is endeavouring to persuade him of his wife's 
falsehood. JOHNSON quotes Warburton in full, and then remarks: It is easy to sit 
down and give our author meanings which he never had. Shakespeare has no 
great right to censure poetical exaggeration, of which no poet is more frequently 
guilty. That he intended to ridicule his own lines is very uncertain, when there 
are no means of knowing which of the two plays was written first. The commen- 
tator has contented himself to suppose that the foregoing play in his book was 
the play of earlier composition. Nor is the reasoning better than the assertion. 
If the language of lachimo be such as shows him to be mocking the credibility of 
his hearer, his language is very improper, when his business was to deceive. But 
the truth is, that his language is such as a skilful villain would naturally use, a 
mixture of airy triumph and serious deposition. His gayety shews his seriousness 
to be without anxiety, and his seriousness proves his gayety to be without art. 

92, 93. it did striue In Workemanship, and Value] SCHMIDT (Lex.,s.v. Strive, 
5.) quotes this passage under the head 'to emulate, to vie,' and happily para- 
phrases it: 'it was doubtful which of the two, workmanship or value, was greater.' 

95. Since the true life on't was ] For Capell's reading, see line 90.- 

STAUNTON: To any of the proposed emendations we should prefer: 'Since the 
true life on't has.' But what necessity is there for change? The speech is evidently 
intended to be interrupted by Posthumus. INGLEBY in his text reads, 'Since 
true life was not ' and explains that the conclusion of the sentence is 'represent- 
able in silk and silver.' THISELTON: As a dash naturally arouses curiosity, I 
would suggest that lachimo, if he had not been interrupted, would have proceeded 
to describe 'the Chimney piece,' and that the minute detail that the Chimney 
was south the chamber was inserted as an afterthought in order to increase the 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iv. 

Poft. This is true : 96 

And this you might haue heard of heere, by me, 
Or by fome other. 

lack. More particulars 
Muft iuftifie my knowledge. IOO 

Poft. So they muft, 
Or doe your Honour iniury. 

lack. The Chimney 

Is South the Chamber, and the Chimney-peece 
Chafte Dian, bathing : neuer faw I figures 105 

So likely to report themfelues ; the Cutter 
Was as another Nature dumbe, out-went her, 
Motion, and Breath left out. 

Poft. This is a thing 109 

96. This] Why, this Han. Vaun. cutting Anon. ap. Cam. 

true] most true Coll. ii. (MS.) 107. Nature dumbe, out-went] Ff, 

104. Chamber,] Ff , Rowe, Pope, Han. Rowe, Pope, Johns. Ktly. nature, 
Glo. Cam. chamber; Theob. et cet. dumb, out-went Theob. Var. '73. 

105. Chafte] chaft F 3 F 4 , Rowe, + , nature, dumb out-went Han. nature; 
Cap. Var. '73. dumb, out-went Cap. nature, dumb; 

106. Cutter] cutten Anon. ap. Cam. out-went Warb. et cet. 

particularity of the description, when he finds Posthumus is not sufficiently im- 
pressed by his relation. 

98. Or by some other] THISELTON: This is a self-correction by Posthumus, 
as he realises the unlikelihood of having given the information himself to Jachimo. 

104. Chimney-peece] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Piece in the artistic sense): 
i. A picture, piece of sculpture, or of tapestry, placed as an ornament over a 
fireplace. [The present passage is the earliest recorded.] 

106. So likely to report themselues] JOHNSON: So near to speech. 
CAPELL (p. 109) : That is, expressive of the passions intended; so much so as not to 
need an interpreter, the figures speaking themselves. [HANMER reads, instead of 
'likely,' lively. DOWDEN says, 'and perhaps he was right.' VAUGHAN suggests the 
same change.] 

106, 107. the Cutter Was as another Nature dumbe] WARBURTON: 
This nonsense should, without question, be read and printed thus: 'Has as another 
nature done; out-went her, Motion,' etc., i. e.,has worked as exquisitely, nay, has 
exceeded her, if you will put motion and breath out of the question. JOHNSON: 
This emendation I think needless. The meaning is this, The Sculptor was as nature, 
but as nature dumb; he gave everything that nature gives but breath and motion. 
In breath is included speech. CAPELL: The cutter, another nature; nay, outgoing 
her works, if we but suppose them divested of speech, motion, and breath. J. 
BEALE (N. & Q., V, viii, 182) informs us that the 'best sense' he 'can make is to 
read: "The cutter Was another nature; [the] dumb out went her, Motion and 
breath left out"; that is to say, the mute statuary or dead art was made to surpass 
speechless humanity or dead nature.'' 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 

Which you might from Relation likewife reape, 1 10 

Being, as it is, much fpoke of. 

lack. The Roofe o'th'Chamber, 
With golden Cherubins is fretted. Her Andirons 
(I had forgot them) were two winking Cupids 
Of Siluer, each on one foote ftanding, nicely 115 

Depending on their Brands. 

no. reape^ F 2 . read F 3 F 4 , Rowe, -f-, Varr. Ran. 

Pope, reap; Theob. et cet. 113. is] Om. Walker. 

in. muck fpoke of] much spoke fretted.] fretted; Theob. Warb. 

Vaun. et seq. 

112. o'ttt] o'the Cap. et seq. Her] Th J Pope ii,+, Varr. Rann. 

113. Cherubins] cherubims Rowe ii, 114. winking] -winged Coll. MS. 

113. With golden Cherubins is fretted] STEEVENS: The same tawdry image 
occurs in Hen. VIII: I, i, 23: 'their dwarfish pages were As cherubins, all gilt/ 
The sole recommendation of this Gothic idea, which is tritically repeated by modern 
artists, seems to be that it occupies but little room on canvas or marble; for chubby, 
unmeaning faces, with ducks' wings tucked under them, are all the circumstances 
that enter into such infantine and absurd representations of the choirs of heaven. 
DOUCE (ii, 101): Shakespeare is not accountable for the fashions or follies of his 
age, and has, in this instance, given a faithful description of the mode in which 
the rooms in great houses were sometimes ornamented. [Apparently, according 
to the authorities quoted by MURRAY (N. E. D.), no manner of spelling the word, 
whether 'cherubins' or 'cherubims,' or even the use of 'cherubim' as a singular, 
can be condemned as wrong or without authority.] 

113. Andirons] MURRAY (N. E. D.) : An adoption of Old French andier (modern 
French landier, i. e., V andier). Its remoter history unknown. In English the ter- 
mination was at an early date identified with the word yre, yren, iron, whence 
the later illusive spelling, and-iron. 

114. winking Cupids] COLLIER (ed. ii.) informs us that his MS. changes 
'winking' to winged. 'It certainly seems unlikely,' he remarks, 'that lachimo, by 
that dim light, should have observed whether the Cupids were "winking," although 
he could have seen that they were winged. We believe winged to be right, but we 
are not so sure of it as to warrant a desertion of what has always been considered 
the text.' STAUXTOX: That is, blind Cupids, Cupids with closed eyes. 

115. 116. nicely Depending on their Brands] MURRAY (N. E. D.) quotes this 
line as an illustration of his definition (3, c.) of Brand, which is 'the torches of 
Cupid and the Furies.' It is hardly worth while to expend much time over de- 
scriptions of furniture, like the present, but it is worth while to have whatever 
image is presented to the mind clear and distinct. STEEVENS acknowledges that 
he is not sure that he understands this passage. 'Perhaps,' he says, 'Shakespeare 
meant that the figures of the Cupid were nicely poized on their inverted torches, one 
of the legs of each being taken off the ground, which might render such a support 
necessary.' Poized may be, possibly, accepted as a paraphrase of 'depending,' 
but I should much prefer (as nearer to the Latin, dependeo) hanging on or leaning 
on. In inverting the torches, however, Steevens is, I think, wholly wrong. Ac- 
cording to ancient symbolism, as portrayed on many monuments, an inverted and, 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iv. 

Pojl. This is her Honor : 117 

Let it be granted you haue feene all this (and praife 
Be giuen to your remembrance) the defcription 
Of what is in her Chamber, nothing faues 120 

The wager you haue laid. 

lack. Then if you can 
Be pale, I begge but leaue to ay re this lewell : See, 123 

117. This. ..Honor:] Ff. (honour 118,119. and praife Be giuen] Praise 
F 3 F 4 ), Rowe, Pope i. What's this t'her be Pope, + . 

honour? Theob. Pope ii, Han. Warb. 122. [Pulling out the Bracelet. 

This. ..honour? Johns. Cap. This... Rowe. Producing the bracelet from its 

honour. Coll. This is mere rumour case. Coll. iii. 

Anon. ap. Cam. This... honour! Var. 122,123. can Be pale, I] Ff, Rowe,+, 

'73 et cet. Knt. i. can Be pale; I Var. '73. can, 

1 1 8. Let it be] Be it Cap. Be pale; I Cap. et cet. 

Let. ..this] One line Pope,+. 123. See,] see! Rowe et seq. 

therefore, extinguished torch represented death. Cupid's hymeneal torch was, on 
the contrary, held aloft and burning. The little Cupids stood on one foot because 
the legs were crossed; and, by that same symbolism, crossed legs represented 
sleep, which was also indicated, possibly, by the winking eyes. The Cupids were 
diminutive and the hymeneal torches were tall, so that the Cupids could very 
properly lean or 'depend on' them. This seems to me the true interpretation of 
lachimo's description. ED. 

117. This is her Honor:] THEOBALD: I think there is little question but we 
ought to restore the place thus: 'What's this /'her Honour?' I proposed this 
emendation in the Appendix to my Shakespeare Restor'd, and Mr Pope has thought 
fit to embrace it in his last edition. UPTON (p. 230) : But why may it not be read 
[sic] without altering it one word, only by an easy transposition, 'Is this her 
honour?' or perhaps he speaks ironically, 'This is her honour!' JOHNSON: [This 
emendation of Theobald] has been followed by both the succeeding editors, but I 
think it must be rejected. The expression is ironical. lachimo relates many 
particulars, to which Posthumus answers with impatience: 'This is her honour.' 
That is, And the attainment of this knowledge is to pass for the corruption of her 
honour. CAPELL (p. 109): This line wants nothing but the tone of the utterer 
to give it the force of 'What's this t'her honour?' [as proposed by Theobald]. 

122, 123. Then if you can Be pale] JOHNSON: If you can forbear to flush 
your cheek with rage. BOSWELL: I rather think it means, If you can controul 
your temper, if you can restrain yourself within bounds. To pale is commonly used 
for to confine or surround. Thus in Ant. & Cleop., 'Whate'er the ocean pales, or 
sky enclyps.' II, vii, 74. [Poor Boswell. ED.] KNIGHT: We follow the punctua- 
tion of the original [in preference to Capell's] ; lachimo has produced no effect upon 
Posthumus up to this moment; but he now says, if you can be pale, I will see what 
this jewel will do to make you change countenance. DYCE (Remarks, p. 255): 
I have no doubt that the punctuation given by Mr Collier [i. e., Capell's] is right; 
and that the passage means, 'Then, if you can (i. e., if anything has power to make 
you change colour) be pale (become pale at the sight of this), I beg,' etc. [To 
me the punctuation of the Folio is the better. Dyce's (and, of course, Capell's) 

ACT II, SC. iv.] 



And now 'tis vp againe : it muft be married 
To that your Diamond, He keepe them. 

Poft. loue 

Once more let me behold it : Is it that 
Which I left with her ? 

lack. Sir (I thanke her) that 
She ftript it from her Arme : I fee her yet : 
Her pretty Action, did out-fell her guift, 
And yet enrich'd it too : fhe gaue it me, 
And faid, fhe priz'd it once. 

Poft. May be, fhe pluck'd it off 
To fend it me. 

lack. She writes fo to you ? doth fhee ? 

Poft. O no, no, no, 'tis true. Heere, take this too, 




125. Diamond,] Ff. diatnond. Rowe, 
+ . diamond; Cap. et cet. 

them.] them Ed. conj. 

126. loue } Jove! Rowe et seq. 

129. that] Ff, Rowe i. that. Johns. 
Ktly. that: Rowe ii. et cet. 

130. her yet:] her yet Ff. her yet, 
Rowe +. 

131. AClion, did] action did Rowe, + . 
guift] F 2 . 

132. too:] Om. Steev. conj. 

132, 133. And yet. ../aid,} One line 

Steev. Varr. Knt, Dyce, Sing. Ktly, 

134. May be,] Om. Han. May be 
Knt, Dyce, Glo. Cam. 
off] Om. Vaun. 

136. you? doth Jhee?] you, doth she? 
Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

137. no, 'tis] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
no. 'Tis Johns, no! 'Tis Var. '73, 
Dyce, Glo. Cam. no; 'tis Theob. et cet. 

too,] too; Theob. Warb. et seq. 
[Gives the ring. Johns. 

interpretation seems to imply that Posthumus is so utterly brazen-faced that noth- 
ing less than a cataclasm can make him change colour; it almost necessitates an 
emphasis and action on lachimo's part that verges on the theatrical, whereas it 
was lachimo's cool, mocking assumption of triumph that was so intensely galling to 
Posthumus. According to the Folio, he may be imagined as uttering these words 
with a courteous bow and a mocking smile. ED.] 

123. See] ELZE (p. 310), for the sake of metre, would have this form 'a most 
energetic interjectional line.' 

125. He keepe them] WYATT: 'I'll keep them,' though your mistress and you 
have parted with them so easily, a perfectly Satanic thrust! [Admirably said! 
and yet such is the hurricane in the victim's brain that I doubt he heeds it. ED.] 

131. out-sell] SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, exceeded it in value. See where 
Cloten speaks of Imogen and of her superiority above other women, 'and she of 
all compounded Out-sells them all.' III, v, 93. 

136. She writes so to you ?] This letter of Imogen is still an unknown source 
of danger to lachimo. He knows well enough that all his scheming may be yet 
in vain and his wager lost if Imogen has revealed to Posthumus the false reports 
with which his interview with her began, or the foiled attempts to beguile her, and 
the fabricated story of regal presents in a trunk which she had guarded in her very 
bed-chamber. An inkling of the truth might dawn from this letter on Posthumus, 



[ACT ii, sc. iv. 

It is a Bafiliske vnto mine eye, 138 

Killes me to looke on't : Let there be no Honor, 

Where there is Beauty : Truth, where femblance : Loue, 140 

Where there's another man. The Vowes of Women, 

Of no more bondage be, to where they are made, 

Then they are to their Vertues, which is nothing : 

O, aboue meafure falfe. 

PhiL Haue patience Sir, 145 

And take your Ring againe, 'tis not yet wonne : 
It may be probable fhe loft it : or 
Who knowes if one of her women, being corrupted 148 

139. on't:] on't. Coll. Dyce, Sta. Glo. 

139, 140. Honor,. ..Beauty :... fem- 
blance : Loue,] Honor,, ...sem- 
blance, love Rowe. 

141. man.] Ff, Rowe, + , Ktly. man: 
Cap. et cet. 

141-143. Women,.,. ..made, ...Ver- 
ities,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. -women. ..made, ...virtues, Han. women... 
be, ...made, ...virtues, Warb. Johns. 
women,., .made,. . .virtues; Knt. 

women., ...made, ...virtues; Cap. et cet. 

142. they are] they're Pope, + , Dyce 
ii, iii. 

144. falfe.] false! Rowe et seq. 

146. againe,] again; Rowe et seq. 

148. knowes if] knows, Pope,+. 
knows, if Var. '73, '78. 

knowes... women] knows, if one, 
her women Coll. i. knows, if one, her 
woman Coll. ii. 

one. ..her] one o' her Dyce. one 
of her Ff et cet. 

and, for aught lachimo could tell, Posthumus in his blind fury might cut him down 
on the spot. This reference to the letter sprang, therefore, from deep cunning. ED. 

138. Basiliske] MURRAY (N. E. D.): i. A fabulous reptile, also called a cocka- 
trice, alleged to be hatched by a serpent from a cock's egg; ancient authors stated 
that its hissing drove away all other serpents, and that its breath, and even its look, 
was fatal. [The interested student will find in Wint. Tale, I, ii, 449 (of this ed.), a 
note wherein are quoted the accounts of this creature derived from Holland's 
Plinie, Bk xxix, Cap. iv; Batman vppon Bartholome, p. 350, verso; and Topsell's 
History of Serpents, p. 119. Wherein it is to be especially noted that it is not the 
sight of the basilisk, but the sight from the basilisk which proves fatal; and Leontes 
in Wint. Tale thus correctly refers to it. But here Posthumus reverses the fatal 
process. ED.] 

141-143. The Vowes of Women ... to their Vertues] JOHNSON: The 
love vowed by women no more abides with him to whom it is proved than women 
adhere to their virtue. VAUGHAN (p. 411): Johnson interprets as an aphorism 
that which is a prayer or imprecation. . . . As 'let there be' commences, so 'be' 
continues under a different form of the imperative mood, thus: 'Let there be no 
honour,' etc., and 'let women's vows have no more efficacy,' etc. 

147. It may be probable] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Probable, i.): Capable of 
being proved, demonstrable, provable. 

148. if one her women] COLLIER, probably unwilling to harm the metre by 
adopting the 'of in 2, accepted, in his ed. i, 'one, her women' as elliptical, and 
'the same as "one of her women."' Whereupon, DYCE (Remarks, p. 255) asserts 
that Collier adopts 'from the Folio an error in defence of which no one ever dreamed 

ACT II, SC. iv.] 



Hath ftolne it from her. 

Poft. Very true, 1 50 

And fo I hope he came by't : backe my Ring, 
Render to me fome corporall figne about her 
More euident then this : for this was ftolne. 

lack. By lupiter, I had it from her Arme. 

Poft. Hearke you, he fweares : by lupiter he fweares. 155 
'Tis true, nay keepe the Ring ; 'ti s true : I am fure 
She would not loofe it : her Attendants are 
All fworne, and honourable : they induc'd to fteale it ? 158 

149. Hath ftolne] Ff. might stoln 
Pope, might not have stolen. Han. Hath 
stoln or stol'n Rowe et cet. 

her.] her? Han. Knt, Coll. Dyce, 
Glo. Cam. her chamber? Anon. ap. 

151. by't:} by't. Coll. Dyce, Glo. 

backe] back, Coll. iii. 

Ring,] ring. Coll. ring; Theob. 

et seq. 

[Restoring it to his finger. Coll. 


152. corporall] corporrl F 4 . 

153. was ftolne] Cap. wat ftole F 2 . 
was ftole F 3 F 4 , Rowe, + . was stolen or 
stol'n Var. '73 et cet. 

156. 'Tis true,] Ff, Cap. Dyce. 'Tis 
true Rowe, + . 'Tis true; Var. '73 
et cet. 

Ring;] Ff. ring, Dyce. ring 
Rowe et cet. 

'ti s true:] 'tis true. Coll. 

[Offering the ring. Coll. iii. 

/ am] I'm Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii. 

157. would] F 2 . Jhould F 3 F 4 . could 
Rowe, + , Varr. Ran. 

loofe] lofe F 4 . 

158. fworne, and] sworn and Rowe ii, 
Johns. Dyce, Ktly, Glo. Cam. Om. 
Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 

158. fteale it?} Ff, Cap. Coll. ii. steal 
it! Rowe et cet. 

of saying a word. Such an ellipsis is impossible. We have had before in the present 
play: "I will make One of her women lawyer to me." II, iii, 80. Thereupon, 
COLLIER relinquished his ellipsis, and says with assurance that ' the true emenda- 
tion is evidently to put "women" in the singular, to which there can be no reason- 
able objection'; he recalls that Imogen had a woman 'Helen,' and that hereafter 
there will be a 'Dorothy,' and just before her flight there is an unnamed one who is 
to 'feign sickness.' His second text, therefore, reads, 'if one, her woman, being,' 
etc. But his conscience was evidently uneasy; in his ed. iii. his text, without a note, 
reads: 'if one of her women, being,' etc. STAUNTON considers the expression 'as 
awkward without the preposition, unless we read, "if one, her women being 
corrupted," etc.' 

154. By lupiter] FLETCHER (p. 62): It should here be borne in mind that this 
form of obtestation, in the age and country wherein this scene is laid, was a very 
different matter from swearing 'by Jove' now-a-days; the oath by the father of the 
gods had a real and awful solemnity; and it is worthy of remark that the dramatist, 
with subtle propriety, has made even the unscrupulous lachimo employ it only this 
once, and in support of an assertion which, though not substantially, is literally 
true. [The propriety of Fletcher's remark is proved by Posthumus's exclamation 
in response. It is this oath of highest sanctity that convinces Posthumus, and 
forces him to say "Tis true.' ED.] 

158. All sworne] PERCY: It was anciently the custom for the attendants on our 


!62 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT 11, sc. iv. 

And by a Stranger ? No, he hath enioy'd her, 

The Cognifance of her incontinencie 160 

Is this : fhe hath bought the name of Whore, thus deerly 

There, take thy hyre, and all the Fiends of Hell 

Diuide themfelues betweene you. 

Phil. Sir, be patient : 

This is not ftrong enough to be beleeu'd 165 

Of one perfwaded well of. 

Pofl. Neuer talke on't : 
She hath bin colted by him. 

lack. If you feeke 169 

159. Stranger?] Ff, Cap. Mai. Ran. 161. deerly] deerely F 2 . dearly; 
Steev, Var. '03, '13, Coll. ii. stranger! Theob. Warb. Johns, dearly. F 3 F 4 
Rowe et cet. et cet. 

her} her. Pope,+. her: Cap et 162. hyre] hire; Cap. et seq. 

cet. 163. you.] you! Theob. et seq. 

161. this:] Ff. Rowe ii, Pope, Theob. i. [Giving the ring. Coll. iii. 

Coll. this; Rowe i, Theob. ii, Han. 166. well of.] Ff, Dyce. well of. 

Johns, this, Cap. et cet. Theob. Warb. well of Rowe et cet. 
Jhe hath] sh' hath Pope, Han. 168. bin] been F 3 F 4 . 

nobility and other great personages (as it is now for the servants of the King) 
to take an oath of fidelity on their entrance into office. In the household book of 
the 5th Earl of Northumberland (compiled A. D. 1512) it is expressly ordered (p. 
49) that ' what person soever he be that commyth to my Lordes service, that in- 
. contynent after he be intred in the chequyrroull [check-roll] that he be sworn in the 
countynge-hous by a gentillman-usher or yeman-usher in the presence of the hede 
officers.' Even now every servant of the King's at his first appointment is sworn in, 
before a gentleman usher, at the lord chamberlain's office. 

1 60. Cognisance] JOHNSON: That is, the badge; the token; the visible proof. 
CAPELL: An heraldic term properly, signifying the crest; by translation, any 
badge or mark that is used to distinguish; the great value of the wager which the 
speaker has lost is (says he) ' the cognisance ' which distinguishes the ' incontinency' 
of she [sic] we are talking of from that of all other women. MURRAY (N. E. D., 
5. v., Ill, 5.): Specifically, in Heraldry, a device or emblem borne for distinction 
by all the retainers of a noble house, whether they bore 'arms' or not. (The 
chief sense in Middle English, and still frequent.) [The colon after ' this,' in the next 
line, gives rise to some obscurity, to me at least. Possibly, THISLETON or SIMPSON 
would interpret it as merely marking an emphatic pause, and this may be right, 
yet, all the same, the colon is sometimes used, as we and the Germans now use it, in 
the sense of namely; and it is possible for it to bear this sense here. But I think not. 
I prefer the emphatic pause, and that 'this' refers to the ring, which may also be 
CapelPs meaning, obscured though it be in a mist of words. ED.] 

166. Of one perswaded well of] INGLEBY: That is, of one whom we are 
persuaded to think well of. [If the sentence be complete, Ingleby's paraphrase is 
just, but if the sentence be broken off, which a large majority of the editors seem 
to believe, then DOWDEN suggests 'her truth' as the words Philario would have 

ACT II, SC. iv.] 



For further fatisfying, vnder her Breaft 170 

(Worthy her preffmg) lyes a Mole, right proud 

Of that moft delicate Lodging. By my life 

I kift it, and it gaue me prefent hunger 

To feede againe, though full. You do remember 

This ftaine vpon her ? 175 

Poft . I, and it doth confirme 
Another ftaine, as bigge as Hell can hold, 
Were there no more but it. 

lacli. Will you heare more? 

Poft. Spare your Arethmaticke, 180 

Neuer count the Turnes : Once, and a Million. 

lack. He be fworne. 

Poft. No fwearing : 

If you will fweare you haue not done't, you lye, 
And I will kill thee, if thou do'ft deny 185 

Thou'ft made me Cuckold. 

lack. He deny nothing. 

Poft. O that I had her heere, to teare her Limb-meale: 188 

171. her] Ff, Cap. Ran. the Rowe et 
cet. your Anon. ap. Cam. 

172. Lodging.] lodging: Cap. et seq. 

173. kift it,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Coll. ii, iii, Cam. kiss'd it; Theob. et 
cet. . 

176. /,] Ay Rowe. 

180. 181. Spare. ..Turnes] One line 
Han. Cap. et seq. 

180. Arethmaticke,] Arithmelicke, F 2 . 
Arithmetick , F 3 F 4 . arithmetick. Rowe ii, 
+ . arithmetick; Cap. et seq. 

181. Neuer count] Count not Pope,+. 
Ne'er count Var. '73. 

Million.] Ff, Rowe, Han. Cap. 

million! Pope et cet. 

182. fworne.] sworn Rowe et seq. 

183. /wearing:] swearing. Steev. Varr. 
Knt, Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

184. done't, you] done't you Cam. 
you lye] you'll lie Ingl. 

185. do'ft] F 3 F 4 . dofl F 2 . 

186. Thou'ft} Thou hast Cap. Varr. 
Mai. Rann, Steev. Varr. Knt. 

187. He] F 2 . Fie F 3 . /'// F 4 . / will 
Cap. Varr. Ran, Steev. 

1 88. her] Om. Cap. (Corrected in 

meale:] meal ! Theob. et seq. 

171. Worthy her pressing] CAPELL: 'Her' is most improperly alter'd to the 
in all modern editions; defacing a very delicate complement to put in one that is 
gross. [Collier's MS. has the, and Collier remarks that 'lachimo can scarcely mean 
that it was worthy Imogen's pressing.' Why not? It is, I think, exactly what he 
does mean. THISELTON defends 'her,' and suggests rightly, as I think, that it 
refers to the mole as ' worthy' to be pressed by Imogen's breast. lachimo's admira- 
tion of the mole may then be, possibly, a reminiscence of Boccaccio's story, where 
Ambroginolo detects a mole under the left breast, 'about which were sundry little 
hairs as red as gold.' ED.] 

188. Limb-meale] BRADLEY (N. E. D.): Old English limmdelum. Limb from 
limb, limb by limb. 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT n, sc. iv. 

I will go there and doo't, i'th'Court, before 

Her Father. He do fomething. Exit. 190 

Phil. Quite be fides 

The gouernment of Patience. You haue wonne : 
Let's follow him, and peruert the prefect wrath 
He hath againft himfelfe. 

lack. With all my heart. Exeunt. 195 

i8Q. doo't, i'W] F 2 . do't ith' F 3 . Cap. something Rowe et cet. 
do't i'th' F 4 , Rowe,-K do't; i'the Cap. 191, 192. befides The] befedes. The 

et cet. Ff. 

Court], court; Cap. et cet. 192. Patience.] patience! Pope et 

190. Father.] Ff, Coll. father seq. 

Rowe,-K father: Cap. et cet. 193. peruert] prevent Heath, Mason. 

fomething.] Ff. something: divert Cap. conj., Jervis. 

190. He do something] Compare Lear: 'I will have such revenges on you both, 
That all the world shall, I will do such things, What they are, yet I know not; 
but they shall be The terrors of the earth.' II, iv, 283. 

193, 194. peruert the present wrath He hath against himselfe] CAPELL: 
It seems as if the Poet, instead of 'pervert/ was about to write divert; but seeing 
instantly something unfit in it, put the former word down, giving it the sense of the 
latter. M ALONE: That is, turn his wrath to another course. STEEVENS: To 
'pervert,' I believe, only signifies to avert his wrath from himself, without any idea 
of turning it to another person. To what other course it could have been diverted 
by the advice of Philario and lachimo, Mr Malone has not informed us. MALONE: 
If they turned the wrath he had against himself to patience or fortitude, they 
would turn it to another course; I had not said a word about turning it against 
any other person. THISELTON: Posthumus's wrath is not 'against himself in the 
ordinary sense, but against Imogen. We must, therefore, either take 'against 
himself ' as equivalent to contrary to his better nature or irrationally; or construe the 
phrase in close connection with 'pervert,' we must influence the wrath which is now 
his servant to desert his service. The former alternative seems to me the more 

195. Exeunt] FLETCHER (p. 52): The truth is that Posthumus, under the 
first shock and provocation of this revolting encounter, behaves both modestly 
and patiently 'as calm as virtue,' according to lachimo's penitent admission. 
He does not propose the wager: it is forced upon him by the scoffs and taunts of the 
Italian; and is accepted at last with a view to punish them, first, by the repulse 
which his addresses are sure to sustain, secondly, by the loss of his property, 
and thirdly, by the duel which is to follow. They who have so violently objected 
against the husband's procedure on this occasion have judged of it according to the 
cool, calculating habits of feeling belonging to the modern time, ignorant of or 
overlooking the real character of that chivalric love, that truly religious faith and 
devotion of the heart, which Shakespeare found it here his business to paint, 
lachimo, in his repentance, gives the right version of the matter, for, according 
to the code of chivalry, so far from its being regarded as an insult and profanation 
on the husband's part, to permit such an experiment to be made upon the con- 
stancy of his wife, it was looked upon as the highest proof of his confidence in her 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 

Enter Pq/lhumus. \ 96 

Poft. Is there no way for Men to be, but Women 
Mult be halfe-workers ? We are all Baftards, 198 

196. Scene vn. Pope, Han. Warb. 198. We...BaJlards,] We are bastards 

Johns. Scene v. Cap. et seq. The same. all, Pope,+, Steev. Var. '03, '13. We... 

Another Room in the same. Cap. bastards; all: Cap. Walker. We are, all 

Enter] Re-enter Theob. Warb. of us, bastards; Ktly. Now we...bas- 

Johns. lards. Vaun. 

virtue, and, therefore, as the most decided homage he could pay to it; and the at- 
tempting seducer, in such a case, was afterwards to be called to account by the 
husband, not so much for the attempt itself, as for the disbelief in the lady's fidelity 
which it implied. 

196. Enter Posthumus] In designating Scenes, Pope's rule was, apparently, 
to consider that as a new Scene whenever change took place in the group of char- 
acters on the stage; and he numbered the Scenes accordingly. If any characters, 
or even if a single character, left the stage, straightway a new Scene was marked. 
If any character entered, the Scene was equally new and so numbered. Herein 
he was followed, apparently without thought, by HANMER, WARBURTOii, and 
JOHNSON. THEOBALD, in the same circumstances, marked a new Scene, but did 
not number it. Thus in the present instance Pope and his followers, just men- 
tioned, marked the entrance of Posthumus as Scene vii. THEOBALD marks no 
change, but merely reads: 'Re-enter Posthumus.' ECCLES, who has changed the 
division even of the Acts, marks it as Act III, Scene ii. CAPELL marks it as Scene 
v. and has been herein followed by all subsequent editors down to the present time; 
and all of them follow him substantially by adding: 'Another Room in the same,' 
[i. e., Philario's House]. It is all a matter of trifling moment, yet I cannot but think 
that by deserting the Folio, and marking a new Scene in another apartment, we lose 
a fleeting glimpse into the depths of Posthumus's misery. He has dashed from the 
shot of triumphant eyes, and wandered aimlessly and unconsciously from room to 
room, until he again finds himself alone in the apartment, now deserted, from which 
he had flung himself, and can at last unpack his heart. ED. 

197. Is there no way, etc.] FLETCHER: Here we must observe how seriously 
the acting play is mutilated by entirely omitting this soliloquy of Posthumus. 
Shakespeare's dramatic purpose in it is evident and essential: to lay clearly open to 
us that stormy desolation, those volcanic heavings of a noble heart, our full con- 
ception of which can alone make us tolerate the purpose of sanguinary vengeance 
which is to be formed and pursued by his hero. [I must reluctantly disagree. 
This soliloquy is, I think, only for the closet, and, possibly, of doubtful propriety 
even there. ED.] v. FRJESEN (iii, 475) : After an experience such as Posthumus 
has just undergone this wonderfully beautiful monologue is in entire harmony 
with the state of a noble mind enraged to the very highest degree. It is the mood 
in which the very noblest dispositions are most violently and irresistably impelled 
to inhuman resolutions. 

198. halfe-workers] For similar sentiments STEEVENS refers to Paradise Lost, 
Bk x, [888-895]; Euripides, Hippolylus, [616-626, ed. Dindorf]; Rodomont's invec- 
tive against women, Orlando Fnrioso, Bk xxvii, stanzas 96, 97. 

198. Bastards] MURRAY (N. E. D.}: BAST, subs 2 , adopted from old French 
bast, packsaddle (used as a bed by muleteers in the inns), in phrases fils (homme, 

1 66 


[ACT n, sc. iv. 

And that moft venerable man, which I 

Did call my Father, was, I know not where 

When I was ftampt. Some Coyner with his Tooles 

Made me a counterfeit : yet my Mother feem'd 

The Dian of that time : fo doth my Wife 

The Non-pareill of this. Oh Vengeance, Vengeance ! 

Me of my lawfull pleafure fhe reftrain'd, 

And pray'd me oft forbearance : did i t with 

A pudencie fo Rofie, the fweet view on't 

Mio;ht well haue warm'd olde Saturne : 

o * 

That I thought her 

As Chafte as vn-Sunn'd Snow. Oh, all the Diuels ! 

This yellow lachimo in an houre, was't not ? 

Or leffe; at firftf Perchance he fpoke not, but 

Like a full Acorn'd Boare, a I armen on, 

Cry'de oh, and mounted ; found no oppofition 





200. Did} Dih F 2 . 

201. flampt.} stamped; Coll. stampt; 
Cap. et seq. 

204. this.] this Rowe,+. 

206. me oft] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Var. '73, Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. me, 
oft, Theob. et cet. 

206-208. forbearance: did... Saturne;} 
forbearance, (did... Saturn), Vaun. 

208. Saturne;} Saturn Rowe,+. 

208, 209. Might. ..her} One line Pope 
et seq. 

211. houre, was't not?] hour was 't 
not? Rowe et seq. (subs.) 

212. leffe; at firft?] Ff, Rowe, Pope, 
Theob. Han. Warb. less at first? 
Johns. Varr. Mai. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

less: at first: Cap. less? at first: Coll. 
ii. less? at first Ktly. less?) at 
first, Ingl. less, at first: Ran ei seq. 

212. he] Om. F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 

213. full Acorn'd] full-acorn' d Pope, 
Theob. ii. et seq. 

a larmen on} F 2 . a Jarmen on 
F 3 F 4 . a-churning on Pope, Warb. 
a foaming one Coll. ii, iii. (MS.). 
a briming one Sing, a lachimo Herr. 
a human one Phin. alarum'' d on or 
alarum on Thiselton. a German one 
Rowe et cet. 

214. Cry'de oh,} F 2 . Cry'd oh, F 3 F 4 , 
Rowe. cry'd, oh, Cap. Cried 'O!' 
Dyce, Glo. Cam. Cry'd oh! Pope et 

etc.), de bast, literally 'packsaddle child,' as opposed to a child of the marriage bed. 
BASTARD, adopted from Old French bastard, modern bdtard, equivalent to fils de 
bast, 'packsaddle child,' formed on bast + the pejorative suffix -ard. 

201. stampt] MALOXE: We have again the same image in Meas.for Meas., II, 
iv, 44-46- 

213. a larmen on] DYCE (Strict., p. 16): Since The Sec. Part of Henry IV: II, i, 
the Quarto of 1600 has 'the larman [i. e., German} hunting in water-worke,' etc., I 
am perfectly convinced that ' a larman on ' is (as Rowe saw) the old spelling for ' a 
German one.' DOWDEN: I am not at all sure that 'larman' does not here mean 
german, germane. 'larman' is an obsolete form of german (occurring, for ex- 
ample, in Hamlet, Q 2 ), and several early examples of german, meaning genuine, 
true, thorough, are cited in the N. E. D.; 'a german one' may thus mean a genuine 

ACT ii, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 

But what he look'd for, fhould oppofe, and fhe 215 

Should from encounter guard. Could I finde out 

The Womans part in me, for there's no motion 

That tends to vice in man, but I affirme 

It is the Womans part : be it Lying , note it, 

The womans : Flattering, hers ; Deceiuing, hers : 220 

Luft, and ranke thoughts, hers, hers : Reuenges hers : 

Ambitions, Couetings, change of Prides, Difdaine, 

Nice-longing, Slanders, Mutability; 223 

215. But] From Han. Warb. 221. Lujl... Reuenges hers] Om. Var. 
for, fltould] for should Pope et '03, '13, '21 (misprint?). 

seq. 223. Nice-longing] Ff, Rowe. nice- 

217. me,] me Pope, + . me! Johns. longings Pope, nice longing Cap. Dyce, 

et seq. Glo. Cam. nice longings Theob. et cet. 

219. be it] be't Pope,+, Varr. Mai. Mutability;] mutability, Cap. et 

Ran, Dyce ii, iii. seq. 

216, 217. Could I finde out The Womans part in me] It is interesting, I 
think, to note passages wherein we, native born to Shakespeare's tongue, perceive 
no difficulty whatsoever, which, nevertheless, present to foreigners an almost in- 
soluble obscurity. Certainly the proficiency, as an English scholar, is undoubted, 
of Herzberg, who was among the very earliest to announce the chronological value 
of the rhyme test, etc., and yet Herzberg acknowledges that in its present con- 
nection he cannot understand this sentence. ' Perhaps,' he says, ' Posthumus means 
to say: " If I could only bring myself to be just as faithless and wanton as Imogen !" 
And then, after quoting Schmidt's correct paraphrase, namely, 'if I could only 
find out what in m'e comes from woman that I might tear it out and cast it from 
me,' Herzberg adds 'non liquet.' ED. 

222. change of Prides] WHITE (ed. i.): Here 'change' is used as in Cor., II, i, 
214: 'I have received not only greetings, But with them change of honours.' In 
both cases it clearly means variety, severally, as in the phrase 'changes of raiment.' 
[I am not sure that the quotation from Coriolanus is exactly parallel with the 
present passage. Coriolanus means, I think, that the Senate has sent him not only 
salutations, but exchanged his present honours for higher ones. Nor does 'changes 
of raiment' exactly correspond to 'change of prides,' which means, I think, merely 
to change without reason from one kind of pride, whatever it may be, to another. 
INGLEBY says that 'prides' are 'sumptuous dresses,' and a passage quoted by 
DOWDEN from Henry VIII: I, i, 25, seems to bear him out: 'the madams' almost 
'sweat to bear The pride upon them,' that is, says Dowden, 'proud attire,' but it 
may, equally well, mean gold and jewels. SCHMIDT (Lex.) well paraphrases the 
present passage: 'That is, one excess is changed for another.' ED.] 

223. Nice-longing] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Nice): The precise development 
of the very divergent senses which this word acquired in English is not altogether 
clear. In many examples from the i6th to i7th centuries it is difficult to say in 
what particular sense the writer intended it to be taken. [' Nice ' in the present 
passage has been defined by various editors as fanciful, whimsical, capricious, 
squeamish, fastidious; but not one of these adjectives indicates a fault worthy of 
Hell's knowledge. Something is required more vigorous than these. It is found, I 

1 68 


[ACT n, sc. iv. 

All Faults that name, nay, that Hell knowes, 

Why hers, in part, or all : but rather all For euen to Vice 225 

They are not conftant, but are changing ftill ; 

One Vice, but of a minute old, for one 

Not halfe fo old as that. He write againft them, 

Deteft them, curfe them : yet 'tis greater Skill 

In a true Hate, to pray they haue their will : 230 

The very Diuels cannot plague them better. Exit. 

224, 225. All. ..hers,] One line Mai. 

224. that name,] Mai. that have a 
name, Dyce conj., Ingl. that man 
Daniel, that man can name or that man 
may name Walker (Crit., ii, 258). that 
men do name Ktly. that have that name 
Nicholson (N. & Q., VI, v, 424)- that 
name may name Vaun. that may be 
named Ff et cet. 

225. all For] all. For Ff, Rowe, 
Theob. Warb. Johns, all for Pope, 

Han. all In every part by turns, for 
Vaun. all: For Cap. et cet. 

225. For... Vice] One line Cap. Varr. 
Ran. et seq. For. ..Vice to which they 
are so prone Ktly conj. 

226, 227. Jlill; One] still One Johns. 
Var. '78 et seq. 

229. curfe them:] curse them Rowe, 
+ . curse them; Johns, curse them. 

think, in Murray's division 2, with the meaning 'wanton, lascivious.' The hyphen, 
possibly, indicates that 'nice,' whatever be its meaning, enters so closely into 
'longing' as to become identified with it, and form one complex idea. There is a 
good illustration of this latter meaning of 'nice' in Love's Labor Lost: 'These are 
humours; these betray nice wenches, that would be betrayed without them,' III, 
i, 24. ED.] 

229. Detest them] WALKER (Crit., ii, 311): In the writers of that age 'detest' 
is used in the sense which as then it still retained from its original, detestari, being 
indicative of something spoken, not of an affection of the mind; compare attest, 
protest, which still retain their etymological meaning. So understand [the present 
passage. See Ant. & Cleop., IV, xiv, 69, 70 (of this ed.), where the N. E. D. is quoted 
to prove that Walker's observation is a little too restricted. ED.] 

230. In a true Hate, to pray they haue their will] STEEVENS: So in Sir 
Thomas More's Comfort against Tribulation: ' God could not lightly do a man more 
vengeance, than in this world to grant him his own foolish wishes.' [Do we not all 
remember Pope's 'Atossa, cursed with every granted prayer'? ED.] 

231. The very Diuels . . . better] DANIEL (p. 86): Qy. is this last line the 
cynical note of some reader of the MS. play, accidentally foisted into the text? 
The sense and sentence are complete without it, and the speech should surely end 
with the rhyming couplet. [Oxen and wainropes cannot hale me to the belief that 
this line is Shakespeare's. ED.] 

ACT in, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 

Actus Tertius. Scena Prima. 

Enter in State, Cymbeline y Queene , Clottcn , and Lords at 2 

i. Actus Tertius. Scena Prima.] 2. Enter in State. ..Lords] Enter... 

Act II, Scene iv. Eccles. Lords and others: Cymbeline takes 

Scene. A Palace. Rowe. A State his Throne; after which, enter Lucius... 

Room in Cymbeline's Palace. Cap. Cap. 

1. Actus Tertius. Scena Prima] Inasmuch as in II, iii, 58, the arrival 
of the Ambassadors from Rome is announced, and Cymbeline bids Cloten attend 
the audience with them after he has said good morrow to Imogen, ECCLES trans- 
poses this present scene, Act III, sc. i, and numbers it Act II, sc. iv. This he does 
in order to give time to lachimo to return to Rome, especially since on his arrival 
there, in answer to Philario's question, his reply is that when he left the Roman 
ambassadors were expected at the British court, but had not yet arrived. 'In the 
next scene,' says Eccles [that is, in the next scene, after Imogen has discovered the 
loss of her bracelet], 'we find lachimo returned to Rome, and in the first scene of 
Act the third, according to the original arrangement, Lucius appears for the first 
time to be introduced into the presence of Cymbeline in his public character; now, 
as a considerable interval of time, perhaps not less than two or three w r eeks, at the 
least, must pass while lachimo was performing his journey, the same portion of 
time must also intervene before Lucius is admitted to his public audience; notwith- 
standing that, as we have seen, Cymbeline speaks of this latter as a circumstance 
that was immediately to take place. In order then to remedy this obvious incon- 
sistency, I have transposed the scenes and placed Scene the First of Act the Third 
immediately after Scene the Third of Act the Second, as Scene the Fourth, and made it 
also conclude the Act. The scene in which lachimo enters to Philario and Posthu- 
mus will be the beginning of the following act, and a pause left for the journey.' 
It is hardly worth while to defend the original arrangement, or to show that Eccles 
was the victim of Shakespeare's legerdemain when dealing with time, letting it 
run on hot-foot ahead of due sequence through exciting scenes, and then, while the 
hot blood is cooling, gently leads us back over the lost ground, until we find our- 
selves calmly resuming a thread which seems never to have been broken. Eccles's 
rearrangement was unnoticed in his own day, much, apparently, to his surprise and 
chagrin. On page 118 he remarks that 'Mr Garrick, or whoever adapted this play 
for representation,' does not seem 'to have attended to the necessity of the trans- 
position now adopted.' ED. DANIEL (p. 243): The time of this scene [Act III, 
sc. i] is so evidently that of Day No. 4, that I am compelled to place it here [in 
Day No. 5] within brackets, as has been done in other cases where scenes are out of 
their due order as regards time. 

2. Enter in State, Cymbeline, etc.] BOSWELL-STONE: In the following 
passages Holinshed has given an untrustworthy account of Cymbeline, mixed 
with genuine information touching the circumstances of the Empire and Britain 
during the reign of Augustus: HOLINSHED (The Third Booke. The historic of 
England, p. 32, col. 2): Kymbeline or Cimbeline the sonne of Theomantius was of 
the Britains made king after the deceasse of his father, in the yeare of the world 
3944, after the building of Rome 728. and before the birth of our Sauiour 33. This 
man (as some write) was brought vp at Rome, and there made knight by Augustus 

j-70 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. i. 

one doore , and at anotlicr , Caius , Lucius , 3 

and Attendants. 

Cym. Now fay, what would Augujlus Cczfar with vs ? 5 

Luc. When lulius Cczfar (whofe remembrance yet 
Liues in mens eyes, and will to Eares and Tongues 
Be Theame, and hearing euer) was in this Britain, 8 

3. Caius, Lucius,] Caius Lucius, Rowe. 8. this] Om. Pope, Han 

Cesar, [see lines 77,78, post.], vnder whome he serued in the warres, and was in such 
fauour with him, that he was at libertie to pay his tribute or not. . . . Touching 
the continuance of the yeares of Kymbelines reigne, some writers doo varie, but the 
best approoued affirme, that he reigned 35 years and then died, & was buried at 
London, leauing behind him two sonnes, Guiderius and Aruiragus. 

But here is to be noted, that although our histories doo affirme, that as well this 
Kymbeline, as also his father Theomantius liued in quiet with the Romans, and 
continuallie to them paied the tributes which the Britains had couenanted with 
Julius Cesar to pay, yet we find in the Romane writers, that after Julius Cesars 
death, when Augustus had taken vpon him the rule of the empire, the Britains 
refused to paie that tribute; whereat as Cornelius Tacitus reporteth, Augustus 
(being otherwise occupied) was contented to winke; howbeit, through earnest 
calling vpon to recouer his right by such as were desirous to see the vttermost of 
the British kingdome; at length, to wit, in the tenth yeare after the death of Julius 
Cesar, which was about the thirteenth yeare of the said Theomantius, Augustus 
made prouision to passe with an armie ouer into Britaine, & was come forward 
vpon his iournie into Gallia Celtica; or as we maie saie, into these hither parts of 

5. Now say . . . with vs] STEEVENS: So the first line of King John: 'Now, 
say, Chatillon, what would France with us?' 

6. Luc. When lulius Csesar, etc.] For this hostile embassy, and demand 
for the tribute, 'lately left vntender'd,' Shakespeare has no authority, nor did he, 
probably, care for any. Boswell-Stone's thorough sifting of Holinshed discovered, 
in the Historic of Scotland (p. 45), a statement that 'there came vnto Kimbaline 
king of the Britains an ambassador from Augustus'; his mission, however, so far 
from being a demand for the arrears of tribute, was one of thanks for having kept 
his allegiance to Rome. It was Cymbeline's son, Guiderius, who, 'being a man 
of stout courage,' according to Holinshed (Hist. Eng., i, 33), refused to pay this 
tribute. ED. 

7. 8. Liues in mens eyes . . . hearing euer] VAUGHAN (p. 415): That is, 
the remembrance of whom now consists in the memory of something actually 
seen, and will consist hereafter and for ever in the memory of something spoken of 
and 'heard.' [Vaughan speaks of 'the inversion of the due order of words "theme 
and hearing," which would correctly be "hearing and theme.'" There is here no 
inversion of the due order, it is exactly in accordance with the use and wont not 
only of Shakespeare, but of many a writer in English, Greek, and Latin. It is 
simply an instance of what Corson named 'respective construction,' a happier name 
than the pedantic, chiasm, although the latter expresses the construction somewhat 
more vividly; for instance, let 'Ears and Tongues' be written above 'Theame and 

ACT in, sc. i.] CYMBELINE \>j\ 

And Conquered it, Cajfibulan thine Vnkle 

(Famous in Ccefars prayfes, no whit leffe 10 

Then in his Feats deferuing it) for him, 

And his Succeffion, granted Rome a Tribute, 

Yeerely three thoufand pounds ; which (by thee) lately 

Is left vntender'd. 

Qu. And to kill the meruaile, 1 5 

Shall be fo euer. 

Clot. There be many Ccefars, 17 

9> 37> 47- Caffibulan] Caffibelan Ff 14. vnlender'd.] ttntender'd- Ingl. 

et seq. 15. kill] fill Lloyd ap. Cam. 

ii. it) for] it for Rowe. it, for Johns. meruaile] mervaile F 2 . mervaUF 3 , 

Dyce, Glo. Cam. (subs.) //,) for Mai. marvail F 4 , Rowe,+. marvel Johns. 

Steev. Varr. Knt. et seq. 

hearing,' and lines joining 'ears' and 'hearing' and 'Tongues' and 'Theame' will 
form the Greek letter Chi. Instances of this construction abound in Shakespeare. 
It occurs in II, iv, 75, 76, where Posthumus says, ' The foule opinion . . . gains or 
looses Your sword or mine,' /. e., gains my sword or loses yours. And Vaughan made 
there the same mistake and suggested that the order was inverted. ED.] 
9. Cassibulan thine Vnkle] See I, i, 42. 

10. no whit lesse] DOWDEN: Did Shakespeare err, as elsewhere, in using the 
word 'less' with a negative, and does the sense require 'more'? Or does Lucius 
mean that Cassibelan was not only deserving of praise but also received praise equal 
to his merits? [Or, may it not mean, that exalted as were Caesar's praises, Cassi- 
belan's deeds were in no way inferior to the praises he deservedly received? which 
is hardly different from Dowden's alternative. In paraphrases it is generally 
fortunate that we have the original at hand to elucidate them. ED.] 

13. three thousand pounds] YERPLANCK: The computation of the amounts of 
plunder, tribute, wealth of conquered kings, etc., not in Roman sesterces, or the 
foreign money of account, but in pounds of gold or silver, is of such frequent occur- 
rence in ancient writers, that it is not ascribing any great learning or antiquarian 
accuracy to Shakespeare, who was well read in the translations at least of several 
of the classics, to understand him here, just as we should Knowles or Miss Baillie, 
in any similar case, as speaking not of pounds sterling, but of pounds weight of 
coin, as a Roman would have estimated the tribute-money of a subject foreign 

14. Is left vntender'd] BOSWELL-STOXE (p. 9) : This pretension to tribute arose 
when Cassar, after defeating Cassibelan, blockaded the residue of the British levies, 
so that [Hoi. i. H. E. 30] ' Cassibelane in the end was forced to fall to a com- 
position, in couenanting to paie a yearlie tribute of three thousand pounds.' 

15. to kill the meruaile] DOWDEN: The idea is that wonder ['astonishment,' 
Schmidt, Lex.] at the unpaid tribute will cease when the non-payment has estab- 
lished itself as the constant rule. 

17. There be many Cassars] WARBITRTON (MS. N. & Qu, VIII, Hi, 263): 
Read: There'll be there will be (for there was but one yet come when Cloten made 
this answer). 

if 2 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT in, sc. i. 

Ere fuch another lulius : Britaine's a world 1 8 

By it felfe, and we will nothing pay 

For wearing our owne Nofes. 20 

Qu. That opportunity 

Which then they had to take from's, to re fume 
We haue againe. Remember Sir, my Liege, 
The Kings your Ancestors, together with 
The naturall brauery of your Ifle, which ftands 25 

1 8. lulius.-] Julius. Var. '73 et seq. 22. front's] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce, Sta. 

Britaine's] F 2 . Britain's F 3 F 4 , Glo. Cam. from us Cap. et cet. 
Rowe. Britain is Pope et seq. 23. Remember Sir,] F 2 . remember, 

18, 19. a world.] One line Pope Sir Pope, Han. remember, Sir, F 3 F 4 
et seq. et cet. 

19. By it felfe] it self Pope, Han. 24. Anceftors] Ff, Rowe, Var. '73, 
by't self Theob. Warb. Johns. Whole Coll. Ktly, Glo. Cam. ancestors; Pope 
by itself Anon. ap. Cam. reading line et cet. 

18 as in F x . 

18, 19. Britaine's a world By it selfe] To prove how general was this idea 
that Britain is a separate little world, THEOBALD quotes from Virgil: 'et penitus 
toto divisos orbe Britanos.' Ed., I, 67; [Holinshed, in his Description of Britaine, 
quotes this also]; from Florus (referring to Caesar's conquests): 'et, quamvis toto 
orbe divisa, tamen, qui vinceret, habuit Britannia.' Epitome, III, cap. x.; from 
Claudian: 'Hispana tibi Germanaque Tethys Paruit, et nostro diducta Britannia 
mundo.' De Mallii Theodori Consulatu Panegris, line 50; from Horace: 'Serves 
iturum Cassarem in ultimos Orbis Britannos.' Carminum, I, xxxv. Theobald 
wisely concludes that, after all, Shakespeare might have had ' none of these classical 
passages in view, but be alluding to what is recorded of Cassibelan in the Chron- 
icles. When Comius of Arras came to him with a message from Julius Caesar, in 
which homage and subjection and a Tribute were demanded, Cassibelan replied: 
"That the ambition of the Romans was insatiable, who would not suffer Britaine, 
a new world, placed by Nature in the Ocean, and beyond the bounds of their 
Empire, to lie unmolested." [To quote a passage from 'the Chronicles' is ex- 
tremely vague; I have not succeeded in finding this valiant speech of Cassibelan's 
in Holinshed, and, apparently, it has also escaped the keen sight of Boswell-Stone, 
who quotes several other extracts therefrom, which may have caught Shakespeare's 
eye, all of them containing a panegyric of Britain's splendid isolation. ED.] 

20. For wearing our owne Noses] That is, for being ourselves. 

21, etc. That opportunity, etc.] BOSWELL-STONE (p. 12, foot-note): It is 
possible that before writing the Queen's harangue, the aim of which is to show 
how Caesar's prosperity deserted him in Britain, Shakespeare glanced at Caesar's 
remark upon the unforeseen lack of cavalry to pursue the retreating Britons, after 
the legionaries had effected their landing. 'And this one thing seemed onelie to 
disappoint the luckie fortune that was accustomed to follow Caesar in all his other 
enterprises.' Hoi., i, Hist. Eng., 25. 

25. naturall brauery] That is, the naturall state of defiance. Anthony says: 
'if Fortune be not ours today, it is Because we brave her.' Ant. & Cleop., IV, 
iv, 4. 

ACT in, sc. i.j CYMBELINE 173 

As Neptunes Parke, ribb'd, and pal'd in 26 

With Oakes vnskaleable, and roaring Waters, 

With Sands that will not beare your Enemies Boates, 

But fucke them vp to'th'Top-maft. A kinde of Conqueft 

Ccefar made heere, but made not heere his bragge 30 

Of Came, and Saw, and Ouer-came : with fhame 

(The firft that euer touch'd him) he was carried 

From off our Coaft, twice beaten : and his Shipping 33 

26. As... ribbed and pal'd] Ff, Rowe i. cet. 

As the great... ribb'd and pal'd Cap. 28. Sands] Sand F 4 , Rowe, Pope, 

As. ..ribbd... paled Coll. ii. As. ..ribbed Han. 

and paled Rowe ii. et cet. 30. Caefar] Caefars F x . 

27. Oakes] F 2 . Oaks F,F 4 , Rowe, 31. Oner-came] Overcome F 2 . 
Pope, Theob. rocks Seward, Warb. et 33. beaten:] beaten? F 2 . 

25. 26. your Isle, which stands . . . ribb'd, and pal'd in] INGLEBY (ed. i.) 
divided line 25 at 'isle,' and retained in line 26 the contracted 'ribb'd' and pal'd' 
of the Folio. In the edition revised by Ingleby's son, this division and reading are 
withdrawn, and the text follows that of Rowe ii. 

26. Parke] MURRAY (N. E. D.) : In Law, a park is distinguished from a forest, 
or chase, by being enclosed. 

27. Oakes vnskaleable] In Hanmer's edition, the first to amend 'oakes' 
to rocks, the emendation is attributed to Warburton. In Warburton's edition, 
which followed Hanmer's, the emendation is attributed to Hanmer an instance 
of mysterious altruism highly creditable to each editor in these evil days. The solu- 
tion of the mystery is, however, that the emendation belonged to neither. It was 
communicated to Hanmer by SEWARD, who, in a note on Beaumont and Fletcher's 
The Mad Lover, V, i, p. 281, remarks, in reference to the present line, that 'oaks' 
'appeared very absurd, as the Britons were not then famed for large ships; I there- 
fore had the honour of communicating the emendation [rocks] to Sir Thomas 
[Hanmer], and find that the ingenious Mr Warburton concurred with me in it.'- 
DOWDEN asks, 'Can any Elizabethan example be found of "oaks" used metaphor- 
ically for ships of war?' As we have just seen, Seward uses it for 'large ships' but 
this was in 1740. ED. PORTER and CLARKE [retaining 'oakes']: The sea is made 
by the figure of speech here a Parke, and the rocks are made the fence of oaks that 
pale it in. To change one of the terms of the Poet's metaphor is an unworthy prosing 
bit of editing that should no longer be retained. It is like substituting an explana- 
tory note for a part of the text. 

30, 31. his bragge Of came, and Saw, and Ouer-came] See As You Like It: 
'Caesars thrasonicall bragge of I came, saw, and ouercame.' V, ii, 35. 

32, 33. he was carried . . . and his Shipping, etc.] BOSWELL-STONE: 
'The next day [this was on Ca;sar's second expedition], as he had sent foorth such 
as should haue pursued the Britains, word came to him from Quintus Atrius, that 
his nauie by rigour of a sore and hideous tempest was greeuouslie molested, and 
throwne vpon the shore, so that the cabels and tackle being broken and destroied 
with the force of the vnmercifull rage of the wind, the maisters and mariners were 
not able to helpe the matter.' Holinshed, i, H. E., 28/2/2. 

33. twice beaten, etc.] BOSWELL-STONE: 'Thus according to that which 

174 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. i. 

(Poore ignorant Baubles) on our terrible Seas 

Like Egge-fhels mouM vpon their Surges, crack'd 35 

As eafily 'gainft our Rockes. For ioy whereof, 

The fam'd Cajfibulan, who was once at point 

(Oh giglet Fortune) to mafter Cczfars Sword, 

Made Luds-Towne with reioycing- Fires bright, 39 

34, 35. Seas ... Egge-jhels ... Surges,] Dyce ii, iii. giglot Mai. Steev. et cet. 
Seas...Jhels,... Surges F 2 F 3 . Seas...sheels, 38. Fortune] fortune! Rowe et seq. 

...Surges F 4 . seas, ...shells, ...Surges, 39. Luds-Towne] Lud's-Town F 4 . 

Rowe. seas,... shells... stir ges, Pope et Luds Town Rowe ii. 
cet. reioycing-Fires] Ff, Rowe i, Ingl. 

38. giglet] Ff, Rowe, + , Cap. Varr. Dowden. rejoicing fires Rowe ii. et cet. 

Cesar himselfe and other autentike authors haue written, was Britaine made 
tributarie to the Romans by the conduct of the same Cesar. But our histor[i]es 
farre differ from this, affirming that Cesar comming the second time, was by the 
Britains with valiancie and martiall prowesse beaten and repelled, as he was at 
the first, and speciallie by meanes that Cassibellane had pight in the Thames great 
piles of trees piked with yron, through which his ships being entred the riuer, were 
perished and lost. And after his comming a land, he was vanquished in battell, 
and constrained to flee into Gallia with those ships that remained.' Holinshed, i, 
E. E., 30/2/9. 

34. ignorant] JOHNSON: That is, unacquainted with the nature of our boisterous 

37. 38. once al point ... to master Caesar's Sword] Bos WELL-STONE 
(p. 13) : According to the Historia Britonum, Caesar actually lost his sword during 
the battle in which he met with the first of those defeats whereof the Queen reminds 
Caius Lucius. 'The same Historic [Historia Britonum] also maketh mention of 
. . . Nenius brother to Cassibellane, who in fight happened to get Caesar's swoord 
fastened in his shield by a blow which Cassar stroke at him.' Holinshed, i, Hist. 
Eng., 27/1/40. The Queen's expression, 'at point to master Caesar's sword' 
implies that his sword was nearly wrested from him by force, not caught by acci- 
dent; and she has, it will be observed, attributed to Cassibelan the honour of this 
partial success. Caesar's sword was placed by Cassibelan in a sarcophagus, with 
the body of Nennius, who died fifteen days after the battle from a wound inflicted 
by this weapon. 

38. giglet] MURRAY (N. E. D.}: Of obscure origin, a. A wanton woman. 
b. A giddy, laughing, romping girl. 

39. Luds-Towne] WALKER (Vers., 234, and also Crit., ii, 140): Such combi- 
nations as Lud's Town (compare Newtown, &c.), Heaven's Gate (compare Kirkgate, 
Ludgate, &c.) , and others of the same kind are pronounced as if they were single 
words, with the accent on the first syllable. [See also 'Lud's Town,' IV, ii, 135; 
V, v, 567. Also 'Swannes-nest,' III, iv, 158; and Heaven's gate, II, iii, 22.] 
HOLINSHED (Hist, of England, Bk III, p. 23): 'After the decesse of the same 
Helie, his eldest son Lud began his reigne, in the yeere after the creation of the 
world 3805, after the building of the citie of Rome 679, before the comming of 
Christ 72, and before the Romanes entred Britaine 19 yeeres. This Lud proued 
a right worthie prince, ammending the lawes of the realme. . . . but speciallie he 
delited most to beautifie and inlarge with buildings the citie of Troinount which 

ACT in, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 175 

And Britaines ftrut with Courage. 40 

Clot. Come, there's no more Tribute to be paid : our 
Kingdome is flronger then it was at that time : and (as I 
faid) there is no mo fuch Cczfars, other of them may haue 
crook'd Nofes, but to owe fuch ftraite Armes, none. 

Cym. Son, let your Mother end. 45 

Clot. We haue yet many among vs, can gripe as hard 
as Cajfibulan, I doe not fay I am one : but I haue a hand. 
Why Tribute.^ Why fhould we pay Tribute ? If Ccefar 
can hide the Sun from vs with a Blanket,or put the Moon 
in his pocket, we will pay him Tribute for light: elfe Sir, 50 

40. Britaines] Britons Theob. ii. et Mai. Sta. Sing. Ktly, Cam. 

seq. 44. owe] own Pope, Theob. Warb. 

41. paid:] paid? F 2 . paid. Rowe,-f, Johns. Var. '73, '78. 

Coll. 46-51. Six lines of verse, ending: 

41-44. Five lines of verse, ending: hard. Tribute?. ..Blanket,... 

paid:. .. time:. ..Casars,... but. ..none. Ktly. Tribute... now. Ktly. 

43. mo] moe Glo. Cam. woreFf etcet. 47. Caflibulan,] Caffibelan, Ff, 

44. crook'd] crooked Var. '03, '13, '21, Ro\ve, Pope. Cassibelan; Theob. etcet. 

he compassed with a strong wall made of lime and stone, . . . and in the west 
part of the same he erected a strong gate, which he commanded to be called after 
his name, Luds gate, and so vnto this daie it is called Ludgate, (s) onelie drowned 
in pronunciation of the word, ... he builded for himself e not farre from the 
said gate a fine palace, which is the bishop of Londons palace beside Paules at this 
daie, as some thinke. ... By reason that King Lud so much esteemed that 
citie before all other of his realme, . . . and continuallie in manner remained 
there, the name was changed, so that it was called Caerlud, that is to saie, Luds 
towne: and after by corruption of speech it was named London.' [This deriva- 
tion of London from Luds-town does not satisfy Richard Verstegan (whose English 
name was Richard Rowlands, according to the D. N. B., wherefrom we also learn 
that he was a scholar of note and an early student of Anglo-Saxon). In his Resti- 
tution of Decayed Intelligence (p. 134) he thus argues: 'As touching the name of our 
most ancient chief and famous citie, it could neuer of Luds-town take the name 
of London, because it had neuer anciently the name of Luds-town, neither could it, 
for that town is not a britifh, but a Saxon woord, but yf it took any appellation 
after king Lud it mull then haue bin called Caer-lud & not Luds-town, but con- 
fidering of how litle credit the relations of Ge/rey of Monmouth are, who from Lud 
doth deryue it, it may rather bee thought that hee hath imagyned this name to 
haue come from king Lud because of some nearness of found, for our Saxon ances- 
ters hauing diuers ages before Geffrey was borne, called it by the name of London, 
he not knowing from whence it came, might ftraight imagin it to haue come from 
Lud & therefore ought to bee Caer-Lud, or Luds-town, as after him others called it, 
& fome alfo of the name of London, in britifh found made it L'hundain, both 
appellations as I am perf waded, beeing of the britans, firft taken vp and vfed after 
the Saxons had giuen it the name of London.' ED.] 
50. Sir ] DOWDEN: Cloten addresses the King. 

7 6 


[ACT in, sc. i. 

no more Tribute, pray you now. 

Cym. You muft know, 
Till the iniurious Romans, did extort 
This Tribute from vs, we were free. Cczfars Ambition, 
Which fwell'd fo much, that it did almoft ftretch 
The fides o'th'World,againft all colour heere, 
Did put the yoake vpon's ; which to fhake off 
Becomes a warlike people, whom we reckon 
Our felues to be, we do. Say then to Cafar, 



52. Cym.] Queen. Elze (p. 310). 

53. Romans,] F 2 F 3 . Roman Theob. 
ii, Warb. Johns. Varr. Ran. Romans 
F 4 et cet. 

54. Tribute] Om. Vaun. 

from vs] Om. Han. front's 
Walker, Dyce ii, iii. 

free.] Ff, Rowe,+. free: Cap. 
et seq. 

56. The ft,des] To th' sides Daniel. 
o'th'] o'the Cap. et seq. 

colour heere,] F 2 . colour here, 
F 3 F 4 , Rowe. colour here Pope, Han. Glo. 
Cam. colour, here Theob. et cet. 

57. vpon's] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce, Sta. 
Glo. Cam. upon its Cap. et cet. 

58. 59. w/ww...Caefar,] Ff. whom we 
reckon Ourselves to be: we do. Say then 
to Caesar, Rowe, Cap. Var. '73, '78, '85, 

Ran, Eel. (which we reckon Our selves to 
be) to do. Say then to Caesar, Pope, 
Theob. Warb. such as we Reckon our- 
selves to be. Say then to Caesar, Han. 
which we reckon Ourselves to be. We do. 
Say then to Caesar, Johns, whom we 
reckon Ourselves to be. We do say, then, 
to Caesar, Mai. Steev. Varr. Knt, Coll. 
i, Sing. Ktly, Wh. i, Ingl. ii. whom 
we reckon Ourselves to be. Clo. We do. 
Cym. Say then to Caesar, Coll, ii. iii. 
(MS.), Dyce, Wh. ii. whom we reckon 
Ourselves to be. Say then, we do, to 
Caesar. Sta. whom we reckon Ourselves 
to be. Clot, and Lords. We do. Cym. 
Say then to Caesar, Glo. Cam. whom 
we reckon Ourselves to be. We do! 
say then to Qesar, Ingl. i. 

53. iniurious] MURRAY (N. E. D. 2.): Wilfully hurtful or offensive in language; 
contumelious, insulting. 'Call me their traitor! Thou injurious tribune!' Cor. 
Ill, iii, 69. [See 'Thou iniurious Theefe,' IV, ii, 117, post.] 

56. against all colour] JOHNSON: Without any pretence of right. 

58, 59. whom we reckon Our selues to be, we do. Say then] COLLIER 
(Notes, etc., p. 516): The clumsy contrivance of making Cymbeline use the 
expression ['we do. Say then'] has proceeded from a blunder on the part of the 
copyist, who made one of Cloten's impertinent interjections a portion of the 
speech of Cymbeline. This part of the dialogue in the MS. is divided as follows: 
Cymbeline ends, 'whom we reckon Ourselves to be. Cloten. We do. Cym. Say 
then, to Caesar,' etc. This interruption by Cloten is most consistent with his 
character and conduct, and we have no doubt such was the mode in which the line 
was distributed, before the corruption crept into the early editions. [This note 
Collier repeated substantially in his edition, adding in conclusion that 'it is quite 
in character for Cloten to interpose his "We do" just after Cymbeline has de- 
clared that the Britons reckon themselves to be a warlike people.'] DYCE at 
once adopted this reading, and (what is remarkable) adhered to it through his 
three editions. WHITE, in his Shakespeare 's Scholar, asserted that 'there cannot 
be a doubt that this [Collier's reading] is the proper distribution of the text.' 
Six years later, in his ed. i, he pronounced it 'very plausible,' and added, 'But the 

ACT in, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 177 

Our Anceftor was that Mulmutius, which 60 

60. which] who Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 

emphatic form, "We do say," etc., is specially appropriate here in the mouth of 
Cymbeline; and the original text cannot be safely disturbed. He 'disturbed' it, 
however, in his ed. ii, and silently adopted Collier's reading. STAUNTON ac- 
knowledged that the reading is 'ingenious,' 'It is pleasant,' he says, 'and gener- 
ally safe to agree with Mr Dyce; but we cannot help thinking the words in question 
["We do"] belong to the King's speech, but were transposed through the negli- 
gence of transcriber or compositor.' Staunton's own reading, which differs from 
all others (see Text. Notes), Dyce condemned as 'not happy.' The CAMBRIDGE 
EDITORS, in the Globe edition, to justify, I suppose, the plural 'we/ give the ex- 
clamation 'We do' to 'Cloten and Lords.' W. W.LLOYD (N. 6" Qu., VII, ii, 24, 
1886), after reviewing the various readings, says, 'It is agreeable for once to get 
back to the dear corrupt old Folio, and find that the editors might have spared 
themselves their trouble in tinkering. The phrase, "Whom we reckon ourselves 
to be, we do," is but a form of emphatic pleonasm, which continues familiar enough 
colloquially. This I believe to be the true explanation, I do; the critics mistake if 
they think otherwise, they do; though I am well aware that they reckon themselves 
sometimes infallible, they do.' This light and airy treatment of the question 
did not please Dr BR. NICHOLSON, who (A 7 . r Qu., VII, ii, 164) replied, 'Quite 
allowing that ive do may be taken as a pleonasm, I would say that it is a horribly 
sounding one, and an unpleasant vulgarism. One can, I think, be safely challenged 
to find such a phrasing in any classic of that day, or even in any cultivated writer. 
Can Mr Watkiss Lloyd read over his imitations of this would-be pleonasm without 
first, laughter, and then the feeling that it is unaccustomed and strange English? 
Dr Johnson's change of the comma to a period has, I take it, this effect, it makes 
"we do" equivalent to "we do [shake off the yoke]" (line 57). This it is clear 
gives excellent sense; but I must say that perhaps from being more accustomed 
to it I prefer Malone's "we do say." Nicholson's challenge is far-sweeping 
and bestirs the memory. Dickens may not be a classic, but he can hardly be 
called an uncultivated writer, and, I think, on one occasion, in Pickwick, Master 
Tommy Bardell says, 'I'm going too, I am!' 

As for the reading of Collier's MS. annotator, it seems judicious; it breaks a 
long monologue, and is possibly in harmony with a new and unexpected phase 
of Cloten's character. More compunction might be felt in deserting the Folio if 
there were traces of Shakespeare's hand in the scene, which barely rises, if at all, 
above mediocrity, so it seems to me. ED. 

60. Mulmutius] BOSWELL-STONE (p. 14): Among the great deeds of Mulmutius 
there are recorded: 'He also made manie good lawes, which were long after vsed, 
called Mulmucius lawes, turned out of the British speech into Latine by Gildas 
Priscus, and long after translated out of latine into english by Alfred King of 
England, and mingled in his statues. . . . After he had established his land, and 
set his Britains in good and conuenient order, he ordeined him by the aduise of his 
lords a crowne of gold, & caused himselfe with great solemnitie to be crowned, 
according to the custom of the pagan lawes then in vse: & bicause he was the first 
that bare a crowne heere in Britaine, after the opinion of some writers, he is named 
the first King of Britaine, and all the other before rehearsed are named rulers, 
dukes, or gouernors.' Holinshed, i, Hist, of Eng., 15/2/34. 



[ACT in, sc. i. 

Ordain'd our Lawes, whofe vfe the Sword of Cczfar 6 1 

Hath too much mangled ; whofe repayre, and franchife, 

Shall (by the power we hold) be our good deed, 

Tho Rome be therfore angry . Mulmutius made our lawes 

Who was the firft of Britaine, which did put 65 

His browes within a golden Crowne,and call'd 

Himfelfe a King. 

Luc. I am forry Gymbeline, 
That I am to pronounce Auguftus Ccefar 

(Cczfar, that hath moe Kings his Seruants, then 70 

Thy felfe Domefticke Officers) thine Enemy : 
Receyue it from me then. Warre, and Confufion 
In C(zfars name pronounce I ' gainft thee : Looke 
For fury, not to be resitted. Thus defide, 
I thanke thee for my felfe. 75 

61. Lawes,] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce, Sta. 
Glo. Cam. Laws; Cap. et cet. 

61-64. whofe vfe. ..angry] In paren- 
theses, Steev. Varr. Knt. 

63. Shall (by. ..hold)} Ff. Shalt by... 
hold Rowe, Pope, shall, by... hold, 
Theob. et seq. 

64. Mulmutius. ..lawes] That Mal- 
mutius Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 
Malmutius Steev. Var. '03, '13. 

68. / am] Fm Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii. 

69. Auguftus] Auguctus F 2 . 

70, 71. (Caefar ... Officers)} Caesar... 
officers, Rowe, Johns. 

70. moe] Cam. more Ff et cet. 

71. Enemy:] Enemy? F 2 . Enemy. 
F 3 F 4 , Rowe, + , Coll. ' 

72. then.] then: Cap. et seq. 
Warre, and Confufion] Ff, Rowe. 

War and confusion Pope, + , Dyce, Glo. 
Cam. War, and confusion, Cap. et cet. 
74. to be] Om. Vaun. 

64. made our lawes] STEEVENS: I have not scrupled to drop these words; nor 
can suppose our readers will discover that the omission has created the smallest 
chasm in our author's sense or measure. The length of the parenthetical words 
(which were not then considered as such, or enclosed, as at present, [see Text. 
Notes.}, in a parenthesis) was the source of the interpolation. Read the passage 
without them, and the whole is clear: 'Mulmutius, who was the first of Britain,' 
etc. KNIGHT'S patience gives out occasionally over the freedom with which 
Steevens deals with Shakespeare's text; 'he walks amidst the luxurious growth of 
Shakespeare's versification,' says Knight, 'like a gardener who has predetermined 
to have no shoot above ten inches long in the whole parterre.' 'Is it not evident 
that the oratorical construction of the sentence requires this repetition, after the 
long parenthesis which occurs after the first mention of Malmutius? The skill 
of Shakespeare is shown in repeating the idea, without repeating precisely the 
same words; of which skill' there is a 'signal example' in Love's Lab. Lost: 'For 
when would you my Lord, or you, or you,' etc., IV, iii, 316. [This line is repeated 
as line 339; it is an unfortunate reference for Knight; it is not a repetition of 'the 
idea without repeating the same words,' it is a repetition of the identical words.] 
STAUNTON: This, with the next three lines, was perhaps either a portion of the 
old play upon which Shakespeare founded his 'Cymbeline,' or of his own first 
sketch, and were intended to be superseded by the previous clause, [line 60]. 

ACT in, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 

Cj'in. Thou art welcome Caius, 76 

Thy Ccefar Knighted me ; my youth I fpent 
Much vnder him ; of him, I gathered Honour, 
Which he, to feeke of me againe, perforce, 

Behooues me keepe at vtterance. I am perfect, 80 

That the Pannonians and Dalmatians, for 

76. TJtou art] Thou'rt Pope,-f-, Dyce Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. as he seeks Han. 
ii, iii. him to seek Eccles conj. whoso seek 

Caius,] Caius; Theob.-K Caius. Vaun. 
Cap. et seq. 80. keepe] keep't Han. 

79. he, to feeke] he to seek Pope, + , vtterance] variance Pope. 

77, 78. Thy Caesar Knighted me, etc.] See Holinshed, III, i, 2. 

80. at vtterance] THEOBALD: Holinshed tells us that at the Coronation of 
Richard III, Sir Robert Dimock, the Champion, made proclamation: 'Whoever 
shall say that King Richard is not lawful King, I will fight with him at the utter- 
ance,' i. e., to the hazard of death. STEEVENS: That is, to keep at the extremity 
of defiance. M ALONE: So in Macbeth: 'come, fate, into the list, And champion 
me to the utterance.' III, i, 72. WHITE (ed. i.): That is, he attempting to take 
away by force the honor which he gave me, it behooves me to keep it to the utter- 
most. HUDSON : A very elliptical passage. The meaning appears to be, ' Of him 
I gather'd honour; which, he being now about to force it away from me, 7 am 
bound to maintain to the last extremity.' 'At utterance' is to the uttermost defiance. 
[To this unanimity of interpretation, Ingleby, among editors, offers the only excep- 
tion in the following note: '"at utterance" = ready to be put out, or staked, like 
money at interest, and, therefore, ready to be championed and fought for. Cf. 
A Paste with a Packet of Mad Letters, Book II, No. 43. Nicholas Breton, 1637 
(Grosart, II, p. 45) : "Usurers are halfe mad for lack of utterance of their money." 
The phrase, which admits of no doubt, has been confounded by Steevens and Malone 
with a very different "epithet of war," viz., "to the utterance," which is a transla- 
tion of the French a entrance.' This note is, unhappily, too brief. Had the critic 
only explained one or two points, he might have gained adherents. It would be 
well to know how money at interest can be more readily fought for than money 
in bank. Again, the similarity is not quite clear between a usurer half mad because 
his money is not in circulation and a knight who had gathered honour which it be- 
hooved him to keep. In truth, it seems that it is Ingleby, and not ' Steevens and 
Malone, ' who has misinterpreted the phrase. Breton is not needed as an authority; 
at this day we speak of 'uttering counterfeit money,' and a man is condemned for 
its 'utterance.' ED.] Under 'utterance,' WHITNEY (Cent. Diet.) gives the defini- 
tion: 'A putting forth, disposal by sale or otherwise, circulation. "What of our 
commodities have most vtterance there, and what prices will be given for them?" 

Hakluyt, Voyages, i, 300. " But the English have so ill utterance for their warm 
clothes in these hot countries." Sandys, Travailles, p. 95.' Here we have 'utter- 
ance' whereto the quotation from Breton is appropriate, but in this connection 
I doubt that 'at utterance' can ever have been used. ED.] 

80. I am perfect] STAUNTON: That is, I am well assured. 

81. Pannonians and Dalmatians] THEOBALD: This circumstance is 
again repeated by a Roman Senator, in this Act, Sc. viii, line 5. From this par- 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. i. 

Their Liberties are now in Armes : a Prefident 82 

Which not to reade, would fhew the Britaines cold : 
So Ccefar fhall not finde them. 

Luc. Let proofe fpeake. 85 

Oot. His Maiefty biddes you welcome . Make pa- 

82. Prefident] Precedent F 4 et seq. 86-91. Seven lines of verse, ending: 

83. Britaines] F 2 . Britains F 3 F 4 , with vs. vs. ..finde vs...bcate vs. ..fall 
Rowe, Pope, Theob. i, Cap. Britons in... you... end. Ktly. 

Theob. ii. et cet. 

ticularity we may precisely fix the suppos'd date of this War on Britaine, for the 
recovery of tribute in arrear to Rome; and, at one view, see how our Author has 
jumbled facts against the known tenour of Chronology. In the tenth year after 
the assassination of Julius Caesar (Anno U. C. 719) Augustus had a design of mak- 
ing a descent on Britaine: but was diverted from it by an insurrection of the Pan- 
nonians and Dalmatians, in order to shake off their subjection to Rome. Now this 
period of time was coincident with the i3th year of Tenantius's reign, who was the 
father of Cymbeline: and Tenantius reign'd 9 years after this. Again, we find, from 
the very opening of our play, that Cymbeline had been at least 23 years on the 
throne: for it was twenty years since his two sons were stoln, and the eldest of 
them then was at least 3 years old. Now the 23rd year of Cymbeline falls in with 
the 42nd of Augustus, the very year in which Christ was born. So that our Author 
has confusedly blended facts at 32 years distance from each other. Whether he was 
aware of, or neglected, this discordance in time, it has contributed to another 
absurdity. It is said more than once in our play, 'That the remembrance of the 
Romans is yet fresh in the Britains' Grief,' i. e., that they still felt the smart of their 
overthrow. Now Julius Caesar subdued Britaine, n years before his assassination, 
in the year of Rome 698. This war on Cymbeline cannot be before the 42nd year 
of Augustus: (U. C. 751) so that here is an interval of 53 years, a time sufficient to 
erase the memory of the most dreadful enemy; especially in a people who are boast- 
ing of the strength they have acquir'd since their defeat. HOLINSHED (Third 
Booke, the historic of England, p. 32): But here receiuing aduertisements that the 
Pannonians, which inhabited the countrie now called Hungarie, and the Dalmatians 
whome now we call Saluons had rebelled, he thought it best first to subdue those 
rebells neere home, rather than to seeke new countries, and leaue such in hazard 
whereof he had present possession, and so turning his power against the Pannonians 
and Dalmatians, he left off for a time the warres of Britain, whereby the land 
remained without feare of anie inuasion to be made by the Romans, till the yeare 
after the building of the citie of Rome 725, and about the 19 yeare of King Theo- 
mantius reigne, that Augustus with an armie departed once againe from Rome to 
pass ouer into Britaine, there to make warre. . . . But whether this controuersie 
which appeareth to fall forth betwixt the Britains and Augustus, was occasioned by 
Kymbeline, or some other prince of the Britains, I haue not to auouch: for that by 
our writers it is reported, that Kymbeline being brought vp in Rome, & knighted 
in the court of Augustus, euer shewed himselfe a friend to the Romans, & chiefiie 
was loth to breake with them, because the youth of the Britaine nation should not 
be depriued of the benefit to be trained and brought vp among the Romans, whereby 
they might learne both to behaue themselues like ciuill men, and to atteine to the 
knowledge of the feats of warre. 

ACT III, SC. ii.] 


ftime with vs, a day or two, or longer : if you feek vs af- 87 
terwards in other tearmes, you fhall finde vs in our Salt- 
water-Girdle : if you beate vs out of it, it is yours : if you 
fall in the aduenture, our Crowes fhall fare the better for 90 
you : and there's an end. 

Luc. So fir. 

Cym. I know your M afters pleafure, and he mine : 
All the Remaine, is welcome. Exeunt. 94 

Scena Secunda. 

Enter Pifanio reading of a Letter. 
Pif. How? of Adultery ? Wherefore write you not 
What Monfters her accufe ? Leonatus : 

87. vs, a day] us a day Ro\ve et 

88. in other] on oilier Pope,-)-. 

88, 89. Salt-U'atcr-Girdlc] salt-icaler 
girdle Rowe. 

94. the Remaine, is] the remain is, 
Theob. et seq. that remains- Daniel. 
welcome] 'Welcome.' Glo. Cam. 

i. The scene continued. Rowe, 
Theob. Scene iv. Eccles. 

Another Room in the Same. Cap. 
2. Pifanio] Pifania F 2 F 3 . 

of] Om. Pope et seq. 
4. Monfters her accufe} Ff, Rowe, 
Johns. Varr. Coll. i, iii, Ktly. have 
accused her Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 
monster's her accuser Cap. et cet. 

accufe? Leonatus:] accuser, Leo- 
natus? Elze. 

Leonatus:] Ff. O Leonatus! 
Ktly. Leonatus! Rowe et cet. 

i. Scena Secunda] ECCLES: Pisanio has just received a letter from Posthumus; 
between this scene, therefore, and that wherein Posthumus speaks the soliloquy 
full of invective against women so much time must be imagined to pass as was 
sufficient for the conveyance of the letter from Rome to the British court. The 
time may be supposed the morning. WYATT: The whole of this scene, after the 
entrance of Imogen, is a prolonged example of tragic irony. DANIEL (Sh. Soc. 
Trans., 1877-79, p. 243): DAY 6. Cymbeline's Palace. Pisanio receives a letter 
from Posthumus. Imogen arranges with Pisanio to set out at once. 

4. Monsters her accuse] MALOXE: The order of the words, as well as the 
single person named by Pisanio ['false Italian'], fully support [CapelTs] emenda- 
tion. DYCE (Remarks, etc., p. 256): The reading [of the Ff] must be wrong; be- 
cause, in the first place, we cannot suppose that Shakespeare would have em- 
ployed here such an awkward inversion as 'her accuse'; secondly, because we have 
in the next line but one 'What false Italian,' etc., and, thirdly, because it leaves 
the metre imperfect. [For very many examples where final e and final er have 
been confounded, see WALKER (Crit., ii, 52).] 

4. Leonatus] THISELTON (p. 25): This is the only occasion on which Pisanio 
employs 'the Sur-addition.' It may be gathered it was the more familiar name, 
as between Posthumus and Imogen, from the signature of the letter in I, vii, 

l$2 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. ii. 

Oh Matter, what a ftrange infection 5 

Is falne into thy eare? What falfe Italian, 

(As poyfonous tongu'd,as handed )hath preuail'd 

On thy too ready hearing ? Difloyall ? No. 

She's punifh'd for her Truth; and vndergoes 

More Goddeffe-like,then Wife-like; fuch Affaults 10 

As would take in fome Vertue. Oh my Mafter, 

6. eare] Ff. heart Han. Cap. et seq. 

7. (As... handed)] Ff, Sing. As... 9. Truth;] truth, Sta. Glo. Cam. 
handed, Rowe et cet. (subs.) -undergoes] undergoes, Cap. et seq. 

poyfonous tongu'd] poisonous- 10. -like, ... -like;] Ff. like, ... 

-tongu'd Theob. Warb. Johns. Dyce, like, Rowe, Theob. Warb. Johns. 

Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. like ... like, Pope, Han. Cap. et 

8. hearing?] ear! Pope, Han. seq. 

No.] Ff. No, Rowe, + . No: n. take in] take-in Cap. 

when no doubt of Imogen had arisen in Posthumus's mind, and from Imogen's 
'my Lord Leonatus' a little later in the present scene (line 29). . . . The letter 
in this scene is signed 'Leonatus Posthumus,' a signature which cannot be so 
warm as the previous 'Leonatus/ and, likely enough, intended as an unconscious 
indication of a change that Posthumus is unable entirely to suppress, though 
Imogen, in her eagerness for reunion, fails to notice it. The name 'Leonatus' is 
here very appropriately used by Pisanio; they must be Monsters indeed who can 
by their slanders bring it about that Imogen is thought ill of by her Leonatus, 
and, at the same time, the name, as equivalent to Lion-born, suggests that im- 
pulsiveness of nature upon which Pisanio forthwith proceeds to comment. [Be it 
remembered that the ' sur-addition, Leonatus/ was given to the father of Posthumus.] 
6. false Italian] JOSEPH HUNTER (ii, 293): We have a good deal in this play 
of the skill of the Italians in mixing potions. The opinion of their great skill in 
the art of poisoning prevailed in England in the time of Elizabeth, and there was 
one nobleman very near her person who lay under strong suspicion of dealing un- 
lawfully with Italians skilled in this art, when people saw falling around him, by 
strange diseases, persons who stood in the way of his ambition. Even the life of 
the Queen was more than once, as was supposed, attempted by poison prepared 
in some skilfull manner by an Italian. The author of the book entitled Leycester's 
Common-wealth thus writes: 'Neither must you marvaile though all these died in 
divers manners of outward diseases, for this is the excellency of the Italian art, for 
which this Chyrurgian and Doctor lulio were entertained so carefully, who can 
make a man dye, in what manner or shew of sicknesse you will: by whose in- 
structions no doubt his Lordship [Leicester] is now cunning/ etc., [ed. 1641, p. 23. 
In the paragraph preceeding Hunter's quotation we are told that the ' Chyrurgian/ 
whose name is not given, 'then was newly come to my Lord from Italy: a cunning 
man and sure in operation.' It is hardly necessary to remind the reader that it is 
from this same book that we obtain the account of the death of Amy Robsart. 

9. vndergoes] VAUGHAN (p. 422): That is, bears without yielding. Thus in 
The Tempest, 'Which rais'd in me An undergoing stomach to bear up Against what 
should ensue.' I, ii. 

n. take in] JOHNSON: To 'take in' a town is to conquer it. 

ACT III, SC. ii.] 


Thy mind to her, is now as lowe, as were 

Thy Fortunes. Ho\v ? That I fhould murther her, 

Vpon the Loue, and Truth, and Vowes; which I 

Haue made to thy command? I her ? Her blood? 

If it be fo ,to do good feruice, neuer 

Let me be counted feruiceable. How looke I, 

That I mould feeme to lacke humanity, 

So much as this Fact comes to ? Doo't r'The Letter. 

TJiat I haue fcnt her , by her ownc command, 

Shall giue thce opportunitie. Oh damn'd paper, 




12. her,] Ff, Rowe. hers Han. Warb. 
her Pope et cet. 

13. murther] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. 
Han. Cap. Knt. murder Warb. et 

her,] her? Pope et seq. 

14. Lone, and Truth,] love and truth 
Pope, + , Glo. Cam. 

Loue, and. ..Vowes] vows of love 
and truth Coll. conj. 

Vowes;] Ff. vows Glo. Cam. 
vows, Rowe et cet. 

16. fo,] so Pope et seq. 

19. [Reading. Rowe et seq. Om. 
Knt. Herford. 

Doo't: The Letter.] Ff, Cap. 
Do't the letter (in italic or as quota- 
tion) Rowe, Pope, Han. Do't the 
letter, Theob. Warb. Johns. Do't- 
The Letter, Var. '73. Do't: The letter 
Var. '78, et cet. 

20. command] Ff, Rowe, Cap. com- 
mand Pope et cet. 

21. thee] the F 4 , Rowe. 

paper,] Ff, Cap. paper! Rowe 
et cet. 

12. Thy mind to her] MALONE: That is, thy mind compared to hers is now as 
low as thy condition was compared to hers. VAUGHAN (p. 423) justly corrects 
Malone: '"her" has still been misunderstood,' he remarks, 'to be the possessive 
with "mind" understood, whereas it means herself.'' 

19. Fact] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. i. c.): An evil deed, a crime. In the i6th 
and 1 7th centuries the commonest sense; now obsolete except in to confess the fact 
and after, before the fact. [I think there is no exception in Shakespeare to this 
'commonest sense.' ED.] 

20, 21. That I haue . . . opportunitie] MALONE: The words here read 
by Pisanio from his master's letter (which is afterwards given at length and in 
prose) are not found there, though the substance of them is contained in it. This 
is one of the many proofs that Shakespeare had no view to the publication of his 
pieces. There was little danger that such an inaccuracy should be detected by the 
ear of the spectator, though it could hardly escape an attentive reader. KNIGHT 
[after quoting Malone's note]: Now, we would ask, what can be more natural, 
what can be more truly in Shakespeare's own manner, which is a reflection of 
nature, than that a person, having been deeply moved by a letter which he has 
been reading, should comment upon the substance of it without repeating the exact 
words? The very commencement of Pisanio's soliloquy 'How! of adultery? '- 
is an example of this. The word adultery is not mentioned in the letter upon which 
he comments. . . . Really, a critic putting on a pair of spectacles to compare 
the recollections of deep feeling with the document that has stirred that feeling, 
as he would compare the copy of an affidavit with the original, is a ludicrous exhi- 

1 84 THE TRAGEDIE OF [ACT in, sc. ii. 

Blacke as the Inke that's on thee : fenfeleffe bauble, 22 

Art thou a Fcedarie for this A61; and look'ft 
So Virgin-like without ? Loe here fhe comes. 

Enter Imogen. 25 

I am ignorant in what I am commanded. 

Into. How now Pifanio ? 

Pif. Madam, heere is a Letter from my Lord. 28 

22. thee:] Ff, Rowe,+. thee. Coll. 23. and] F 2 . thou F 3 F 4 , Rowe. that 
Ktly. thee! Cap. et cet. Pope, Han. 

bauble,} bauble! Rowe, + , Var. 25. Enter...] After line 26, Sing, ii, 

'85. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

23. Fcedarie} feodary Cap. et seq. 26. I am ignorant} I'm ignorant 

Pope,-}-, Dyce ii, iii. 

bition. DYCE, after quoting Malone's note, without dissent, adds: 'Mr Knight 
has contrived to persuade himself that Pisanio is not reading the letter, but only 
commenting upon its substance.' [Notwithstanding Dyce's covert sneer at Knight, 
the tendency of modern comment is, I think, to accept, in the main, Knight's 
view, rather than to accuse Shakespeare of palpable negligence. We must also 
bear in mind that, except the personal pronouns, the only indication in the Folio 
that these words are quoted is the Italic type, and that our only authority is Rowe 
for the assertion that Pisanio reads them. It may well be that as he glances at the 
letter a second time, and catches sight of 'Letter,' 'give thee opportunity,' he 
weaves the very words into his own construction of them, just as he changes 
the phraseology of the letter into 'adultery' and 'disloyal,' and amplifies 
the two words 'thy faith' into 'the love, and truth, and vows which I have 
made at thy command.' Any interpretation or explanation is preferable to the 
thought that what was hidden from William Shakespeare was patent to Edmund 
Malone. ED.] 

23. Fcedarie] BRADLEY (N. E. D., s. v. Fedarie): [A variant of fcedary,feudary, 
but used by Shakespeare in a sense due to erroneous association with Latin fcedus. 
The form federarie, which would be a correctly formed derivative of fcedus, but 
occurs only in a single passage of the First Folio [Wint. Tale, II, i, go], is perhaps a 
misprint or a scholarly correction, as the usual iorm,fedarie, suits the metre better. 
The Second Folio and most subsequent editors read foedarie-y in all the passages.] 
A confederate, accomplice. 'Else let my brother die, If not a fcedary, but only he 
Owe and succeed thy weakness.' Meas.for Meas., II, iv, 121; 'She's a traitor and 
Camillo is A federary with her.' Wint. Tale, II, i, 89. [And the present passage 
in Cymbeline. Mr Bradley is, I fear, a little too hasty in asserting that ' the Second 
Folio and most subsequent editors read fcedarie-y in all the passages.' In the 
passage from The Winter's Tale my copies of the Second, Third, and Fourth Folios 
follow the First in reading Federarie, and so also do all subsequent editors, save only 
Collier, Dyce, and Hudson. ED.] 

26. I am ignorant . . . commanded] STEEVENS: That is, I am unpractised 
in the art of murder. JOSEPH HUNTER (ii, 294) : I do not take this line in the sense 
given to it in the notes. It seems to me to express, 'I must appear as if these 
instructions had not been sent to me.' [Hunter is, I think, unquestionably right, 
and Pisanio himself verifies it in action. ED.] 

ACT 111, SC. ii.] 



Imo. Who, thy Lord ? That is my Lord Leonatus ? 
Oh, learn'd indeed were that Aftronomer 
That knew the Starres, as I his Characters, 
Heel'd lay the Future open. You good Gods, 
Let what is heere contain'd, rellifh of Loue, 
Of my Lords health, of his content : yet not 
That we two are afunder, let that grieue him; 
Some griefes are medcinable, that is one of them, 
For it doth phyficke Loue, of his content, 



2g. Who, thy Lord?} Who! thy Lord? 35. a/under] a /under F 2 . a-Junder 


Lord Leonatus?] Ff, Rovve, Han. 
lord Leoanatus: Pope, Theob. Warb. 
Lord Leonatus. Johns, lord: Leonatus. 
Coll. lord, Leonatus? Dyce, Ktly. 
lord, Leonatus! Sta. Glo. lord Leo- 
natus! Cam. lord? Leonatus? Cap. et 

30. Aftronomer] astrologer Warb. 
Johns. Var. '73. 

34. health,... content:] health:. ..con- 
tent: Ff. health, ...content; Theob. + . 
health, ...content, Rowe, et cet. 

34-37. yet not. ..Lone] In parentheses, 
Theob. Pope ii. 

36, 37. Some.. .Loue] In parentheses, 
Cap. Var. '78, '85, Mai. Ran. Var. '21, 

36. medcinable] medicinable F 4 , 
Ro\ve, + , Var. '73, '78, '85, Coll. Cam. 
med'cinable Cap. Mai. Steev. Varr. 
Knt, Sing. Dyce. Wh. Sta. Ktly, 

that is] that's Walker (Crit., i, 
1 86). 

37. Loue,] Ff, Rowe. love Pope i. 
love) Pope ii, Cap. Var. '78, '85, Ran. 
love; Johns, love;) Theob. et cet. 
(subs.) ' 

29. thy . . . my] DOWDEX: I think that 'thy' and 'my' are to be pronounced 
with an emphasis as if Imogen felt wronged by Posthumus being claimed as 
Pisanio's lord. 

33. Let . . . rellish of Loue] CAPELL (p. no): 'Let it relish' must be car- 
ried forward, and prefixed to 'of his content' in line 37. [THEOBALD, in his Shake- 
speare Restored, endeavoured to make this same construction manifest by enclosing 
in a parenthesis 'yet not That physicke Loue,' and this reading was adopted by 
Pope in his second edition. It is a little surprising that Capell did not also follow 
it; his comment seems to imply the need of such a large parenthesis, and yet he 
enclosed only a portion of lines 36 and 37. See Text. Notes.] 

34,35. content: yet not That we, etc.] TYRWHITT: I should wish to read: 
'of his content, yet no; That we two are asunder, let that grieve him!' M. 
MASON (p. 328): The passage is right as it stands, and there is nothing wanting to 
make it clear, but placing a stop longer than a comma after 'asunder.' The sense 
is this: 'Let the letter bring me tidings of my lord's health, and of his content; 
not of his content that we are asunder let that circumstance grieve him; but of 
his content in every shape but that.' [Mason's interpretation does not prove 
Tyrwhitt's emendation wrong. The meaning is not changed. ED.] 

36. medcinable] Here used in an active sense. See WALKER (Crit., i, 186). 

37. it doth physicke Loue] JOHNSON: That is, grief for absence keeps 
love in health and vigour. STEEVENS: Thus, 'it is a gallant child; one that, indeed, 
physicks the subject, makes old hearts fresh.' Wint. Tale, I, i, 40. 

!86 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. ii. 

All but in that. Good Wax, thy leaue : bleft be 38 

You Bees that make thefe Lockes of counfaile. Louers, 

And men in dangerous Bondes pray not alike, 40 

Though Forfey tours you caft in prifon,yet 

You clafpe young Ciipids Tables : good Newes Gods. 42 

38. All. ..that] In all but that. Han. 40. alike,] alike. Ff, Rowe,+. alike; 

leaue:] leave Pope, Han. leave. Cap. et seq. 

Theob. i, Johns. Coll. Ktly, Glo. Cam. 41. Forcfeytours] F 2 . Forfeitours 

leave, Theob. ii, Warb. F 3 F 4 . forfeitures Rowe,+. forfeiters 

38, 39. be You Bees] be, You bees, Cap. Han. et cet. 

Var. '78, '85, Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. 42. Tables:] tables. Johns, et seq. 

Coll. i, ii, Sing. Neives Gods.] news, Gods. F 4 , 

39. counfaile.] F 2 . counfel. F 3 F 4 , Rowe. news, gods! Pope et seq. 
Rowe. counsel! Pope et seq. [Reading. Rowe. 

38. 39. blest be You Bees] Capell's text reads 'Blest be, you bees'; the Text. 
Notes reveal how very generally be has been followed by subsequent editors, who 
never looked, apparently, at Capell's Errata, where he changed this reading to 
'Blest be you, bees.' I am not sure that this change is not for the better. ED. 

39. Lockes of counsaile] That is, you bees that make these locks on secret 
confidences of love, as in line 59 'Loues Counsailor' means Love's confidant. 
In The Winter's Tale Leontes reminds Camillo that he had entrusted him with 
his ' Chamber-councels,' that is, with his private affairs. DOWDEN appositely 
quotes from Jonson's Cynthia's Revels, II, i: 'Who's your doctor, Phantaste?' 
and Phantaste replies, 'Nay, that's counsel,' /'. e., that's a secret. Gifford, in a 
foot-note on this passage, says that 'the expression is very common in this sense,' 
and refers to Massinger's The Duke of Milan, III, i, where Charles says, 'nay, it 
is no counsel, You may partake it.' ED. 

40. men in dangerous Bondes] Portia, referring to Shylock, asks Antonio, 
'you stand within his danger, do you not?' where 'danger' does not of necessity 
mean peril, but merely 'you stand within his debt.' Thus ' these dangerous bonds' 
here means, I think, simply bonds of indebtedness, where peril, though not ex- 
cluded, is not necessarily included. Such bonds contain promises of repayment, 
but these promises are not like the prayers of a lover. Of course the bonds bore 
seals of wax (Shylock says to Antonio, 'seal me there a merry bond'), and if for- 
feited, it was this wax that cast the makers into prison, yet the selfsame wax 
clasped in young Cupid's tablets. VERPLANCK remarks that the 'seal was essen- 
tial to the bond, though a signature was not.' ED. 

41. 42. Forfeytours you cast . . . You claspe] JOHNSON: Here seems 
to be some corruption. Opening the letter, she gives a benediction to the bees with 
whose wax it was sealed, then makes a reflection; the bees have no such grateful 
remembrance from men who have sealed bonds which put their liberty in danger, 
and are sent to prison if they forfeit; but wax is not made terrible to lovers by 
its effect on debtors. I read, therefore: 'Though forfeitures them cast in prison, 
yet We clasp young Cupid's tables.' You and vm are, in the old angular hand, 
much alike. [This note was not repeated in the subsequent Variorums; we may 
suppose, therefore, that it was withdrawn.] 

42. good Newes Gods] For a similar adjuration, see 'Such a Foe, good 
Heauens.' III, vi, 29. 

ACT in, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 

IVflice, and your Fathers wrath (J/iould he take me in his 43 
Dominion} could not befo crucllto me ^ as yon : (oil the dee- 
rest of Creatures}wonld en en renew me with your eyes. Take 45 

43, 44. (mould. ..Dominion)] Ff, Sing. you, Knt, Jervis. me, as you, Ff. et cet. 

should. ..dominion, Rowe et cet. 45. would] would not Cap. Mai. 

44. me, as you:] me, but you Pope, Steev. Varr. 

Theob. Warb. me, but you, Han. euen] Anon. Jervis. you not now 

me; as you, Johns. Var. '73. me, an Daniel. 

44, 45. cruell to me, as you : . . . would euen renew me] ECCLES: 
The quaint, affected style of this letter may be accounted for from the state of 
Posthumus's mind, and the dissimulation which he thinks it necessary to practice. 
M. MASON (p. 328): This passage, which is probably erroneous, is nonsense, 
unless we suppose that the word 'as' has the force of but. 'Your father's wrath 
could not be so cruel to me, but you could renew me with your eyes.' MALONE: 
The word not was, I think, omitted at the press after 'would.' [Capell supplied 
it; but then Malone ignored Capell.] By its insertion a clear sense is given. 
Justice and the anger of your father . . . could not be so cruel to me, but that 
you . . . -would be able to renovate my spirits, etc. KNIGHT: This sentence is 
very difficult; but it does not appear to be mended by the departure from the orig- 
inal reading. ... It is evident [in the original] that the printer has mistaken the 
sense in his 'could not have been so cruel to me, as you'; and when printers have 
a crotchet as to the meaning of a sentence, they seldom scruple to deviate from the 
copy before them. The 'so' required, therefore, from them its parallel conjunction 
'as.' But if we alter a single letter we have a clear meaning without any forced 
construction. An is often used familiarly for if by Shakespeare. . . . Let us, there- 
fore, read the sentence thus: 'could not be so cruel to me an you . . . would even 
renew me,' etc. 'Even' is here used in the old sense of equally, even-so, and is op- 
posed to 'so cruel.' SINGER: Posthumus means to say that 'Justice . . . could not 
be so (i. e., very) cruel to him, as what he might surfer would be amply compensated,' 
etc. COLLIER (ed. i.): The change ['would not'], as Mr Amyot remarks, hardly 
seems required, the apparent sense being that Justice and the wrath of Cymbeline 
could not do Posthumus any cruelty but such as might be remedied by the eyes of 
Imogen. [Collier in his ed. ii. makes no comment whatever on Posthumus's letter; 
and DYCE merely rehearses a few of the emendations that have been proposed.] 
WHITE (ed. i.) : I think that there has been no worse corruption than a transposi- 
tion of ' so ' by accident, or, perhaps, sophistication, [' could not be cruel to me so as 
you,' etc.]. The passage with this alteration needs no explanation. Perhaps 'even' 
is a misprint for ever. IBID (ed. ii.) : This confused sentence stands, I am now per- 
suaded, as Shakespeare wrote it, intending a comparison between the power of 
Imogen's father's wrath and her power to compensate and restore. STAUNTON: 
Was it not intended to be enigmatical? The COWDEN-CLARKES : The phraseology 
is purposely obscure and enigmatical, and conveys a double idea, the more 
obvious one (to Imogen who is addressed) ; and a secondary one (perceptible to the 
reader of the play) ' could not be as cruel to me as you ' (in the supposed wrong she 
has done him who writes to her). DEIGHTON finds it difficult to understand why 
these words should be intended to be enigmatical, seeing that the rest of the letter 
is so plain in its meaning. HUDSON: Various changes have been proposed; but 

1 88 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT HI, sc. ii. 

notice that I am in Cambria at Milford-Hauen : what your 46 
owne Loue, will out of this ad uifeyou, follow. So he wifhesyou 

47. owne Loue,] own, love, Rowe i. 47. So] Ff, Pope, Han. Sta. Glo. 

own love Rowe ii. et seq. Cam. So, Theob. et cet. 

Pope's is the simplest and the best. [See Text. Notes.] INGLEBY: That is, 
'Justice and your father's wrath,' etc., are not capable of as much cruelty to me as 
you yourself; for you can refuse to meet me. Should not the relative who be under- 
stood before 'would'? IBED (Revised ed.): A fine example of the condensed lan- 
guage so characteristic of Shakespeare, which may be matched with V, v, 147, 148. 
Paraphrase: 'Justice and your father's wrath could not harm me so much as you 
would do me good, even by casting your eyes upon me.' . . . But even this para- 
phrase does not fully interpret the language, for it is implied that Imogen's cruelty 
would outweigh both the law and her father's cruelty if she refused to come 
and meet Posthumus. VAUGHAN (p. 425) : I find a sense in [the Folio text] legit- 
imately derived, to this effect: If I were taken by your father, justice and his 
wrath would not have such power to torment me ' (' would not be so cruel to me ') 
'as, if I were seen by you, your eyes would have power even to renovate me.'- 
THISELTON, accepting the punctuation of the Folio as a main reliance in all cir- 
cumstances in the interpretation of the text, believes that the colon after 'you' 
indicated that 'what follows is of the nature of an explanation, or of an extension, 
of what precedes.' Accordingly, he observes that ' the subject of " would even renew 
me" is "Justice, and your Father's wrath"; and "with your eyes" is equivalent 
to "if accompanied with the sight of your eyes." 'This,' he goes on to say, 'is 
the only interpretation of the text as it stands that gives adequate force to "even." 
Imogen has the opportunity of being more cruel to Posthumus than the Law or her 
Father's wrath by not meeting him at Milford, for the harm that they could do him 
would not count if at the same time he could see Imogen again that is the im- 
pression Posthumus intends to convey.' DOWDEN: I take the reading of the 
Folio to mean : Justice and your Father's wrath could not cause me to suffer more 
pain than your eyes would make amends for by giving me even new life. ... I 
am not sure we ought not to keep the colon [after ' you '] and interpret : You, dear- 
est, are, by being absent, a greater cruelty to me than justice and your father's 
wrath could be; these (justice, etc.) would even renew me with a sight of you. 
[I cannot believe that there was in Posthumus's mind, in writing this dastardly 
letter, any other thought than that of decoying Imogen to some remote region in 
order that Pisanio might kill her; and for this remoteness he had to give some excuse 
such as fear of Justice, etc., and with it must be coupled some tender words of love 
which his false heart hoped that, without stopping to criticise or mistrust, Imogen 
would believe; that she so accepted them we know from her exuberant joy. As 
she accepted them, so must we be her father cruel as he will, she must believe, on 
his word that at the sight of her even life itself would be renewed. What cared she 
for colons, or commas, or constructions? A horse with wings for her. What we in 
cooler blood may question, if we dare, is, how Posthumus, having lost every atom of 
faith in the fidelity of Imogen, could suppose that she still had left enough love for 
him to take a long and perilous journey, and, a King's daughter, with but one male 
attendant, merely to see, for a passing hour, a husband, to whom she knew in her 
heart she had proved unfaithful. ED.] 

ACT III, SC. ii.] 



, tliat rcmaincs loyal! to his Vow, and vour cncrca- 48 

fmg in Lone. 

Leonatus Pofthumus . 

Oh for a Horfe with wings : Hear' ft thou Pifaniot 

He is at Milford-Hauen : Read, and tell me 

How farre 'tis thither. If one of meane affaires 

May plod it in a weeke, why may not I 

Glide thither in a day ? Then true Pifanio, 

Who long' ft like me, to fee thy Lord; who long'ft 

(Oh let me bate)but not like me . yet long'ft 

But in a fainter kinde. Oh not like me : 

For mine's beyond, beyond : fay, and fpeake thicke 


48. remaincs] remanies F 2 . 

48, 49. and your. Loue.] F 2 . 
and your increafmg in Love. F 3) Var. 
'73. and your increafmg in Love, F 4 , 
Rowe, Pope, (love; Theob. Warb. 
Johns, love Cap.) and you; increas- 
ing in love, Johns, conj. and your, in- 
creasing in love, Tynvhitt, Var. '78 et 

48. your] your's Han. 

50-58. Mnemonic lines Warb. 

55-58. Who. ..beyond] In parentheses, 
Cap. Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. 

Knt, Coll. Sta. (subs.) 

56. (Oh. ..bate)] Oh. ..bate, Rowe. 
bate] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. i, 

Han. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 'bate 
Theob. ii. et cet. 

57. kinde.] Ff. kind Rowe,+. 
kind: Cap. et seq. 

58. beyond, beyond:] Ff. beyond, 
beyond Rowe,+. beyond, beyond,) 
Cap. Var. '78, '85, Mai. Ran. beyond 
beyond, Ritson, Steev. et seq. 

thicke] Ff, Rowe i. thick: Rowe 
ii,+, Sing, thick, Cap. et cet. 

48, 49. and your encreasing in Loue] TYRWHITT: We should, I think, 
read thus: 'and your, increasing in love, Leonatus Posthumus,' to make it plain, 
that 'your' is to be joined in construction with Leonatus, and not with 'increasing'; 
and that the latter is a participle present, and not a noun. THISELTON (p. 27): 
That is, your advancement or prosperity in Love: and may be taken either as 
governed by 'to' or as a second object to 'wishes.' 

52. one of meane affaires] 'Mean' does not here signify low, degraded, but 
of the average, everyday affairs. 

56. let me bate] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Bate, if [aphetic form of Abate]: 5. 
To mitigate, moderate, assuage, diminish. 

58. beyond, beyond] RITSON: The comma, hitherto placed after the first 
'beyond,' is improper. The second is used as a substantive; and the plain sense is, 
that her longing is further than beyond; beyond anything that desire can be said to 
be beyond. KNIGHT: The Scotch have a saying, 'at the back of the beyont.' 

58. speake thicke] STEEVENS: That is, crowd one word on another, as fast as 
possible. So: 'And speaking thick, which nature made his blemish, Became the 
accents of the valiant.' 2 Hen. IV: II, iii, 24. [See in All's Well, where the 
Clown wishes the Countess to ply him faster with questions: 'O Lord, Sir! Thick, 
thick, spare not me.' II, ii, 47. In connection with the quotation just given by 
Steevens, from 2 Henry the Fourth, BERNAYS (p. no) recalls the fact that Schlegel 
misunderstood this phrase 'to speak thick,' and translated it to stutter (stotterri); 
wherefore all German actors who thereafter personated Hotspur sedulously 


[ACT in, sc. ii. 

( Loues Counfailor fhould fill the bores of hearing, 
ToW {mothering of the Senfe)how farre it is 
To this fame bleffed Milford. And by'th'way 
Tell he how Wales was made fo happy, as | 
T'inherite fuch a Hauen. But firfb of all, 
How welmay fteale from hence: and for the gap 
That we fhall make in Time, from our hence-going ? 
And our returne, to excufe : but firft, how ger hence. 


59. 60. (Loues ... Senje)} Love's ... 
sense, Rowe,+. 

60. TV/A'] To M F 3 F 4 , Rowe, + . 
To the Cap. et seq. 

61-70. Mnemonic lines, Warb. 

61. Milford.} Ff, Rowe i. Milford? 
Rowe ii, Pope. Milford: Theob. et 

by'M] F a . by iV F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+ . 
by the Cap. et seq. 

62. happy,] happy Dyce, Sta. Glo. 

63. T inker ite] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. 
Dyce, Sing. Ktly. To inherit Cap. 

et cet. 

63. Hauen.} haven: Cap. et seq. 

64. we may] F 2 . may we F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 

+ . 

hence:] Ff. hence? Pope,+. 

hence, Glo. 

65. hence-going] hence going Rowe 

ii, +- 

66. And our] Till our Pope, + , Varr. 
Ran. Huds. To our Cap. 

to excufe:] to excuse Rowe. 
t j excuse Pope,+. to excuse? Var. 
'73. V excuse: Dyce ii, iii. 

ger} Fi. 

stuttered; and so enshrined in popular affection had this stuttering Harry Percy 
become that it was only with difficulty that actors could be induced to abandon 
what has been for so many years a favourite and captivating characteristic. 

59, 60. Loues Counsailor . . . smothering of the Sense] CAPELL 
(p. no): The justness of this maxim is well exemplified by the speaker herself 
in this speech, if we consider her as what she really is, her own 'counsellor,' that 
is, contriver of expedients to gratify a desire so extreme she has not words to 
express it by; for her thoughts are turned every way; to going, to what will follow 
her going, to the method and quickness of it, and the huddle of her ideas is such as 
leaves no time for correctness; at the beginning of line 64 the words Tell me are 
wanting; and again at the end of it; in which sentence 'to excuse' must have the 
sense of what excuse shall we make; and 'or e'er begot,' the line after it, means 
before the matter to be excused has existence. 

65, 66. from our hence-going . . . how ger hence] HUDSON [reading 
'how to get hence']: As hence is emphatic here, to seems fairly required; and 'get' 
is evidently in the same construction as 'excuse.' To be sure, the insertion of to 
makes the verse an Alexandrine; but the omission does not make it a pentameter. 
The omission was doubtless accidental. The original also has 'And' instead 
of Till. The correction is Pope's. 'And' makes 'from' equivalent to between; a 
sense, surely, which the word cannot bear. [Hudson here quotes from Coriolanus: 
'He cannot temperately support his honours From where he should begin and end.' 
II, i, 215, the very passage which here Malone also quotes to prove, and I think 
successfully, that 'from' followed by 'and' (in this passage) means 'from where 
he should begin to where he should end.' Here in Cymb. the meaning is, I think, 
'from our hence-going to our return.' ED.] 

ACT in, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 

Why fhould excufe be borne or ere begot ? 67 

Weele talke of that heereafter. Prythee fpeake, 

How many ftore of Miles may we well rid 

Twixt houre, and houre ? 70 

Pif. One fcore 'twixt Sun, and Sun, 
Madam's enough for you : and too much too. 

lino. Why, one that rode to's Excution Man, 
Could neuer go fo flow : I haue heard of Riding wagers, 
Where Horfes haue bin nimbler then the Sands 75 

67. or ere begot] F 2 . Theob. ii, Warb. 73. to's] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. Dyce, 

Johns. Cap. Ktly, Cam. or ere- Sta. Glo. Cam. to his Cap. et cet. 

-begot Theob. i. or e're begot F 3 F 4 . Excution Man,] F x . Execution 

or-ere begot Pope, Han. or e'er begot man, F 2 . Execution, man, F 3 F 4 . 

Rowe et cet. 74. / haue] I've Pope,+, Dyce ii, 

69. Jlore] fcore Ff. et seq. iii. 

rid] ride Ff. et seq. Riding] Om. Han. 

72. you:] you, Coll. i, ii, Dyce, Cam. wagers] Om. Vaun. 
you: and ... too.] you: [Aside.] 75. bin] been F 3 F 4 . 

and. ..too. Glo. 

69-71. store . . . score] A good illustration of the ease wherewith c and / 
are confounded, which forms the subject of an article in Walker (Crit., ii, 274). 

69. may we well rid] DOWDEN: Mr Craig thinks that 'rid' may be right, 
meaning dispose of, clear. The proverbial expression 'willingness rids way' 
occurs in 3 Hen. VI: V, iii, 21. So Peele, Arraignment of Paris, III, [iv, ed. Dyce], 
'my game is quick, and rids a length of ground.' Cotgrave, under Semelle, has 'a 
strong foot, and a light head rids way apace.' CRAIG: I think it is nearly certain 
that 'rid' is correct. See Dr Dowden's note [above]. . . . 'To rid way,' i. e., the 
way (cp. 'to devour the way') of a runner [qu. of a gentleman on horseback?] in 
2 Hen. IV: I, i, 47] appears to have been a proverbial expression. It is found more 
than once in Cotgrave. [There seems to be no doubt that Craig has vindicated 
the First Folio. The meaning of 'rid' which he contends for is given by Whitney 
(Cent. Diet.}, and Craigie (N.E.D., s. v. Rid, the verb. 8.) adds other examples of 
'To rid ground (or space), to cover ground, to move ahead, to make progress'; 
as well as of to rid way. In the former, the earliest example is the passage from 
Peele's Arraignment of Paris (antecedently quoted by Dowden, as above), 1584; 
and in the latter, the earliest quotation is from 2 Hen. VI, 1593. It was not, how- 
ever, recognised as a 'proverbial expression' by the printers of the Second Folio, 
nine years later than the First Folio. ED.] 

70. Twixt houre, and houre] HUDSON: Between the same hours of morning 
and evening; or between six and six, as between sunrise and sunset, in the next 
speech. ELZE (p. 312): Imogen's longing . . . would not have been satisfied 
with such a slow rate of travelling; what she wishes to know is, how many score 
of miles she may ride from the stroke of one hour to that of the next. Compare 
'To weep 'twixt clock and clock.' III, iv, 45. 

73. Excution] DOWDEN: Imogen's words are touched with dramatic irony. 
Is it not, in fact, to execution that she rides? 

74. 75. Riding wagers, Where Horses, etc.] It is difficult to decide whether 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT m, sc. ii. 

That run i'th'Clocks behalfe. But this is Foolrie, 76 

76. run] ran Orger. behalf: Cap. et cet. 

i'th'] Ff,Rowe,+. z'//zeCap.etseq. 76. Foolrie,] Ff. foolery, Rowe. 

behalfe.] F T . behalf. F 3 F 4 , Rowe, fool'ry Pope,+, Coll. Ktly. foolery: 

+ , Coll. Glo. Cam. behalf- Ktly. Cap. et cet. 

this refers to horse racing or merely pitting one horse against another. MADDEN 
(p. 274) evidently accepts the latter. 'The racehorse,' he remarks, 'is the only 
horse in whom, and in whose doings, Shakespeare took no interest, and the horse- 
race is the only popular pastime to which no allusion can be found in his writings. 
It is true that the Turf and the thoroughbred are institutions of later date, for 
which we are indebted to the Stuarts, not to the Tudors. . . . The impulse to 
match horse against horse is probably coeval with the subjugation of the animal 
by man. . . . ' A way our Ancestors had of making their Matches ' is ' thus de- 
scribed by Nicholas Cox: "The Wild goose chase received its name from the 
manner of the flight which is made by Wild Geese, which is generally one after an- 
other; so the two Horses after the running of Twelvescore Yards had the liberty 
which horse soever could get the leading to ride what ground he pleas'd: the hind- 
most Horse being bound to follow him within a certain distance agreed on by 
Articles, or else to be ivhipt up by the Triers or Judges which rode by, and whichever 
Horse could distance the other won the Match." Gentleman's Recreation, 1674. 
There is also a distant recognition of the match or wager, as something heard of 
rather than seen, [in the present passage]. The match or wager between two horses 
is plainly different from the race-horse, in which several competitors strive for the 
mastery. And in the horse-race Shakespeare shows no interest whatever. It 
occupies the unique position of a sport recognized by Bacon and ignored by Shake- 
speare.' BLAKEWAY, in the Var. 1821. quotes a sentence from Fynes Moryson's 
Itinerary which looks much as though it referred to horse-racing. Moryson is justi- 
fying the 'putters out of five for one,' and says he 'remembered that no meane 
Lord, and Lords sonnes, and Gentlemen in our Court had in like sort put out 
money vpon a horserace, or a speedie course of a horse, vnder themselues, yea 
vpon a iourney on foote.' Part I, Booke 3, Chap, i, p. 198; this happened in 
1595. The phrase 'vnder themselues' looks much as though it referred to what 
is now understood as a horse-race. The Encyclopedia Brit. (Eleventh ed., s. v. 
Horse-racing, p. 727) says that the first distinct indication of horse-racing in 
England occurs in Fitzstephen's Description of the City of London, c. 1174. 
There is evidence from the poems of Bishop Hall (1597) that racing was in vogue 
in Queen Elizabeth's reign, though apparently not patronised by her; indeed, it 
seems then to have gone much out of fashion. James I, however, when he came 
to the throne, greatly patronised it. The weight of evidence, is, I think, in favour 
of the view that Imogen refers to horse-racing rather than to matches between 
unmounted horses. ED. 

76. That run i'th'Clocks behalfe] WARBURTON: This fantastical ex- 
pression means no more than sand in an hour-glass, used to measure time. 
COLLIER (Notes, etc., p. 517) tells us that the MS. reads by half 'in order to state 
how much faster they run.' In his subsequent edition, however, Collier acknowl- 
edges that he was ' in error when he expressed his approbation ' of the change by the 
MS. 'The old annotator did not understand the passage, and we were here, as in 
a few other places, misled by him.' The phrase means 'that run instead of the 
clock, as a substitute for the clock.' 

ACT in, sc. ii.] CYMBELINE 

Go, bid my Woman faigne a Sickneffe, fay 77 

She'le home to her Father ; and prouide me prefently 

A Riding Suit : No coftlier then would fit 

A Franklins Hufwife. 80 

Pi/a. Madam, you're befl. confider. 

lino. I fee before me( Man ) nor heere, not heere; 82 

77. faigne] F 2 . housewife Rowe ii. et seq. 
Sickneffe,] Ff, Rowe, Theob. i, + , 81. you're] you'd Pope,+- 

Cam. sickness: Theob. ii. et cet. confider.] consider Ktly. 

78. to her] /' her Pope, + . 82. (Man) Ff. man; Cap. Ran. Knt, 
Father;] Father, Rowe. Coll. Dyce, Sta. Sing. Ktly, Glo. 
prefently] present Rowe ii. Pope, Cam. Man, Rowe et cet. 

Theob. Han. Warb. nor heere, not heere;] nor here nor 

79. Suit:] suit, Vaun. here, Pope, nor here, nor there Heath, 

80. Hufwife} Houfwife F 4 , Rowe i. Ingl. Nor here, nor here, Ff. et cet. 

80. A Franklins Huswife] JOHNSON: A 'franklin' is literally a freeholder, 
with a small estate, neither villain nor vassal. [Imogen probably selects this 
riding suit as one which, while respectable, would be inconspicuous. What a 
Franklin was socially, we may gather with some probability from Sir Thomas 
Overbury's Characters: 'A Franklin, His outside is an ancient Yeoman of England, 
though his inside may giue armes (with the best Gentleman) and ne're see the 
Herauld. There is no truer seruant in the house then himselfe. Though he be 
Master, he sayes not to his seruants, goe to field, but let vs goe; and with his 
owne eye, does both fatten his flocke, and set forward all manner of husbandrie. 
Hee is taught by nature to bee contented with a little; his owne fold yeeld him 
both food and rayment; hee is pleas'd with any nourishment God sends, whilest 
curious gluttonie ransackes, as it were, Noahs Arke for food, onely to feed the riot 
of one meale. Hee is nere knowne to goe to Law; vnderstanding, to bee Law-bound 
among men, is like to be hide bound among his beasts; they thriue not vnder it; 
and that such men sleepe as vnquietly, as if their pillows were stuf t with Lawyer pen- 
knives. When he builds, no poore Tennants cottage hinders his prospect; they are 
indeed his Almes-houses, though there be painted on them no such superscrip- 
tion. He neuer sits vp late but when he hunts the Badger, the vowed foe of his 
Lambs; nor uses hee any cruelty but when he hunts the Hare. . . . He allows of 
honest pastime, and thinkes not the bones of the dead anything bruised, or the 
worse for it, though the countrey Lasses dance in the Church-yard after Euen-song. 
Rocke-Monday, and the Wake in Summer, shrouings, the wakeful ketches on 
Christmas Eue, the Hoky, or Seed cake, these he yeerely keepes, yet holds them 
no reliques of Popery. . . . Hee is Lord paramount within himselfe, though he 
hold by neuer so meane a Tenure; and dyes the more contentedly (though he leaue 
his heire young) in regard he leaues him not liable to a couetous Guardian. Lastly, 
to end him; hee cares not when his end comes, he needs not feare his Audit, for his 
Quietus is in heauen.' Sig. 04, ed. 1627. ED.] 

81. you're best consider] ABBOTT ( 230): 'You' may represent either 
nominative or dative, but was almost certainly used by Shakespeare as nomi- 


194 THE TRACED IE OF ACT in, sc. ii. 

Nor what enfues but haue a Fog in them 83 

That I cannot looke through. Away, I prythee, 

83. enfues but] Ff, Rowe i. ensues, 83. haue] they've Eccles. 

but Rowe ii, + , Ran. Knt, Coll. Dyce, in them] Ff, Han. Coll. ii. in 

Sta. Glo. Cam. ensues, that Warb. ken, Theob. in them, Rowe et cet. 

ensues; they Ktly, conj. ensues; but 84. through] thorough Rowe ii. 
Cap. et cet. 

82-84. I see before me . . . cannot looke through] Inasmuch as 
there appears to be no nominative to 'in them/ THEOBALD substituted 'in ken,' 
which means 'in prospect, within sight.' Afterwards Imogen 'Thou was't within 
a kenne.' III, vi, 8. No one adopted the emendation. WARBURTON pensively 
remarks of the Folio text that ' this nonsense is occasioned by the corrupt reading of 
"BUT have a fog" for "THAT have a fog"; and then all is plain.' No one adopted 
the emendation. JOHNSON: The lady says: 'I can see neither one way or other, 
before me nor behind me, but all the ways are covered by an impenetrable fog.' 
There are objections insuperable to all I can propose, and since reason can give 
me no counsel, I will resolve at once to follow my inclination. HEATH (p. 479) 
believes that all will be plain if we only put an interrogation mark after 'man' 
and read 'nor here, nor there,' which yields, he thinks, the following paraphrase: 
Wouldst thou, man, have me consider and distract myself in the search of the 
consequences which may possibly attend the step I am about to take? That would 
be to very little purpose indeed. For whatever step I should take, whether I stay 
here or go thither, the consequences which may attend either are all equally cov- 
ered with such a thick mist of obscurity as it is impossible for me to penetrate; 
and, this being so, it would be folly in me to deliberate further on the subject. 
CAPELL (p. no): That is, 'I have no eyes, man, to look on this side, or that side, 
or upon what is behind me; upon all these there is a fog that I neither can nor would 
penetrate, and have neither eye nor thought that is directed to anything else but 
the way I would go, the way "before me"; that I can see and that only: "nor 
here" is made grammatical by substituting for it, I see neither here, etc.' M. 
MASON (p. 329): When Imogen speaks these words, she is supposed to have her 
face turned towards Milford; and when she pronounces the words 'nor here, nor 
here,' she points to the right and to the left. This being premised, the sense is 
evidently this: 'I see clearly the way before me; but that to the right, that to the 
left, and that behind me, are all covered with a fog that I cannot penetrate. There 
is no more, therefore, to be said, since there is no way accessible but that to Milford.' 
THISELTON, by calling in aid the comma after the first 'heere,' which he informs 
us is 'frequently used to separate sentences in close connection with each other'; 
and the semicolon after the second 'heere,' which he also informs us is 'sometimes 
used to separate clauses or phrases which balance each other'; and then by under- 
standing neither before 'before me,' about which he gives us no information, is at 
last enabled to give us Imogen's meaning, which is: 'I see neither in front of me, 
nor where I am. My present situation and the Future are alike for me full of im- 
penetrable fog. Consideration is, therefore, out of the question. My only chance 
of escape from this gloom lies in the direction of Milford. For Milford I must 
make at all costs.' Thiselton concludes: 'Regard for the punctuation settles, I 
hope, the interpretation of this passage once for all and that, too, without im- 
peachment of the Folio text.' [The greatest difficulty to me in connection with 

ACT in, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 

Do as I bid thee : There's no more to fay: 85 

Acceffible is none but Mil ford way. Exeunt. 

Sccna Tertia. 

Enter Belarius , Guiderius , and Andragus. 2 

i. Scena...] Scene n. Rowe. Scene Wales. Pope). A mountainous country. 
v. Eccl. Cap. 

A Forest with a Cave. Rowe. (in 2. Enter...] Enter from a cave, Bel.; 

then, Guid. and Arvir. Cap. 

these lines is to understand how any difficulty can be found in them, at least 
since the days of Capell and Monk Mason. DYCE, COLLIER, WHITE, and STAUN- 
TON judiciously ignore the necessity of having any note on them whatever. ED.] 

86. Milford way] Lady Martin (p. 188): Oh, how I enjoyed acting this scene! 
All had been so sad before. What a burst of happiness, what play of loving fancy, 
had scope here! It was like a bit of Rosalind in the forest. The sense of liberty, of 
breathing in the free air, and for a while escaping from the trammels of the Court 
and her persecutors there, that gave light to the eyes, and buoyancy to the step. 
Imogen is already, in imagination, at the height of happiness, at that 'beyond be- 
yond' which brings her into the presence of her banished lord. She can only 'see 
before her'; she can look neither right nor left, nor to aught that may come after. 
These things have 'a fog' in them she cannot look through. We can imagine with 
what delighted haste Imogen dons the riding-suit of the franklin's housewife! 
Pisanio is barely allowed time to procure horses. Her women hurry on the prep- 
arations, for, as we have heard, they are all 'sworn and honourable'; Pisanio has 
little to say during the scene; but what may not an actor express by tone, and 
look, and manner? We know his grief for her, his bitter disappointment in her 
husband. These thoughts are in his mind, and give the tone to his whole bearing. 
Had Imogen been less wrapped up in her own happiness, she must have noticed and 
questioned him about his strange unwillingness to obey his master's orders 
wondered, too, at his showing no gladness at the thought of seeing him whom she 
believed that he, ' next to herself,' most longed to see again. But her eyes are full of 
that 'fog' which obscures everything from view but the one bright spot that 
blessed Milford where her heart is. 

i. Scena Tertia] HUNTER (ii, 295): There are few finer scenes than this, 
breathing of the old innocent world, and the thoughts and feelings of generous 
youth; full also of the wisdom of age, a wisdom applicable to the circumstances 
in which all were placed, but instructive to men in whatever state of society 
they may be. I should class it with the best of the scenes in which Jaques is a 
principal character, with the Flower-scene in The Winter's Tale, the scene of Olivia 
and Viola in Twelfth Night, and the moon-light scene in The Merchant of Venice. 
ECCLES: Between the foregoing scene and the present I conceive some part 
of a day, a night, and an entire day and night to have intervened. Let us suppose 
that Imogen was employed during a portion of the day to which the last scene 
belonged in making the necessary preparations for her flight, and that she took her 

10,6 THE TR AGED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iii. 

A goodly day, not to keepe houfe with fuch, 3 

Whofe Roofe's as lowe as ours : Sleepe Boyes,this gate 
Inftructs you how t'adore the Heauens; and bowes you 5 

To a mornings holy office. The Gates of Monarches 

3-61. Mnemonic, Pope. 4. Sleepe Boyes,] 'Sleep, boys? Anon. 

3. day, ...houfe. ..fuch,] Ff, Rowe. (1814) ap. Cam. 

day .' ..such, Pope. day!., 5. how t'adore] F 2 F 3 , Rowe,+, Coll. 

...such Theob. Han. Warb. Johns. Dyce ii, iii, Sing. Ktly. how '/ adore 

day... house,... such Cap. et cet. F 4 . how to adore Cap. et cet. 

4. Sleepe] F 2 . Sleep F 3 F 4 . See, 6. To a] Ff, Rowe, Var. '21, Knt, 
Rowe,+, Slope Vaun. Stoop Han. Coll. i, ii, Dyce i, Sta. Sing. Ktly, 
et cet. Glo. Cam. To Pope et cet. 

The] Om. Pope, + . 

departure from the palace on the afternoon of the same. Her journey may be 
continued the following day, attended by Pisanio, who is her guardian also during 
the ensuing night. Thus we have the two nights of which she afterwards speaks 
as having ' made the ground her bed ' through an apprehension, we may reasonably 
imagine, of being discovered in consequence of her endeavouring to procure a better 
lodging. The time is early morning when Belarius and his young men are sallying 
forth to pursue the chase. In the evening of the same day Imogen comes to the 
cave, having parted from Pisanio in the former part of it. DANIEL: This scene 
may be supposed concurrent with the preceding scene ii. An interval, including one 
clear day. Imogen and Pisanio journey into Wales. 

3. A goodly day, etc.] PORTER and CLARKE: This is obviously a scene-setting 
speech. It shows the audience, with emphasis, that the rear-stage is now a cave; 
and it may be noticed that the Folio stage-directions for Scena Prlma do not place 
that scene in the rear-stage, but outside; for Cymbeline and his train enter at one 
doore, and the Roman with his at another. Scena Secunda is also a fore-stage scene. 
Out-door effects, and the use of the rear-stage as a cave in the woods, are thus 
arranged for the rest of the Play. The simple preparation for this scene, the 
grouping of trees and bushes around the rear-stage, was reinforced by such speeches. 

4. Sleepe] MALONE, in the Var. 1785, conjectured Sweet, which was adopted by 
RANN, 1789, and reprinted in successive Variorums, until that of 1821, when it 
disappeared, and may be, therefore, considered as withdrawn. THISELTON: 
The following extracts from Henry Smith's sermon, A Disswasionfrom Pride, and an 
Exhortation to Humilitie, are not, I think, without interest: 'his (/. e., God's) 
Majestic . . . would not have her (i. e., pride's) favourites come to Court, unlesse 
they hold downe their Mace, stoope when they enter. But if you can get in with 
Humilitie, and weare the colours of lowlinesse, then you may goe boldly, and stand 
in the king's sight, and step to his chamber of presence, and put up your petitions, 
and come to honour'; 'they which will be strouters shall not want flatterers which 
will . . . say . . . that it becomes them well to jet in their going'; 'then the rich 
Glutton jetted in purple every day, but now the poor unthrift jettes as brave as the 
Glutton'; and 'As the way to heaven is narrow ... so the gate is low, and he 
had need to stoope which entreth in at it.' The same Sermon has more than one 
mention of Giants. [According to the D. N. B. 'silver-tongued Smith' died in 


6. To a mornings] This 'a' is one of the very many examples, gathered by 

ACT in, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 

Are Arch'd fo high, that Giants may iet through 7 

And keepe their impious Turbonds on, without 

Good morrow to the Sun. Haile thou faire Heauen, 

We houfe i'th'Rocke, yet vfe thee not fo hardly 10 

7. iet] jet Ff. walk Wray ap. Cam. 9. Heauen,] heav'n! Pope et seq. 

8. Turbonds] Turbands Ff. Tur- 10. i'th'] i' the Cap. et seq. 
bants Johns, turbans Sing. 

WALKER (Crit., i, 90), where this indefinite article is interpolated and sometimes 
omitted in the First Folio. 

6-8. The Gates of Monarches . . . Turbonds on] STAUNTON: Webster 
has happily expressed a similar idea: 'Yet stay, heaven gates are not so highly 
arch'd As Princes' pallaces, they that enter there Must go upon their knees.' 
Duchess of Malfi, IV, ii, Qto, 1623. 

7. may iet through] STEEVENS: That is, strut, walk proudly. So in Twelfth 
Night, Fabian says of Malvolio, 'how he jets under his advanced plumes.' II, v, 36. 

ECCLES: 'Jet' has been altered by Hanmer to get. [The Cambridge Editors say 
that 'this is not the case in either of the editions' before them, nor is it the case in 
either of my editions. ED.] 

8. impious Turbonds] JOHNSON: The idea of a giant was, among the readers 
of romances, who were almost all the readers of those times, always confounded with 
that of a Saracen. 

10. We house i'th'Rocke] J. HILL (Stratford Herald, quoted in Shake- 
speriana, V, 51, Jan., 1888): Upon a recent visit to Tenby I was much impressed 
with a claim which I found had been advanced that the principal scene in Cymbel- 
ine, the cave of Belarius, was in the immediate vicinity of the town. It will be 
remembered that Shakespeare's cave was in or near a wood, and also near the main 
road to Milford Haven. Such is the position even to the present day of the cave 
known as Hoyle's Mouth. An inspection of the cave and neighborhood at once sug- 
gests the fitness and probability of the theory, but on more serious examination it is 
surprising how facts as well as probabilities confirm the impression. The high- 
road from Tenby to Milford Haven is one of great antiquity. It is one of the old 
ridgeways which have existed from the Roman occupation; the only road, in fact, 
which could have been taken. Leaving Tenby, it winds round what was almost the 
sea shore, a vast tract of sea having, in recent times, been reclaimed. About a mile 
from Tenby, and a short distance from the road, still obscured in the wood, and 
still to be found only by some perseverance, is the cave, which, doubtless, was 
originally formed by the washing of the sea. Time has added to the deposit upon 
its floor, and necessitated the removal of portions at various times. But when the 
probability of Shakespeare being intimately acquainted with the cave is examined, 
it will be found that probability becomes almost a certainty. The importance of the 
fortified town of Tenby in Elizabeth's day (and the walls are in great part still 
standing) leaves no room for doubt that the companies of players would periodically 
proceed thither in their customary travels. This is rendered more certain still 
from the fact that it lay upon the only road to Carew Castle, Pembroke Town, 
Castle Manobier, and other strongholds, and even to St. David's, Haverfordwest, 
etc. That Shakespeare, therefore, not only visited Tenby, but passed and repassed 
along the old road over the ridge way with his company few will question, and when 
it is considered that these visits were not of a hurried, flying character, but that his 


YvMl ^ 

^ <\ 
, c^. 


10,8 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iii. 

As prouder liuers do. II 

Guid. Haile Heauen. 

Antir. Haile Heauen. 

Bela. Now for our Mountaine fport, vp to yond hill 
Your legges are yong : He tread thefe Flats. Confider, 15 

When you aboue perceiue me like a Crow, 
That it is Place, which leffen's,and fets off, 
And you may then reuolue what Tales, I haue told you, 
Of Courts,of Princes; of the Tricks in Warre. 
This Seruice, is not Seruice; fo being done, 20 

But being fo allowed. To apprehend thus, 
Drawes vs a profit from all things we fee : 
And often to our comfort, fhall we finde 
The fharded-Beetle, in a fafer hold 24 

14. yond] yon' Cap. yon Var. '78, War,) Vaun. 

'85, Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. Knt. 18. / haue]I Pope, + I've Dyce ii, iii. 

yond? Coll. Sing. Ktly. 19. Courts, of] courts of Vaun, 

hill] F 2 F 3 . Mil. Var. '73. hill: Dowden. 
Coll. Glo. hill! Cam. hill, F 4 et cet. 20. This] That Pope, Theob. Han. 

17. lefferfs] F 2 . Warb. Ran. Coll. MS. 

off,] Ff, Rowe. off; Pope,+, 21. allowed] allow'd Rowe et seq. 

Knt, Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. off. 22. a] Om. F 4 . 

Johns, et cet. 24. Jharded-Beetle] F 2 . Jharded Beetle 

17-19. of, And. ..Warre.] of, (And... F 3 F 4 et seq. 

stay would be of sufficient length to enable him to fully investigate the surround- 
ings of this remarkable neighborhood, and fit in its chief features with his historical 
imagination, one cannot but contemplate this remarkable cave with the deepest 
interest. HALLIWELL (Outlines, &c., p. 499): It may be just worth notice that a 
cavern near Tenby, that might be passed in a walk to Milford, known as Hoyle's 
Mouth, has been suggested as the prototype of the cave of Belarius. 

20. This Seruice, is not Seruice, etc.] JOHNSON: In war it is not sufficient to 
do duty well; the advantage rises not from the act, but the acceptance of the act. 
MALONE: 'This service' means 'any particular service.' The observation relates 
to the court, as well as to war. VAUGHAN (p. 432): That is, as size is not size in 
itself, but as it is seen, so service is not service in itself, but as it is allowed. 

24. sharded-Beetle] WHITNEY (Century Diet., s. v. Shard): In the sense of 
'shell' or 'wing case' shard may be due in part to Old French escharde, French 
echarde, a splinter = Old Italian scarda, scale, shell, scurf. 3. The wing-cover or 
elytrum of a beetle. ['Sharded' is, therefore, furnished with shards or elytra. By 
contrasting the 'sharded beetle' with the 'full-winged eagle, it seems as though 
the author of these lines regarded the shards as hampering the insect's flight. 
Shakespeare, on the other hand, apparently regarded the shards as assissting the 
flight, possibly, as being the chief means of flight; Macbeth speaks of 'The 
shard-borne beetle.' II, iii, 57. Again, quite as emphatically, Enobarbus refers 
to Caesar and Antony as the ' shards ' to Lepidus (in the latter's opinion) , that is, as 
mere instruments to enable him to fly (Ant. & Chop., Ill, ii, 24). ED.] 

ACT in, sc. iii.] CYMBELINE 199 

Then is the full- wing' d Eagle. Oh this life, 25 

Is Nobler, then attending for a checke : 

Richer, then doing nothing for a Babe: 27 

26. checke:] check, Dyce, Glo. Cam. Steev. Varr. Ingl. bauble Rowe, + , 
Jack Bulloch. beck Bailey. Dyce i, Ktly, Glo. Cam. bribe Han. 

27. nothing] nothidg F 2 . homage Knt, Coll. i, Dyce ii, iii, Sta. Huds. 
Bulloch. Dtn. bob Coll. ii, iii. (MS.), brabe 

for] from Anon. (1814) ap. Cam. Johns, conj. Sing. badge Bulloch. 
Babe] Ff, Cap. Varr. Mai. Ran. brave Sing. conj. 

26. attending for a checke] RANN: A state of abject servility, or subjection 
to the control and caprice of another. DYCE, SCHMIDT, and others define it as 
'a reproof, rebuke. 1 But see KXIGHT, in next note. 

27. then doing nothing for a Babe] WARBTJRTON [reading 'bauble']: 
That is, vain titles of honour gained by an idle attendance at Court. But the 
Oxford Editor [Hanmer] reads, 'for a bribe. 1 JOHNSON: The Oxford Editor knew 
the reason of his alteration, though his censurer knew it not. Of 'babe' some 
corrector made bauble; and Hanmer thought himself equally authorised to make 
bribe. I think 'babe' cannot be right. IBID. (Var., 1773) : I have always suspected 
that the right reading of this passage is what I had not in my former edition the 
confidence to propose: ' than doing nothing for a brabe.' Brabium is a badge of hon- 
our or the ensign of an honour, or anything worn as a mark of dignity. The word 
was strange to the editors, as it will be to the reader; they, therefore, changed it to 
'babe'; and I am forced to propose it without the support of any authority. 
Brabium is a word found in Holyoak's [qu. Holyoke?] Dictionary, who terms it a 
reward. Cooper, in his Thesaurus, defines it to be a prize, or reward for any game. 
CAPELL (p. in): The word 'babe' is made bauble unnecessarily, 'babe' having the 
same signification; the Poet's meaning is titles, the too frequent reward of worth- 
less services, which he calls 'doing nothing for them.' STEEVENS: It should be 
remembered that bauble was anciently spelt bable; so that Warburton [Rowe],in 
reality, has added but one letter. As it was once the custom in England for favour- 
ites at Court to beg the wardship of infants who were born to great riches, our 
author may allude to it here. Frequent complaints were made that nothing was 
done towards the education of these neglected orphans. ['Such an allusion would 
hardly have been intelligible to his audience.' COLLIER, i.] MALONE: A 'babe' 
and baby are synonymous. A baby being a puppet or play-thing for children. I 
suppose a 'babe' here means a puppet. . . . The following lines in Drayton's 
Owle, 1604, may add, however, some support ['more than some, I think.' DYCE,i.] 
to Rowe's emendation: 'Which with much sorrow brought into my mind 
Their wretched soules, so ignorantly blinde, When even the greatest things, in the 
world unstable, Clyme but to fall, and damned for a bable.' CHALMERS: 'Babe' 
is merely the babee of the Scots coinage, which Shakespeare introduced here as a 
sly stroke at the Scots coin, which King James had regulated by proclamation. 
. . . The editors have only to change the spelling to Babee, and the player to 
pronounce it trippingly on the tongue, and the whole passage will have a sense 
and smartness which have hitherto been prevented by affectation and obscured 
by ignorance. ['Rejecting altogether the nonsense of George Chalmers,' says 
CHARLES KNIGHT.] BOSWELL: There was such a word as brabe in English, though 
apparently bearing a very different meaning from that which Dr Johnson ascribed 

200 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iii. 

[27. then doing nothing for a Babe] 

to it. Heth is thus explained by Speght in his Glossary to Chaucer: 'Brabes and 
such like' Hething, for so Mr Tyrwhitt gives the word, he interprets contempt. 
[COLLIER (ed. ii.): 'Speght does not explain heth at all, but hether, and says that it 
means mockery, which was also Hearne's explanation.' I can find brabe neither in 
the Century Diet, nor in the N. E. D. ED.] KNIGHT: We believe that the source 
of the ideas which Shakespeare had in his mind to have been Spencer's Mother 
Hubberd's Tale. Belarius begs his boy to 'revolve what tales I've told you Of 
courts, of princes'; and he then goes on to say that their own life 'Is nobler than 
attending for a check.' Spencer describes, in one of the finest didactic passages of 
our language, the condition of the man 'whom wicked fate hath brought to court': 

' Full little knowest thou, that hast not tride, 
What hell it is in suing long to bide: 
To loose good dayes, that might be better spent; 
To wast long nights in pensive discontent; 
To speed to day, to be put back to morrow; 
To feed on hope, to pine with feare and sorrow; 
To have thy Princes grace, yet want her Peeres; 
To have thy asking, yet waite manie yeeres; 
To fret thy soule with crosses and with cares; 
To eate thy heart through comfortlesse dispaires; 
To fawne, to crowche, to waite, to ride, to ronne, 
To spend, to give, to want, to be undone. 
Unhappy wight, borne to desastrous end, 
That doth his life in so long tendance spend!' 

Here we have the precise meaning of 'attending' furnished by tendance, and, we 
think, the meaning of 'cheek,' which has been controverted, is supplied us by 'to 
be put back to-morrow.' The whole passage is, indeed, a description of the alter- 
nate progress and check, which the 'miserable man' of Spencer receives. . . . Look- 
ing at the usual course of typographical errors, we should say it is the easiest 
thing possible for ' babe ' to be printed for bribe, even if the word were bribe in the 
manuscript. [Knight here expounds the intricacy of the printer's 'case' and the 
likelihood of one letter's being picked up by mistake for another, which I think we 
will all cheerfully concede without the headache which might follow the attempt to 
understand it.] VERPLANCK: The sense is good of Hanmer's bribe: 'Such a life 
of activity is richer than that of the bribed courtier, even though he pocket his 
bribe without rendering any return.' Such a thought was perfectly intelligible to 
Shakespeare's audience, who lived in those 'good old times' when the greatest and 
sometimes the wisest were not only accessible to bribes, but expected them; while 
every concern of life was dependent upon the caprice or the favour of those in 
power. WHITE (ed. i.) : This change [bauble] agrees ill with the first and controlling 
word in the line, which implies a more substantial reward than a bauble; and, 
therefore, Hanmer's emendation is the more acceptable. COLLIER (ed. ii.): The 
MS. instructs us to substitute bob for ' babe,' and, in the sense of blow, it is quite 
consistent with what precedes; ... a 'check' is a reproof; and Belarius proceeds 
from a 'check' to a blow. ... It seems to us, therefore, that the emendation, bob, 
is a happy one; and when 'babe' was pronounced, as then, with the a broad, it 
would sound not unlike bob. . . . Bob was, in all probability, Shakespeare's word. 

ACT in, sc. Hi.] CYMBELINE 2OI 

Prouder, then milling in vnpayd-for Silke : 28 

28. vnpayd-for] un- paid- for F 3 F 4 . 

DYCE (ed. ii.): In my former edition I adopted Rowe's emendation; but I now 
prefer that of Hanmer, which Walker mentions as undoubtedly right. WALKER 
(Crit., ii, 275): This page [of the Folio], by the way, 381, contains more than the 
usual proportion of errors; which may help to confirm, were any additional proof 
needed, the emendation, bribe instead of 'babe.' [In a foot-note LETTSOM ob- 
serves: 'In Green's James IV. (Dyce, vol. ii, p. 112), Sir Bartram says of Ateukin, 
"But he, injurious man, who lives by crafts, And sells king's favours for who will 
give most, Hath taken bribes of me, yet covertly Will sell away the thing pertains 
to me." This shows how a man may do nothing, or worse than nothing, for a bribe; 
a feat that seems incomprehensible to the primitive simplicity of the nineteenth 
century.'] STAUNTON: Of these emendations, the original being, of course, wrong, 
we prefer Hanmer's bribe; though we have very little confidence even in that. 
R. M. SPENCE (N. fir Q., VI, i, 52, 1880): I think it unfortunate that brabe, Dr 
Johnson's happy correction, has been superseded by bauble. Brabc appears to me 
to have been, on Shakespeare's part, a designedly chosen word. T6 /3pa/9eloi', 
derived from which we find in Mediaeval Latin 'brabium vel bravium,' was the 
prize awarded to the victor in the public games. Courtly services, in the view of 
Brabantius, no more deserved the name of work than did the labours of the athlete. 
To bauble it may be objected that by the possession of a bauble no man is enriched. 
-DEIGHTON: I think that 'doing nothing' indicates some solid remuneration, 
the fact of his making no return for his bribe being a slur upon the receiver, while 
in doing nothing for a bauble or a badge there would hardly be such slur. VAUGHAN 
(p. 553): I would read bablc, which here means an official or Courtly decoration 
displayed on the person, whether 'chain' or what else. 'Babe' occurs in writers 
of Shakespeare's age, although as 'hale' was probably pronounced 'haul,' so 
'bable' may possibly have been sounded as 'bauble.' THISELTON: Those who are 
busied with attendance at Court are so occupied with their unserviceable services 
that they, as well as those whom they serve, have no time for the duties that 
Nature has imposed upon parents; children are committed to foster-parents so that 
their real parents may not be bothered with them. With such neglect Belarius 
would contrast the care which he and Euriphile have bestowed upon the bringing 
up of Guiderius and Arviragus, counting himself and his reputed sons richer in the 
harvest reaped therefrom than the courtiers and their children are in the harvest 
reaped from the courtiers' aforesaid neglect. DOWDEN (reading bribe}: This 
emendation I explain as 'taking bribes of suitors, and doing nothing in their in- 
terest'; 'richer' suggests some kind of wealth, and it must be base kind of wealth. 
[From the foregoing notes there has been excluded as much as possible all criticism 
of the emendations of fellow-critics. If all these censorious views be well taken, we 
should find as many insuperable objections to each of the proposed emendations 
as there are to the original text, and we have gained nothing by deserting it. I 
am happy in adopting HALLIWELL'S conclusion: 'Nothing that has been written 
on this line is entirely satisfactory, and the selection of a reading is, with our present 
means of information, a matter of fancy rather than that of judgement.' ED.] 

28. rustling in vnpayd-for Silke] KNIGHT: As we have had the nobler 
and the richer life, we have now the prouder. The lines which follow mean, we 
take it, that such a one as does rustle in unpaid-for silk receives the courtesy 



[ACT in, sc. iii. 

Such gaine the Cap of him, that makes him fine, 

Yet keepes his Booke vncros'd : no life to ours. 30 

Gui.Qut of your proofe you fpeakiwe poore vnfledg'd 
Haue neuer wing'd from view o'th'neft; nor knowes not 
What Ayre's from home. Hap'ly this life is beft, 
( If quiet life be beft ) fweeter to you 

That haue a (harper knowne. Well correfponding 35 

With your ftiffe Age; but vnto vs,it is 
A Cell of Ignorance : trauailing a bed, 37 

29. gaine] gains Knt, Ingl. 

makes him] makes them Rowe,-f-, 
Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Var. '03, '13. 
Coll. iii. makes 'em Cap. Dyce, Sta. 
Ktly, Glo. Huds. Cam. keeps 'em Coll. 

30. keepes his] Keep their Sing. conj. 
Keep his Huds. 

vncros'd:] uncro_Q''d, Ff. tin- 
cross' d. Var. '73. 

31. we poore vnfledg'd} F 2 , Rowe, 
Pope, Han. we poor unfledg'd, F 3 F 4 . 
we. poor, unjledg'd, Theob. Warb. 
Johns, we, poor unfledged, Cap. et cet. 

32. o'th'] o'the Cap. et seq. 
nejl;] nest, Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

32. knowes] know Ff et seq. 

not] Om. Pope, Theob. Han. 

33. Hap'ly] Haply Han. Johns, et 

34. be] is Rowe,-j-. 

35. knowne. Well] F 2 . Known, 
well Coll. Sing. Ktly, Cam. Known; 
well F 3 F 4 et cet. 

37. Ignorance: trauailing a bed,} 
'Ff (abed, F 2 ) Rowe i. ignorance; 
travelling a-bed, Rowe ii, Pope, Theob. 
i. ignorance, travelling abed, Coll. 
ignorance, travelling a-bed, Cam. ig- 
norance; travelling a-bed; Theob. ii, et 

(gains the cap) of him who makes him fine, yet he, the wearer of silk, keeps his, the 
creditor's, book uncross'd. To cross the book is, even now, a common expression for 
obliterating the entry of a debt. 

29. Such gaine the Cap, etc.] VAUGHAN [reading 'Seeking for Such gain/ 
and substituting a dash for the colon after 'vncros'd' in the next line]: Thus we 
have a life made up of these four things attending for a check, doing nothing for a 
bribe, rustling in unpaid-for silk, and fishing for the ostensible homage of the man 
one is impoverishing. Our life is nobler than the first practice, richer than the 
second, prouder than the third; while the fourth is no life at all to our life. So 
amended, too, the passage discloses four participles all descriptive of court life at- 
tending, doing, rustling, seeking with which are contrasted ' this life ' and ' our life.' 

29. that makes him] DYCE: We have seen before that 'him' is frequently 
confounded with 'cm or them by transcribers and printers. [See Text. Notes.] 

35. knowne] THISELTON (p. 30): The full stop after 'knowne' is really a guide 
to elocution, showing that the construction is ' (Haply this life is) well correspond- 
ing,' etc., and that 'Well compounding' is not in agreement with 'a sharper.' 
[Is a ' full stop ' necessary? would not the semicolon (F 3 and F 4 ) suffice sufficiently 
at least to keep up the voice so as to show the connection between ' this life ' and 
'Well corresponding'? Were it not that this connection is so very manifest, and 
no other construction conceivable, this 'full stop,' it seems to me, would prove an 
elocutionary stumbling-block. Certainly, its guiding power was exhausted by the 
time of the Third Folio. ED.] 

37. Cell of Ignorance :] DOWDEN: Possibly in opposition to a cell for study; 

ACT in, sc. iii.j CYMBELINE 203 

A Prifon, or a Debtor, that not dares 38 

To ftride a limit. 

Ami. What fhould we fpeake of 40 

38. Prifon, or] F 4 . Prifon or F 2 F 3 . prison, for Pope,+. prison o'er Sia,. prison 
of Vaun, Dowden. prison for Cap. et cet. 

Prompt. Parv. has 'Ceele,' or 'stodyynge howse. Ce//a.'--TmsELTON: The colon 
after 'Ignorance' should, I think, be refered to Rule XII: In a series of things 
where one is singled out for the premier position by way of pre-eminence, it will 
sometimes be marked off from the rest by a semicolon or colon, the succeeding 
members of the series being separated by commas. 

37. trauailing a bed] DEIGHTON: That is, 'no better than travelling the 
length and breadth of one's bed.' VAUGHAN (p. 434) : This means 'travelling in a 
litter,' for a 'litter' is equivalent to a 'coach.' Our coach in its verbal form is but 
an old expression for a 'litter,' that is, a 'coach.' So we have in North's Plutarch: 
'For the most part he slept in his coach or litter, and thereby bestowed his rest,' 
etc. Julius Casar, p. 719. DOWDEN: The imagined travel of one who lies 
motionless. I think the best comment on this is Shakespeare's Sonnet, 27: 'Weary 
with toil I haste me to my bed, The dear repose for limbs with travel tired; But 
then begins a journey in my head.' I. H. PLATT (N. r" Qu., X, x, 165, 1908) : What 
'travelling a-bed' means I can form no idea. It has been suggested that with the 
original spelling, 'travailing,' it might be equivalent to suffering in bed, but this 
hardly seems satisfactory. Tentatively, I suggest following the punctuation of the 
First Folio: 'travelling forbid.' The young princes, forbidden to travel, were in 
the position of a debtor who is not permitted to cross certain bounds. J. P. 
MALLESON (Op. tit., p. 345): That is, you have travelled and seen the world; our 
knowledge is all 'in the mind's eye'; our travelling is like that of a man who, 
lying a-bed, roams abroad only in imagination or in dreams. T. O. HODGES 
(Ibid.) : This phrase is an example of the construction well known to students of the 
Greek drama, in which an adjective so far qualifies a noun that it contradicts it; 
and it means travelling which is no travelling, which goes no further than 
one's bed. 'You are free!' says Belarius. 'Free?' says his son. 'Yes! but free 
to do nothing!' W. E. WILSON (Ibid.): We travel but only within the narrow 
limits of our own bed. [An utterly frivolous mind would attribute this to Shake- 
speare's prophetic sense, and accept it as an anticipation of the modern sleeping 
car. ED.] 

38. A Prison, or a Debtor] HUNTER (ii, 294): The old reading, when rightly 
understood, is better than [for instead of 'or'], though it has something of that 
haste and unfiledness which is found in many of the finest passages: 'A prison, 
or a debtor, that not dares To stride a limit.' 

39. To stride a limit] C. K. DAVIS (p. 237): As to prisoners for debt, certain 
boundaries were designated as prison limits. If the debtor went beyond these, 
either of his own will or by the permission or negligence of the officer, it constituted 
an escape. 

40. What should we speake of, etc.] JOHNSON: This dread of an old age, 
unsupplied with matter for discourse and meditation, is a sentiment natural and 
noble. No state can be more destitute than that of him who, when the delights of 
sense desert him, has no pleasures of the mind. 

204 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iii. 

When we are old as you ? When we fhall heare 41 

The Raine and winde beate darke December ? How 

In this our pinching Caue, fhall we difcourfe 

The freezing houres away ? We haue feene nothing : 

We are beaftly; fubtle as the Fox for prey, 45 

Like warlike as the Wolfe, for what we eate : 

Our Valour is to chace what flyes : Our Cage 

We make a Quire, as doth the prifon'd Bird, 

And fmg our Bondage freely. 

Bel. How you fpeake. 50 

Did you but know the Citties Vfuries, 
And felt them knowingly : the Art o'th'Court, 
As hard to leaue, as keepe : whofe top to climbe 53 

41. old] as old Varr. Mai. Ran. 48. Quire] choir Pope, Theob. Han. 

42. December?] Ff, Rowe, + - De- Warb. 

cember, Han. et cet. 50. fpeake.] /peak? Ff, Rowe. speak! 

43. Caue,] cave Han. Coll. Cam. Pope et seq. 

45. We are] We're Pope,-f. 51. Citties] Cities F 3 F 4 . city's Rowe. 

beajlly; fubtle] beastly-subtle Anon. 52. felt] feel Anon. ap. Cam. 

ap. Cam. 52. o'lh] o'the Cap. et seq. 

53. keepe:] keep, Rowe, Johns. 

42. December? How] VAUGHAN upholds the punctuation of the Folio, and, I 
think, justly. 'The Poet,' he says, 'is drawing by contrast two pictures of winter, 
not one, its boisterous and rainy darkness, and its biting frosts.' 

43. our pinching Caue] Thus in Lear: 'To be a comrade with the wolf and 
howl Necessity's sharp pinch.' II, iv, 213. (This 'howl' for owl of the Folio is, 
I think, an emendatio certissima due to Collier's MS.) This quotation is more 
apposite to the present passage than, it seems to me, Imogen's ' There cannot be 
a pinch in death,' etc. ED. 

50. How you speake] HAZLITT (p. 12): This answer of Belarius to the ex- 
postulation is hardly satisfactory; for nothing can be an answer to hope, or the 
passion of the mind for unknown good, but experience. VAUGHAN (p. 435): 
There is no consequence of knowing the city's usurers mentioned to be found in the 
whole speech which follows, and is thus made a long sentence without any apodosis. 
I certainly would amend thus: 'How you'd speak, Did you but know the city's 
usurers!' etc. 

51. Citties] DELIUS: According to the mode of printing in the Folio, this may 
be either city's or cities'. 

51. Vsuries] STAUNTON: 'Usuries,' in this instance, would appear to mean no 
more than usages, customs, etc.; though in Meas. for Meas., Ill, ii, where the 
word occurs seemingly in the same general sense ' Twas never merry world since, 
of two usuries, the merriest was put down, and the worser allowed by order of the 
law a furred gown to keep him warm ' it certainly bears a particular reference to 
usury; for what, says Taylor, the Water-poet, in his Waterman's suit concerning 
Players, 1630? 'and sleepe with a quieter spirit then many of our furre-goivnd 
moneymongers that are accounted good commonwealths men.' 

A i r in, sc. iii.] 


Is ccrtaine falling : or fo flipp'ry , that 

The feare's as bad as falling. The toyle o'th'Warre, 

A paine that onely feemes to feeke out danger 

I'th'name of Fame, and Honor, which dyes i'th'fearch, 

And hath as oft a fland'rous Epitaph, 

As Record of faire A6t. Nay, many times' 

Doth ill deferue, by doing well : what's worfe 

Mnft curt'fie at the Cenfure. Oh Boyes, this Storie 

The World may reade in me : My bodie's mark'd 

With Roman Swords ; and my report, was once 

Firft, with the beft of Note. Qymbeline lou'd me, 

And when a Souldier was the Theame, my name 

Was not farre off: then was I as a Tree 

Whofe boughes did bend with fruit. But in one night, 

A Storme, or Robbery (call it what you will) 

Shooke downe my mellow hangings : nay my Leaues, 

54. falling:} Ff, Theob. Warb. fall- 
ing, Rowe et cet. 

jlipp'ry] Ff, Rowe,+. slippery 
Cap. et seq. 

55. JtK] Ff, Rowe. of Pope,+. 
o'the Cap. Dyce, Glo. Cam. of the 
Var. '73 et cet. 

Warrc] War F 3 . War F 4 . 
war; Theob. Warb. 

56. out] our Ff. 

57. /'///'... i'th] rthe ... i'the Cap. et 

Honor,] Honour, Ff, Johns. 





honour; Rowe et cet. 

58. Jland'rous] Ff, Rowe,-f-, Cap. 
Sing. Ktly. slanderous Var. '73 et 

59. Ad.] Ff. act; Rowe et seq. 
many times] many time Rowe ii, 

Pope, Theob. Warb. Johns. 

61. Cenfure.] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Johns. 
Coll. Ktly. censure: Theob. et 

63. report] report F 3 F 4 et seq. 

69. hangings:} hangings, Rowe et 

56. that onely seemes to seeke] I think that here 'only' qualifies 'to seek,' 
and that it has its present position for the sake of the rhythm. Otherwise I do not 
comprehend the passage. ED. 

57. which dyes i'th'search] INGLEBY thinks that the antecedent to 'which' 
is 'name,' 'though it is,' he says, 'really "fame and honor which dies in the search." 

-DOWDEN holds, more justly, I think, that 'pain' is the antecedent, and that 'the 
labour perishes without attaining fame and honor, and its epitaph is often slan- 
derous.' The Cambridge Editors record 'which dye,' as a reading of Collier's MS. 
I cannot find it either in the First or Second Editions of Collier's Notes and Emenda- 
tions, nor in his 'Seven Lectures on Shakespeare,' etc., nor in the Second Edition of 
his Shakespeare, nor in his Monovolume, which is supposed to embody all the read- 
ings of the MS. Let the record be accepted, therefore, on the authority of the 
Cam. Edd., which is ample. ED. 

60. ill deserue] IXGLEBY: That is, earn (not merit). 

63. my report] Cf. Cloten's 'sell me your good report.' II, iii, 94. 



[ACT in, sc. iii. 

And left me bare to weather. 

Gui. Vncertaine fauour. 

Bel. My fault being nothing (as I haue told you oft) 
But that two Villaines, whofe falfe Oathes preuayl'd 
Before my perfect Honor, fwore to Cymbeline, 
I was Confederate with the Romanes : fo 
Followed my Banifhment, and this twenty yeeres, 
This Rocke, and thefe Demefnes, haue bene my World, 
Where I haue liu'd at honeft freedome, payed 
More pious debts to Heauen, then in all 
The fore-end of my time. But, vp to'th'Mountaines, 
This is not Hunters Language ; he that ftrikes 
The Venifon firft, fhall be the Lord oWFeaft , 
To him the other two fhall minifter, 
And we will feare no poyfon, which attends 
In place of greater State : 




70. weather] the weather Ktly. wither 
Long MS. ap. Cam. 

71. fauour.] fauour! Rowe et seq. 

72. / haue] I Pope, Han. I've Dyce 
ii, iii. 

76. Followed] Ff, Var. '73. Fol- 
low' d Rowe et cet. 

Banifhment,] banishment; Pope 
et seq. 

this] these Johns. Varr. Ran. 
78. payed] pay'd Rowe et seq. (subs.) 
80. time.] time Rowe ii, Pope, 
Han. Johns. 

to the 

80. to'th'] F 2 . to th' Rowe, 
Cap. et seq. 

Mountaines,] Ff, Rowe. moun- 
tains! Pope,+, Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 
mountain! Var. '73. mountains; Cap. 
et cet. 

81. Hunters] F 2 , Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Hunter' 's F 3 F 4 , Coll. hunters' Theob. 
et cet. 

82. o'th'] o'the Cap. et seq. 

85, 86. In... Vail eyes] One line Han. 
Cap. et seq. 

85. greater] Om. Han. 

70. weather] For other instances where this means storms, tempests, see SCHMIDT 

73, 74. false Oathes . . .perfect Honor] VAUGHAN (p. 437): Shakespeare 
here probably alludes to the privilege of nobility, which pledges its 'honour,' where 
'lower ranks take their oaths,' or pledge their 'honesty'; and 'perfect honour' 
means 'honour not violated by falsehood,' as 'false oaths' means oaths so violated. 

84. will feare no poyson, which attends] SCHMIDT (Lex.), under the verb 
'attend,' used absolutely, quotes this passage and adds 'which is present to do 
service.' This, I fear, I do not understand. Does Schmidt mean that poison is 
present to do service? VAUGHAN (p. 437) is, to me, almost equally obscure. His 
explanation is, ' " Poison " here is, as the context shows, the abstract for the concrete 
"attendant who poisons." Both commentators apparently take 'poison' as the 
antecedent of 'which,' as, I think, wrongly. The antecedent is 'fear,' the fear of 
poison, from which the tables of the great, with their 'tasters' and closely covered 
dishes, were never free. ED. 

85. greater State] STEEVENS: The comparative 'greater' which violates the 
measure is surely an absurd interpolation; the 'low-brow'd' cave in which the 

ACT III, SC. iii.] 



He meete you in the Valleyes. Exeunt. 86 

How hard it is to hide the fparkes of Nature ? 

Thefe Boyes know little they are Sonnes to'th'King, 

Nor Cymbcline dreames that they are aliue. 

They thinke they are mine, 90 

And though train'd vp thus meanely 

Fth'Caue, whereon the Bowe their thoughts do hit, 

The Roofes of Palaces , and Nature prompts them 93 

86. Exeunt.] Exeunt boys. Pope. 

87. Nature?] nature! Theob. et seq. 

88. to'th'] to the Cap. et seq. 

89. Nor... dreames] Nor. ..dreams not 
Anon. ap. Cam. Nor. ..e'er dream Sta. 
conj. (Athenaeum, 14 June, 1873). 

are aliue] are still alive Ingl. 

90. 91. They... meanely] One line 
Rowe et seq. 

90, 91. they are mine, ...train'd] they're 
mine; tho' trained Pope, Theob. they're 
mine, tho' trained Warb. they're mine; 
and, though train'd Han. Dyce, ii, iii. 
they are mine: and, though train'd Cap. 

et cet. (subs.) 

91. meanely] meanly. Warb. 

92. I'th' ... Bowe their] Ff (bow Ff) 
Johns. I'th' cave, where, on the bow, 
their Rowe. Here in the cave, wherein 
their Pope. I'th' cave, there, on the brow, 
their Theob. I'lh' cave here on this brow, 
their Han. I'the cave, where on the bow, 
their Cap. I'th' cave, wherein they 
bow, their Warb. et cet. (subs.) 

92, 93. hit, The] hit The F 3 F 4 et 

93. Roofes] roof Pope ii. Theob. 
Warb. Johns. 

princes are meanly educated, being a palace of no state at all. [See Text. Notes.] 
M ALONE: This kind of phraseology is used every day without objection. 

89. Nor Cymbeline . . . are aliue] WALKER (Crit., iii, 322): Could 
Shakespeare's ear have tolerated this line? [Walker then proceeds to divide the 
preceding lines in order to eliminate all harshness, and to add a syllable which he 
thinks is lacking, thus: 'I'll meet you in the valleys. How hard it is | To hide 
the sparks of nature! these two boys | Know little, they are sons to th' King; nor 
CjTTibeline | Dreams that they are alive.' Can it be that it never occurred to 
Walker that all such divisions of lines are solely for the eye? If the lines are spoken 
intelligently no ear could possibly distinguish the cleavage. ED.] 

91-95. And though ... of others] BOAS (p. 514) : These lines guide us to what is 
(more than any other) the central idea binding together the two sections of the play. 
Nature will have her rights, and it is useless to seek arbitrarily to override them. The 
princely youths, though reared in a cave, pine for a court, which is their native air, 
while Imogen, whom the accident of their abduction has made heiress to the throne, 
yearns for the seclusion of domestic life, and thus has chosen a man of humble for- 
tunes as her husband. She has even longed, in the pain of separation from Posthu- 
mus, to be 'a neat-herd's daughter,' with him as their neighbor shepherd's son. 

92. I'th'Caue, whereon the Bowe their, etc.] THEOBALD explains his 
reading by reminding us that 'we call the Arching of a Cavern, or Overhanging of a 
Hill, metaphorically, the Brow.' In a letter to Warburton (Nichols, ii, 267), 
Theobald writes, 'as for your change of wherein to within, it gives such sense and 
elegance too, that I cannot but approve it.' I can find no subsequent reference to 
this emendation, 'within'; we may, therefore, conclude, as the Cam.Edd. has con- 
cluded, that it was withdrawn. WARBURTON thus paraphrases his emendation, 
which has been generally adopted: 'Yet in this very cave, which is so low that they 

2o8 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT HI, sc. iii. 

In fimple and lowe things, to Prince it, much 

Beyond the tricke of others. This Paladour , 95 

The heyrc of Cymbeline and Britaine, who 

The King his Father call'd Guiderius . loue, 97 

95. Paladour] Ff , Theob. Han. Warb. 96. who] Dyce, Glo. Cam. whom 
Cap. Polydor or Polydore Rowe et Ff. et cet. 

cet. 97- Guiderius. loue,] Ff. Guide- 

96, 97. The... Guiderius] In paren- rius, Jove! Rowe,+, Guiderius, 
theses, Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. Jove! Cap. et seq. (subs.) 

must bow or bend on entering it, yet are their thoughts so exalted,' etc. This is the 
antithesis. Belarius had spoken before of the lowness of the cave. JOHNSON: 
I think the reading is this, Tth' Cave, where in the Bow,' etc. That is, they are 
trained up in the ' cave, where their thoughts in hitting the bow, or arch of their 
habitation, hit the roofs of palaces.' In other words, though their condition is low, 
their thoughts are high. The sentence is at least, as Theobald remarks, abrupt, 
but perhaps not less suitable to Shakespeare. I know not whether Dr Warburton's 
conjecture be not better than mine. [This conjecture of Dr Johnson was reprinted 
in the Var. of '73 and '78, and there an end.] STAUNTON'S punctuation of the 
whole passage (Athenaum, June 14, 1873) is thus: 'They think they are mine: 
and, though train'd up thus meanly, | I'th' cave wherein they bow their thoughts 
do hit | The roofs of palaces.' This punctuation was adopted by INGLEBY (see 
Corrections, p. xx.) DOWDEN also adopts Staunton's comma after 'meanly.'- 
THISELTON accepts the Folio without change, and appears no whit disheartened by 
finding no apodosis to 'though trained vp,' etc. 'The initial capital in Bowe,' he 
says, 'suggests that the "Bowe" meant is what they think to be "The Roofes of 
Palaces " ; had " Bowe " been a verb we should have expected to find " hit " similarly 
capitalised. The Bowe may either be the vaulted ceiling of the Cave or the arch 
over its entrance. . . . The Cave's "Bowe" they take to be "The Roofes of Palaces" 
and fret to find that it is nothing of the sort.' PORTER and CLARKE: The compari- 
son is made of the arch of the Cave's roof to a bow, whence they shoot forth the 
arrows of their lofty thoughts far beyond it. Warburton's change, universally 
adopted, misses the metaphor altogether, and along with it the significance of the 
whole passage. DOWDEN: I think this emendation of Warburton almost certainly 
right, the misprint 'the' for they is a very common one. ... If we understood 
'on the bow' to mean like arrows on the bow, a change of one letter would give 
sense and grammar to the Folio text: 'I' th' cave, there, on the bow, their thoughts 
do hit The roofs of palaces.' In IV, ii, 380, a thought is compared to a bolt 'shot 
at nothing.' [Warburton's emendation is so slight that it seems a small price 
to pay for an interpretation so fine: although these boys have been brought up in 
this mean, low cave, their thoughts are yet as lofty and royal as though they were 
re-echoed from the domes of palaces. 'Ha, majesty!' exclaims the Bastard in 
King John, 'how high thy glory towers, When the rich blood of kings is set on 
fire!' II, i, 350. ED.] 

94. to Prince it] For other examples of this indefinite use of 'it' after nouns 
or words that are not generally used as verbs, to give them the force of verbs, 
such as 'Foot it featly,' Temp., I, ii, 380; 'I'll queen it no inch further,' Wint. 
Tale, IV, iv, 460, etc., see ABBOTT, 226. 

96. who] See 'who,' I, vii, 182. 

ACT III, SC. Hi.] 


When on my three-foot ftoole I fit, and tell 
The warlike feats I haue done, his fpirits flye out 
Into my Story : fay thus mine Enemy fell, 
And thus I fet my foote on's necke, euen then 
The Princely blood flowes in his Cheeke, he fweats, 
Straines his yong Nerues, and puts himfelfe in pofture 
That acts my words. The yonger Brother Cadwall ', 
Once Aruiragits, in as like a figure 
Strikes life into my fpeech, and fhewes much more 
His owne conceyuing. Hearke, the Game is rows'd, 





98-104. Mnemonic VVarb. 

98. three-foot ftoole] three-foot-stool 
Theob. Warb. 

99. The... flye] One line, Han. 

/ haue] I've Pope,+, Dyce 

11, 111. 

99, 100. out Into] Out at Han. 

loo. fay] Ff, Glo. Cam. say, Rowe 
et cet. 

100, 101. thus mine... necke] As quo- 
tation, Theob. Han. Johns, et seq. 

101. on's] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. Dyce, 
Sta. Sing. Glo. Cam. on his Cap. et 

103. Straines] Stains Rowe ii. 

105. figure] vigour Coll. MS. 

107. Hearke,] [Horn] Heark! Coll. iii. 
rows'd,] F 2 . rouz'd, F 3 F 4 . 
rouz'd Rowe, Pope, Han. Warb. 
rouz'd. Theob. Johns. Cap. Coll. i, ii. 
rous'd, Coll. iii. rouz'd! Var. '73 et 
cet. (subs.) 

103. Nerues] That Shakespeare often uses 'nerves' where we should say 
'sinews' we all know. I am not sure that in Shakespeare's mind sinews, arteries, 
and nerves were not all three the sources of strength. Hamlet says, 'My fate cries 
out, And makes each petty artery in this body As hardy as the Nemean lion's 
nerve.' Henry the Fifth calls on his soldiers to 'Stiffen the sinews, summon up the 
blood.' But Shakespeare, when the hot blood was stirring, cared little for any nice an- 
atomical distinctions; his Globe audience cared less; and, surely, we least of all. ED. 

105. in as like a figure] HERFOKD: That is, acting my words as graphically 
as his brother. While Guiderius's gestures reflect the immediate impression of 
Belarius's tale, Arviragus, a more imaginative hearer, heightens what he hears by 
his greater energy of conception. DOWDEN: I think that 'figure' here means 
'part enacted,' as in The Tempest, 'Bravely the figure of this harpy hast thou 
Perform'd.' Ill, iii, 83. 

106. shewes much more] DOWDEN: Not, shows more than his brother, but 
exhibits his own conception of things much more than merely gives life to what I 
say. WYATT: Belarius has here given us the clue to the discrimination of the 
characters of the two youths, apparently so much alike, a clue that must be 
followed up in the succeeding scenes. 

107. the Game is rows'd] MADDEN (p. 26, foot-note): The word 'rouse' seems 
to have been generally used in the absence of special terms of venery. We find it 
applied to the lion and the panther, and Gervase Markham, in his edition of the 
Boke of St. Albans (1595), sanctions its application to the hart. But it was in strict- 
ness a term of art used in reference to the buck, and it is so used by Shakespeare. 
Thus, even if other indications were wanting, we could have told that Belarius and 
the sons of Cymbeline were engaged in the sport of shooting fallow deer with the 
cross-bow when he exclaimed, 'Hark, the game is roused!' and that Henry Boling- 


THE TRACED IE OF [ACT m, sc. iii. 

Oh Cymbeline ^ Heauen and my Confcience knowes 108 

Thou didd'ft vniuftly banifli me : whereon 

At three, and two yeeres old, I ftole thefe Babes, 1 10 

Thinking to barre thee of Succeffion, as 

Thou refts me of my Lands. Euriphilc, 

Thou was't their Nurfe, they took thee for their mother, 

And euery day do honor to her graue : 1 14 

108. Cymbeline,] Cymbeline. Ff. 113. Nurfe,] nurse; Theob. Warb. 

Cymbeline! Rowe et seq. et seq. 

knowes] know Pope, +. took] take Pope,+. 

in. Succeffion,] succession Cam. 114. her] thy Han. Warb. Cap. Ran. 

112. refts] reft'st Rowe et seq. Ktly. 

113. was't] waft F 3 F 4 . 

broke had in mind the chase of the buck when he assured the Duke of York that his 
son would have found in John of Gaunt a father ' to rouse his wrongs and chase them 
to the bay.' Rich. II: II, iii, 128. ... Absolute certainty in Shakespearian criti- 
cism is attainable only in matters of venery and horsemanship. Shakespeare would 
as soon write of rousing a fox as of starting a deer. 

108-116. Oh Cymbeline . . . Game is vp] DOWDEN (p. 405, foot-note): Pro- 
fessor Ingram suggests to me that the speech as written by Shakespeare ended 
immediately before these lines with the words, ' The game is roused.' These words 
are awkwardly repeated at the end of the speech, 'The game is up.' [I do not 
doubt that Professor Ingram is right. May we not here recognise the same intru- 
sive hand from which this play suffers elsewhere? ED.] 

no. I stole these Babes] JOHNSON: Shakespeare seems to intend Belarius 
for a good character, yet he makes him forget the injury he has done to the young 
princes, whom he has robbed of a kingdom only to rob their father of heirs. The 
latter part of this soliloquy is very inartificial, there being no particular reason 
why Belarius should now tell to himself what he could not know better by telling it. 
-INGLEBY: Belarius's soliloquy here serves the purpose of a chorus. [I have 
grave doubts. It bears no resemblance to any of Shakespeare's Choruses. A 
Greek Chorus was composed of spectators. ED.] 

112. Thou refts] See 'solicits,' I, vii, 175. 

112. Euriphile] WALKER (Crit., ii, 31): This is perhaps a corruption of Euriphyle. 
DYCE (ed. ii.): Walker certainly must have written 'a corruption of Eriphyle.' 
[Could Dyce have read to the end of Walker's note? Following what is given 
above, Walker quotes from Chapman's Odyss., xi, '"Masra, Clymene, I witness'd 
there, and loath'd Eryphile," [i. e., Eriphyle].' Possibly the bracketed name was 
added by Lettson; still, it is there on the printed page. ED.] 

114. to her graue] MALONE: The Poet ought rather to have written 'to thy 
grave.' This change of persons frequently occurs in our author. Thus, in Julius 
Casar, 'Casca, you are the first that rears your hand.' III, i, 30; 'Hail to thee, 
worthy Timon, and to all That of his bounties taste.' Timon, I, ii, 129. We meet 
with this construction in Scripture, Acts, xvii, 2: 'And Paul . . . reasoned with 
them out of the scriptures . . . and that Jesus, whom I preach unto you, is Christ.' 

-VAUGHAN: The youths really were honouring their mother's grave alone, 
whether the grave actually contained the ashes of their mother, or the ashes of one 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 211 

My felfe Bclarius, that am Mcrgan call'd 1 15 

They take for Naturall Father. The Game is vp. Exit. 

Scena Quarta. 

Enter Pifanio and Imogen. 

Imo. Thou told'ft me when we came fro horfe, y place 
Was neere at hand : Ne're long'd my Mother fo 
To fee me firft, as I haue now . Pifanio, Man : 5 

116. [Horn again sounded. Coll. ii. 5. fee me] feeme F 2 . feem F 3 F 4 . 

Game is] game's Pope, + . / haue now.} Han. Johns. Coll. ii, 

i. Scene continued. Rowe, Theob. Glo. Cam. Ingl. 7 have now Rowe, 

Scene vi. Eccles. Pope, Theob. Warb. Coll. i, Sta. Ktly. 

Another Part of the above country. I hope now Sprenger. 7 do now Daniel, 

Cap. Near Milford-Haven. Var. '73. Huds. 7 haue now: Ff. et cet. 

4. at] ar F 2 . Pifanio, Man:] Ff. Pifanio! 

4, 5. my ...fee me] his ... see him Rowe ii, + . Pisanio, Man, Johns. 

Southern MS. Han. Pisanio! Man! Rowe i, et cet. 

mistaken to be so. The expression, therefore, is not, I apprehend, incorrect, still 
less spurious. Br. NICHOLSON (N. &* Q., VII, ix, 324, 1890): I think this may be 
explained by supposing that a natural stage-action takes place, and we are at 
liberty to suppose such the more if it explain a passage. Belarius, having said, 
'They took thee for their mother,' his mind naturally reverts to the fact that she 
has been his devoted wife and chief companion of his solitude for many years, and 
he turns away and pauses meditatingly on her. I say 'devoted' and 'pauses/ 
because they must not only have been accomplices, but to be an accomplice 
she at least must have loved him, and if he had not done so at first, and it is more 
likely that he did if we consider his character, his lonely life with her only as his 
helpmate in bringing up such children, he must have learned to love her. After, 
then, this pause, marked by or; , he reflectingly says, 'And every day do 
honour to her grave,' where he the more uses the third person, because his mind 
again recurs to his first topic the sparks in the youths' noble and princely natures, 
and leads him to reckon this filial love among their excellences. [See I, ii, 58, 
where there is a similar change of personal pronoun and a similar explanation given 
by Nicholson. See also IV, ii, 284, 285, and V, i, 4-6.] 

116. Naturall Father] CRAIGIE (N. E. D., s. v. Natural): 13. Of children actu- 
ally begotten by one (in contrast to adopted, etc.) and especially in lawful wedlock; 
hence, frequently equivalent to legitimate, b. Similarly of other relationships 
(especially natural father or brother) in which there is actual consanguinity or kin- 
ship by descent. [The present line quoted in illustration.] 

i. Scena Quarta] ECCLES: The time I suppose to be in the early part of the 
morning of the same day as the last scene. It seems as if Pisanio had reached 
the court in the afternoon of the same also, which he does in the ensuing scene. 
DANIEL (Sh. Soc. Trans., 1877, p. 244): Between this and the preceding scene 
there is an interval of one clear day. Imogen and Pisanio journey into Wales. 
This scene begins DAY 7. At its close Pisanio hastens back to Court. 

4, 5. My Mother . . . see me first] VERPLANCK: Southern altered his Fourth 

212 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT m, sc. iv. 

Where is Pofthumus ? What is in thy mind 6 

That makes thee flare thus ? Wherefore breaks that figh 
From th'inward of thee ? One, but painted thus 
Would be interpreted a thing perplex'd 9 

6. Where} Where Ktly. et cet. 

What is] What's Ktly. 8. One,] One, One, Ff, Rowe i. One 

8. th' inward] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. Han. Cam. 
Dyce, Sta. Sing. Ktly. the inward Cap. 

Folio thus: 'Ne'er long'd his Mother to see him first,' which certainly is more con- 
sistent with Imogen's state of mind, and renders the words 'As I have now' more 

5, 6. To see ... in thy mind] WALKER (Crit., iii, 323): We should ar- 
range, I suspect, 'To see me first as I have now: Pisanio! | Man! Where's 
Posthumus? What is in thy mind,' etc. [Again we have an arrangement which 
no ear of mortal mould could detect when spoken by an impassioned actress. 
Nor is this all. Such an arrangement betrays a lack of dramatic instinct in Walker. 
As the tone stands in the Folio, the weary, woebegone, impatience of Imogen in 
its rhythm: 'Where IS Posthumus?' Walker's 'Where's Posthumus?' is no more 
dramatic than if she had asked, 'Where's my handkerchief?' ED.] STAUNTON 
also re-arranged these lines and supplied an omission (Athenceum, 14 June, 1873). 
But he, too, has 'Where's Posthumus?' which is less excusable in him than in 
Walker; Staunton was at one time on the stage, so it was said. His notice is as 
follows: 'I would read and arrange, but that the alteration might be thought too 
violent even in this most corruptly printed play, "To see me first, as I to see 
this haven, I Now, Pisanio, Man! Where's Posthumus?" See ante, "this same 
blessed Milford," and note that "haven" here and in other places must be pro- 
nounced hane; as "raven," metri gratia, must be often sounded rane.' Did Staunton 
notice that he changes the accent of ' Posthumus ' from its usual erroneous position 
on the penult to the antepenult? ED.] 

5. as I haue now] CAPELL: Imogen only expresses the degree of her longing 
by saying 'twas as great as her mother's; its object is sufficiently known, and the 
mention of it this way has more beauty than had she made it direct. VAUGHAN 
(p. 439) finds a contrast between 'Ne're long'd my Mother' and 'as I have now' 
"in this short time, since we came from horse, have longed to see Posthumus." 
[Is not Rowe's broken sentence to be preferred? Pisanio's agonised expression 
startles Imogen and affrights her. Suspicion begins to dawn on her, and her sen- 
tence remains unfinished. ED.] 

8. From th'inward of thee] SCHMIDT (Lex.) gives as parallel to the present 
phrase, ' those jacks that nimble leap to kiss the tender inward of thy palm.' Sonn., 
cxxviii. Yet this is not the same 'inward' as Pisanio's, and, according to Bart- 
lett's Concordance, these two are the only instances of the word, which really needs 
no parallel or explanation whatever. ED. 

8. painted] That is, described or set forth as in a picture. In Coriolanus, 
after Menenius has been describing Coriolanus and ends with that unparalleled 
expression, 'He wants nothing of a god but eternity and a heaven to throne in,' 
Sicinius sighs, 'Yes, mercy, if you report him truly.' Then Menenius replies, 'I 
paint him in the character.' V, iii, 27. ED. 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 213 

Beyond felfe-explication. Put thy felfe 10 

Into a hauiour ofleffe feare, ere wildneffe 

Vanquifh my ftayder Senfes. What's the matter? 

Why tender'ft thou that Paper to me, with 

A looke vntender ? If 't be Summer Newes 

Smile too't before : if Winterly, thou need'ft 15 

But keepe that countenance ftil. My husbands hand ? 

That Drug-damn'd Italy, hath out-craftied him, 17 

11. hauiour] 'haviour Rowe,+, Cap. 13. tender 1 ft] ojjer'st Pope, Han. 
Varr. Ran. Knt, Sta. Ktly. [Pisanio reaches her out a 

wildncffc] wilderness Warb. ('cor- Letter. Cap. 
reeled in MS.' ap. Cam.) 14. //'/] // it Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. 

12. my] thy Pope, Han. Varr. Knt, Coll. 
ftayder] F 2 . ftaieder F 4 , Rowe i. 15. ioo't] to't F 3 F 4 et seq. 

steadier Rowe ii, Pope, Han. ftaider 16. hand?] hand! Cap. et seq. 

F 3 , Cap. et cet. 17. out-craftied] out-crafty'd Cap. 

Senfes.] senses Pope, Theob. Mai. out-crafted Varr. Ran. Dyce ii, 

Han. Warb. iii. 

10. selfe-explication] CAPELL (p. 1 1 1) : That is, beyond the person's own power 
of explaining. 

11. hauiour] MURRAY (A T . E. D.}: Originally adopted from the French avier, 
avoir, having, possession, property, etc. ... In the i4th and i5th centuries, asso- 
ciation with the English have, having, introduced the variants haver, havoir, havour, 
and the h was established before 1 500. At the same time the parallel behavour was 
formed in the English behave; and in the i6th century, havour, besides its original 
sense of 'possession,' took also that of behavour. Subsequently the termination of 
both words passed through eour to lour (cf. saviour, and vulgar ' lovier '); the original 
sense, 'possession,' became obsolete; and, in the new sense, haviour came down 
alongside of behaviour, of which it may often have been viewed as a shortened form. 

13. 14. tender'st . . . vntender] INGLEBY: A quibble, very common with 
the writers of that time, though insufferable now. [If by a 'quibble' is meant a 
pun, and if a 'pun' means a jest, then was Imogen's quibble as insufferable in 1609 
as it would be in 1909 or 2009. It was, I think, merely an association of sound, not 
of meaning, that caused one 'tender' to follow another 'tender,' an illiteration 
that has nothing more of a quibble in it than there is in our 'might and main,' 
'stock and stone.' It is the same with Lady Macbeth's 'I'll guild the faces of the 
grooms withal For it must seem their guilt ' this too has been called a quibble. I 
do not forget old John of Gaunt's death bed, where 'misery makes sport to mock 
itself; and where he plays nicely with his name of set purpose. That situation 
is far different from the impassioned moments of Lady Macbeth and of Imo- 
gen. ED.] 

14. Summer Newes] MALOXE: So, too, in Sonnet xcviii: 'Yet nor the lays 
of birds nor the sweet smell Of different flowers in odour and in hue Could make 
me any summer's story tell,' etc. 

16. But keepe] DEIGHTON: Possibly 'But' should be Not, i. e., the news, if 
bad, will be sufficient in itself, and there will be no need of your fierce looks. 

17. Drug-damn'd Italy] HERFORD: That is, detested for its (poisonous) drugs. 
17. out-craftied] M ALONE: Thus the old copy, and so Shakespeare wrote. 

2i 4 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

And hee's at fome hard point. Speake man, thy Tongue 18 

May take off fome extreamitie, which to reade 

Would be euen mortall to me. 20 

Pif. Pleafe you reade, 

And you (hall finde me (wretched man) a thing 
The moft difdain'd of Fortune. 

Imogen reades. 

THy Miftris (Pi/amo) hatli plaide the Strumpet in my 25 
Bed: the tejlimonies whereof , lyes bleeding in me . If peak 
not out of weake Surmifes, but from proof e as Jlrong as my 
greefe, and as certaine as I expect my Reuenge. T/iatpart, thou 
( Pifanio) mujl ac~lefor me, if thy Faith be not tainted with the 
breach of hers ; let tJiine owne hands take azvay her life*: IJliall 30 
giue tliee opportunity at Milford Hauen. She hath my Letter 
for tlie purpofe ; where, ifthoufeare toftrike, and to make mee 
certaine it is done, tlwu art the Pander to her dijlionour, and 
equally to me dijloyall. 

Pif. What mall I need to draw my Sword, the Paper 35 

Hath cut her throat alreadie ? No, 'tis Slander, 
Whofe edge is fharper then the Sword, whofe tongue 37 

18. Speake man,] Speak, man, F 4 , 35, 36. Sword, ...alreadie?} Sword,... 

Rowe i. Speak, man; Rowe ii. et seq. already, F 3 F 4 , Rowe. sword?. ..already. 

26. lyes] lie Rowe et seq. Pope et seq. 

29. me,] me. Theob. ii, Warb. Johns. 36,37. Slander,... Sword,] Ff, Rowe, 

30. owne] Om. Theob. ii, Warb. Pope, Han. Glo. slander,... sword, 
Johns. Theob. Warb. Johns. slander, ... 

34. [She swoons. Ktly. sword; Knt. slander, ...sword; Coll. 

35-47. Mnemonic Pope, Warb. Sta. slander;... sword; Cap. et cet. 

So in Coriolanus, 'chaste as the icicle that's curded by the frost from purest snow.' 
[V, iii, 15]. DYCE (ed. ii, reading out-crafted): But in such cases no stress can 
be laid on the spelling of the Folio. In Coriolanus it has ' You have made faire 
hands, You and your Crafts, you have crafted faire,' IV, vi, 117; and while in 
All's Well it has 'muddied,' in The Tempest it twice has 'mudded.' 

34. disloyall] LADY MARTIN (p. 190): My pen stops here. I know not how to 
write. Such a charge as that letter contains, to meet the eye of such a creature! 
She has begun to read, full of apprehension for her husband's safety, and from his 
hand she now receives her deathblow. As the last word drops from her lips, her 
head bows in silence over the writing, and her body shrinks as if some mighty rock 
had crushed her with its weight. These few words have sufficed to blight, to 
blacken, and to wither her whole life. The wonder is that she ever rises. I used to 
feel tied to the earth. 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 215 

Out-venomes all the Wormes of Nyle, whofe breath 38 

Rides on the porting windes, and doth belye 

All corners of the World. Kings, Queenes, and States, 40 

Maides, Matrons, nay the Secrets of the Graue 

This viperous {lander enters. What cheere, Madam? 

7;;w.Falfe to his Bed ? What is it to be falfef 43 

38. Nyle,] Ff, Rowe i. Nile, Rowe world, Kings... matrons; Eel. 

ii, Pope, Han. Glo. Nile; Theob. et 41. Matrons,} matrons, Knt; Sta. 

cet. 43. Bed?} bed! Rowe et seq. 

40. World.} Ff, Rowe,+. world- What...falfe?] What! is it to be 

Knt. world: Cap. et cet. false M. Mason, Ran. Sing. Ktly, 

40, 41. World. Kings ... Matrons,] Coll. iii. 

38. Out-venomes] Thus in Richard II: 'Pierced to the soul with slander's 
venom 'd spear.' I, i, 171. 

38. Wormes of Nyle] That is, all the asps of the Nile. Cleopatra asks the 
Clown, 'Hast thou the pretty worm of Nilus there?' V, ii, 242. 

39-41. doth belye . . . World. Kings . . . Matrons] VAUGHAN (p. 441): 
First, 'corners' cannot be belied in Shakespeare's sense of that word, 'to tell 
lies of,' although they may be 'filled with lies,' and so be belied in a conceived 
sense of that word, which is not Shakespeare's meaning. ... I would interpret 
and punctuate thus: 'doth belie, All corners of the world, kings, queens, and 
states, Maids, matrons'; which means 'where language is borne on the fleet winds, 
and at every corner of the world, belies kings, queens, and persons of highest dignity, 
and both maid and matron: nay,' etc. DOWDEN adopts Vaughan's reading and 
interpretation. Yet if the punctuation of the Folio is to be discarded, and it is not 
felicitous, Eccles's punctuation (see Text. Notes) seems to me to be preferable to 
Vaughan's; in the latter there is a parenthetical clause so elliptical that it has to be 
explained in the paraphrase by the addition of an at. Vaughan's reason for making 
this clause, 'All corners of the world/ parenthetical seems to me to lack strength. 
We are dealing with poetry, and is there anything to be criticised in the passionate 
exclamation that Slander's breath rides on the posting winds and covers with lies 
every corner of the earth? ED.] 

40. States] JOHNSON: That is, persons of highest rank. 

43. False to his Bed? etc.] MRS GRIFFITH (p. 481): Nothing in situation of 
circumstance, in thought, or expression can exceed the beauty or tender effect 
of these lines. They catch such quick hold of our sympathy that we feel as if the 
scene was real, and are at once transported amidst the gloom and silence of the 
forest, in spite of all the glare of the theatre, and the loud applause of the audience. 
It is in such instances as these that Shakespeare has never yet been equalled, and 
can never be excelled. What a power of natural sentiment must a man have been 
possessed of who could so adequately express that kind of ingenuous surprise upon 
such a challenge, which none but a woman can possibly feel! Shakespeare could 
not only assume all characters, but even their sexes too. EDWARD ROSE (Sh. 
Soc. Trans., 1880-6, p. i, 1879): I shall endeavour to sketch the effect upon many 
different personages of sudden emotion; but I shall look upon their characters not as 
many and diverse, but as essentially only two as modifications (or, more rarely, 

216 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT m, sc. iv. 

[43. False to his Bed? etc.] 

pure examples) of two great opposing types: the men who are habitually self- 
conscious, given to analyse their own minds and deeds, and the men who are not. 
Yet, to make clear what I mean, I should like to mention one or two characters in 
real life which impress every one, I believe, as almost pure types of the two classes 
I have named. In the class of simple, direct minds, acting from obvious motives 
and with a minimum of self-consciousness, must surely come those of John Bright, 
of Darwin, of the late Duke of Wellington, and of a vast mass of undistinguished 
people, some dull, some hard, some exquisitely innocent, some marvellously selfish. 
These people vary as much as angel from devil, yet there is about them all a certain 
childlikeness, good or bad, a certain self-confidence, useful or dangerous. Even 
Darwin, while he admits most freely that he may be mistaken, has the self-confi- 
dence of utter purity; he knows that he is merely telling you what he has seen 
honestly, dully, and without arriere-pensee or reserve. So the Duke of Wellington 
did simply what seemed to him his duty, never thinking what it might seem to 
other men: and so many a man quite unconsciously obeys his own pleasure, his own 
ambition, or the will of some superior nature who without an effort masters him. 
Of the opposite kind are many modern poets Tennyson, Browning, very- notice- 
ably the late Arthur Clough: men who constantly look into their own minds, 
examine their own motives, deliberate, doubt, and change. A student of human 
nature, in the literary sense a subjective poet is, in the nature of things, 
bound to be of this class. Goethe and Byron, though both men of much prac- 
tical sense, belonged essentially to it they made it the business of their lives 
to think and to express their thoughts: they were not among the great doers 
of this world. Their fine general powers might have obtained for them a good 
place among practical men, but nothing like the rank to which some parts of their 
faculties would seem to have entitled them. That there have also been men of 
infinite littleness in this class hardly needs to be said: a tiny intellect eagerly 
scrutinising itself cannot well be of any calculable value. Shakspere, as a purely 
dramatic poet, had of necessity a nature prone to self-analysis, though his genius 
was large enough to analyse also nearly every other mind, while it yet noted all 
natural objects, and constantly kept all things in due proportion. ... In his very 
latest plays, the Winter's Tale and Cymbeline, he has companion studies of two 
contrasting characters, under circumstances to a considerable extent the same. 
Both Hermione and Imogen are accused by their husbands of infidelity, though it is 
true that the former is impeached in the presence of many people, while the latter 
is quite alone, except for the faithful servant who bears the news. But Hermione's 
is evidently a simple and grand nature of unusual strength, which, though fully 
realising its position, had force enough to bear with the amplest dignity a terrible 
trial. For this great soul no personal attack is too heavy to be endured; it is 
only at the death of her son following upon a joy so great that she could utter but 
one word that, like Hero, and not unlike Othello, she falls into a deadly swoon. 
It is not thus that Imogen's curious, imaginative character is affected by such an 
accusation. She thinks; thinks fast and hard, and talks as fast she makes what 
is an almost continuous speech of sixty lines. She does not even casually mention 
Cloten without an elaborate definition of his character 'that harsh, noble, 
simple nothing.' These are her first words, after that silence so often to be noticed 
in parallel cases in Shakspere. Sudden Emotion : in its Effect upon different 
Characters, as shown by Shakespeare. 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 2 1/ 

To lye in watch there, and to thinke on him? 

To weepe 'twixt clock and clock? If fleep charge Nature, 45 

To breake it with a fearfull dreame of him, 

And cry my felfe awake ? That's falfe to's bed ? Is it ? 

Pifa. Alas good Lady* 

Imo. I falfe? Thy Confcience witneffe : lacliimo, 49 

47. That's] that Pope, Theob. Han. 47. Is it?} Ff, Rowe, Johns. Dyce, 

Warb. Sta. Glo. Cam. Om. Pope,+. Sepa- 

falfe] FI. rate line Cap. et cet. 

to's] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce, Sta. 49. witneffe:] witness, Rowe,-f, Del. 

Glo. Cam. to his Cap. et cet. Ingl. witness. Coll. i, ii, Ktly. 

bed?] bed; Rowe, Coll. bed! lachimo,] lachimo, Theob. 

Pope,+. bed, Ran. Dyce, Sing. Ktly. Warb. Johns. 
Glo. Cam. 

43. What is it to be false ?] VAUGHAN (p. 442, adopting M. Mason's reading 
see Text. Notes) : Imogen does not ask the general question what falsehood to his 

bed is, but whether all which she describes, that is, all which she herself does, be 
falsehood; and then concludes, 'that is falsehood, is it?' Further, there is but 
one question, and that is whether the accumulation of acts here described consti- 
tutes falsehood; not many questions as to many acts, for that spoils the picture 
of her absolute devotion, which shows itself in a whole group of actions and suffer- 
ings. Of the impressive group she says, 'that's false to his bed; is it?' a question 
she has already asked at the beginning of the sentence, and which she energetically 
repeats at the end of it. [It seems to me that the appeal here to be made is to the 
dramatic effect. Imogen, as Rose says, 'thinks fast,' but she thinks piecemeal, 
and each reminiscence, as it rises in her mind, is a question, with the faintest 
possible pause, but yet a pause, after each one, for the indignant denial. We must 
bear in mind that she is before an audience, and, however fast she may think, she 
must not think faster than they, and so o'erstep the modesty of nature. ED.] 

44. To lye in watch there, etc.] HUNTER (ii, 295): Shakespeare has shown 
here, and in the character of the wife of Hotspur, how beautifully he can depict 
conjugal tenderness and affection. Lady Percy of King Henry the Fourth was the 
Countess of Northumberland, of Shakespeare's own time, the amiable wife of a 
morose husband. A daughter of hers was Countess of Leicester, wife of a Sidney; 
and I am tempted to quote a passage from one of her letters to the Earl, so like 
this speech of Imogen, that if we may not suppose she had recently read it, and the 
words had left their trace on her memory, we may at least take them as proof 
how justly the Poet has here delineated some of the most sacred and honourable 
of human sentiments: 'Mr Seladine comes in with your letter, whom I am engaged 
to entertain a little: besides it is supper-time, or else I should bestow one side 
of this paper in making love to you. And since I may with modesty express it, I 
will say that if it be love to think on you sleeping and waking, to discourse of nothing 
with pleasure but what concerns you, to wish myself every hour with you, and to 
pray for you with as much devotion as for my own soul, then certainly it may be 
said that I am in love; and this is all which you shall at this time hear from yours, 
D. Leycester.' 

46. fearfull dreame of him] That is, fearful for him, for his safety. 

49. Thy Conscience witnesse : lachimo] CAPELL (p. in): As the moderns 

218 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

Thou didd'ft accufe him of Incontinencie, 50 

Thou then look'dft like a Villaine : now, me thinkes 

Thy fauours good enough. Some lay of Italy 

( Whofe mother was her painting) hath betraid him : 53 

51. me thinkes] me thinks F 3 . me- Elze. colour was Herr. broker was 
thinks F 4 et seq. (i. e. brother, i. e. mother) Sprenger. 

52. fauours} favours Rowe et seq. motheur was Becket. smoother was: 
good] well Cap. Jackson, honour was her plaything 

53. mother was] feather was Cap. Gould. 

Eel. plumage was Bailey, favour was 53. betraid] bedlaid Bulloch. 

Cartwright. pander was Bulloch, 

[i.e., Capell's predecessors] have pointed this passage, Imogen's appeal is tolachimo's 
conscience; whereas the Folios direct it to Posthumus, and the other is apostro- 
phized afterwards. ECCLES: I cannot avoid entertaining a suspicion that this 
address might have been directed to Pisanio, whose close attendance upon her 
person might be supposed to afford him the best assurance of her fidelity. DELIUS, 
as well as all editors who adopted Rowe's punctuation (see Text. Notes), suppose 
that this appeal is made to lachimo. HERZBERG (p. 460) dissents, however, and 
follows the Folio. ' Thy,' he says, ' can refer only to Pisanio In the vividness of her 
emotion Imogen then turns to the absent lachimo, to whom, of course, "Thou" 
applies. In moments of passionate excitement such a change of appeal is as true 
psychologically as it is common to poets of all times.' VAUGHAN: 'Thy conscience 
witness' applies to Posthumus and means more than its words adequately ex- 
press in the sense of 'Thy conscience witness whether it is I or thou that is false,' 
and does not apply to lachimo. DOWDEN: That is, thy inmost consciousness. 
Is this addressed to Pisanio or to Posthumus? I think to the latter. [I doubt 
that Imogen was at that instant conscious of Pisanio's presence. ED.] 

52. fauours good enough] MALONE: So, in Lear, 'Those wicked creatures yet 
do look well-favor'd, when others are more wicked.' II, iv, 259. 

52. Some lay of Italy] MURRAY (N. E. D.) describes the Jay as a noisy, 
chattering bird with vivid tints of blue, heightened by bands of jet black and 
patches of white. From a bird of this description the sense is easily transferred 
to 'a showy or flashy woman; one of light character.' And inasmuch as its earliest 
use (according to Murray) in this transferred sense is found in The Merry Wives, 
where Mrs Ford says, 'We'll teach him to know turtles from jays' III, iii, 44, 
it is not impossible that it is Shakespeare's own original comparison, unless he 
obtained the idea from the Italian Puta, which means both the bird and a wanton 
woman. Capell was the first to call attention to this Italian similarity, and it was 
afterward put forward by SINGER, without credit to Capell, and mentioned by 
KNIGHT, but I think no importance has been attached to it. ED. 

53. (Whose mother was her painting)] The text of ROWE'S first edition 
reads, 'Whose W 'other, ,' etc. It is a misprint, merely an inverted M, which was 
corrected in his second edition, but not before CHARLES GILDON put forth a volume 
in 1710 containing Shakespeare's Poems with Critical Remarks, etc., of his own, 
and a Glossary of about five pages containing An Explanation of the Old Words 
us'd by Shakespeare in his Works. In this Glossary he loyally inserted Wother, 
and still more loyally supplied a definition, namely: 'Merit, Beauty, etc.' I am 
indebted for this reference to Gildon to Theobald, who was distressed over his 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 219 

[53. (Whose mother was her painting)] 

inability to find another example of W other, no matter what it meant. Theo- 
bald's own emendation was not happy; the text 'seems to me,' he says, 'to have 
this sense, "Whose Mother was a Bird of the same Feather"; i. e., such another gay 
wanton: which is severe enough. I have imagin'd the Poet might have wrote: 
"whose mother was her planting," i. e., was bawd to her, and planted her on Pos- 
thumus: which is still more sarcasticall.' 'The true word,' asserts WARBURTON, 
'is meether, a north country word, signifying beauty. So that the sense of her 
meether was her painting is that she had only an appearance of beauty, for which 
she was beholden to her paint.' I can find no such word as meether in Dr JOSEPH 
WRIGHT'S monumental English Dialect Dictionary. Dr ALDIS WRIGHT, in the 
foot-notes in the Cam. Ed., says that the conjecture was 'withdrawn in MS.'- 
Dr JOHNSON wisely and temperately observes: 'The present reading, I think, 
may stand; "some jay of Italy," made by art the creature, not of nature, but of 
painting. In this sense "painting" may be not improperly termed her "mother." 
I think that Theobald may have indirectly suggested HANMER'S emendation 
which, in his first edition, he inserted in his text without comment; it is 'Whose 
feathers are,' etc. This, after changing it to 'Whose feather is,' etc., was adopted 
by CAPELL. STEEVENS tells us that he met with a similar expression in one of the 
old comedies, but forgot to note the date or name of the piece: ' a parcel of con- 
ceited feather-caps, whose fathers were their garments.' This quotation is almost 
conclusive, if . In the Variorum of 1803 HARRIS is quoted as remarking that 
'"Whose mother was her painting" means her likeness.' The connection is not 
readily detected, I think, between the betrayal of Posthumus and the painted 
likeness of the mother of some jay of Italy. As a family portrait it may have 
been source of pride, but as a means of seduction its value is obscure. In WILLIAM 
RICHARDSON'S Essays, which are thoughtful and didactic, but barren of enthusiasm 
or vivacity, there is on p. 190 a foot-note on the present passage, which to R. G. 
WHITE (Shakespeare Scholar, p. 462) appears to be 'entirely satisfactory.' 'Imo- 
gen,' says Richardson, 'is moved by indignation, and even resentment. These 
feelings incline her to aggravate obnoxious qualities in the object of her displeasure. 
The "jay of Italy" is not only very unworthy in herself, but is so by transmitted, 
hereditary, and, therefore, by inherent wickedness. She derived it from her 
parents: matri turpi filia turpior; her mother was such as she is; her picture, her 
portrait; for the word "painting" in old English was used for portrait. Shake- 
speare himself so uses it: "Laertes, was your father dear to you? Or are you 
like the painting of a sorrow, A face without a heart?" Perhaps, too, the poet 
uses that sort of figure which, according to rhetoricians, presents as expressing 
some strong emotion, the consequent in place of the antecedent, or the effect for 
the cause. So that, instead of saying that the jay of Italy was the picture of her 
mother, Imogen says, more indignantly and more resentfully, that her mother 
was such another, was her very picture. So that she was inherently and hereditarily 
worthless, and capable of the arts of seduction.' This is really what I suppose 
Harris means, and it is to me eminently unsatisfactory. I cannot divine why, at 
that supreme hour, Imogen's thoughts should fly to the jay's mother as a distinct 
person. If it aggravate the jay's guilt by showing that her mother before her was 
as bad as she is, why stop at the mother? The hereditary stain will be deeper if 
the jay had a gay granddam, and so on, further and further back. Of course this 
is absurd, but, I think, it tests Richardson's theory. Moreover, the meaning which 

220 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

[53. (Whose mother was her painting)] 

Claudius, in speaking to Laertes, attaches to 'painting' cannot I think be attached 
to the word as Imogen uses it. Claudius refers to it as a mere piece of canvas, a 
simulacrum. Whatever Imogen meant, this she did not mean. We must bear in 
mind that jays not only in Italy, but everywhere, were conspicuous by their paint- 
ing. Of this enough examples may be found in Measure for Measure. KNIGHT 
asks, 'May we venture to suggest, without altering the text, that muffler was the 
word; which as written might be easily mistaken for "mother"? The class of per- 
sons which Shakespeare here designated by the term "jay" were accustomed to 
wear a veil or mask called a "muffler," [because, as Randle Holmes says, in his 
Academy of Armory,] "they were ashamed to show their faces." The jay of Italy 
needed no other disguise than the painting of her face her muffler was her "paint- 

In January, 1852, COLLIER announced the discovery of his Annotated Copy of 
the second Folio, and published in the next year the Notes and Emendations con- 
tained in it. On p. 518 of that volume the emendation, by the annotator of the 
present passage, is thus set forth by Collier: 'We are told by the amender of the 
Folio, 1632, to read "Who smothers her with painting," etc. We fairly admit it to 
be possible that the old corrector, not understanding the expression, "Whose 
mother was her painting," as it was recited before him, might himself mistake it 
for "Who smothers her with painting"; but it is much more likely that in this place, 
where Imogen was to give vent to her disgust and anger, she would not use a 
metaphor, especially so violent a one, as to call the daubing of the face actually the 
"mother" of a courtezan. . . . Imogen would, therefore, be disposed to render the 
contrast as strong as words could make it, and would not be content to throw cen- 
sure on her debased and profligate rival merely by a far-fetched figure of speech. 
Shakespeare, indeed, in this very play employs such a figure, but under extremely 
different circumstances, viz., where Guiderius ridicules Cloten for asking if he did 
not know him by his fine clothes. The answer is: "No, nor thy tailor, rascal: Who 
is thy grandfather? he made those clothes, Which, as it seems, make thee."- IV, 
ii, 109-111. These lines occur in Act IV, and what Imogen says of the "jay of 
Italy" is inserted in the immediately preceding Act; and if one thing more than 
another could persuade us that "who smothers her with painting" is the true 
text, it is that, if we suppose differently, it makes Shakespeare employ the very 
same metaphor in two consecutive Acts. Our great dramatist was neither so 
poverty-stricken as regards language, nor so injudicious as regards nature, to 
repeat himself in this way. . . . Imogen would not study metaphors at such a 
time. ... It is an axiom that genuine passion avoids figures of speech, because 
passion does not reflect, and a figure of speech is the fruit of reflection; therefore, 
we feel assured that the scribe misheard, and wrote "whose mother was her paint- 
ing" instead of "who smothers her with painting." The coincidence of sound seems 
otherwise almost inexplicable.' Inasmuch as this emendation was the source of 
much controversy, it seems best that the painful student should have thus before 
him the arguments wherewith Collier first introduced it. The substance of the 
foregoing from his Notes, etc., Collier repeated in his edition, and added: 'besides, 
if Shakespeare had meant to say that " painting " was the mother of the Jay of Italy, 
he would not have inserted the passage as he has done; the line does not in any 
way call for it; to have said "Whose painting was her mother" would have suited 
the line just as well as the inversion. No inversion is used when Guiderius speaks of 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELIXE 221 

[53. (Whose mother was her painting)] 

the tailor as the grandfather of Cloten. In Hamlet "good mother," as it properly 
stands in the First Folio, had been misprinted in the quarto of 161 1 , " could smother." 
I, ii, 77. Still ... we do not place the emendation of the manuscript in the 
text, upon our ordinary principle, not to disturb words in the old copies which bear 
a consistent and intelligible meaning.' COLLIER announced his possession of this 
Annotated Copy of the Second Folio in The Athtzneum on the 3ist of January, 1852. 
A few weeks afterward, in March, HALLIWELL wrote a small pamphlet of fifteen 
pages, wholly directed against this emendation: 'Whose mother -was her painting.' 
'The original text, whatever the reading, clearly means,' says Halliwell, 'that the 
jay of Italy was the creature of Painting, not of Nature, and that this is expressed 
by the original reading in grammatical phraseology, and that it is confirmed by 
other passages in the -works of Shakespeare himself.'' [Italics Halliwell's.] . . . Not 
only is this kind of imagery unusual, but we actually find it introduced into the very 
next Act of this same play, ' Cloten. Thou villain base, know'st me not by my clothes? 
Guiderius. No, nor thy tailor, rascal: who is thy grandfather? he made those 
clothes, which, as it seems, make thee?' IV, ii, 107-111. Here is precisely the same 
thought, and might be expressed in the same terms, 'whose father was his clothing.' 
A much stronger instance will be found in All's Well, 'Let me not live, quoth he, 
... to be the snuff of younger spirits . . . whose judgments are Mere fathers of 
their garments.' I, ii, 58. Mr Collier has a sensible note on this passage. 'Tyr- 
whitt,' he says, 'would read feathers for "fathers"; but the sense of the old reading 
is very obvious; the judgements of such persons are only employed in begetting 
new modes of dressing their persons.' Precisely so; and a similar explanation 
will suit the passage in Cymbeline. If 'whose mother was her painting' was, as I 
have heard it said, too obscure a phrase to be used before the 'groundlings' of The 
Globe, surely 'mere fathers of their garments' is open to the same objection. . . . 
It must be recollected that the metaphorical use of father, mother, parent is of 
very frequent occurrence in the old dramatists. . . . The imagery is surely not 
more forced with painting than with clothing. If a man's dress can be meta- 
phorically called his father, a courtesan's painting can, with equal propriety, be 
called her mother; and it must be also noticed that Imogen continues the imagery 
in the next line, calling herself 'a garment out of fashion.' A. E. B[RAE] (N. 6* 
Qu., I, v, 484, May, 1852): In the following lines from -4s You Like It, mother is 
directly used as a sort of warranty of female beauty! Rosalind is reproving Phebe 
for her contempt of her lover, and in derision of her beauty, she asks: 'Who 
might be your mother? That you insult, exult, and all at once over the wretched? ' 
Ill, v, 35. Now if Phebe had been one who smothered her in painting, an ap- 
propriate answer to Rosalind's question might have been her mother was her 
painting! Most certainly this latter phrase is the more graceful mode of express- 
ing the idea. [Surely, the appeal to a mother is not here made as a ' warranty of 
beauty,' but as a warranty of sweetness and forbearance. ED.] ANON. (Black- 
wood's Maga., October, 1853, p. 471): We take it that 'mother' here means Italy, 
and that the painting means model; so that the gloss on the passage should run 
thus: Some jay of Italy, to whom Italy (/'. e., Italian manners) was the model ac- 
cording to which she shaped her morals and her conduct, hath betrayed him. 
That this, or something like it, is the meaning is confirmed by what follows 'Poor 
I am stale, a garment out of fashion'; that is, the new fashions, the new-fangled 
ways, are to be found only in Italy, and doubtless that daughter of Italy that jay 

222 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

[53. (Whose mother was her painting)] 

or imitative creature by whom Posthumus is now enslaved is a considerable pro- 
ficient in those fashionable and novel methods of conquest. ... If we adopt 
Johnson's meaning, we must change 'was' into is. [The anonymous author of 
these notes in Blackwood is spoken of by Ingleby in N. & Qu., V, vii, 224, as 'the 
late Mr Lettsom, but Lettsom himself, in his Preface to Walker's Criticisms, etc., 
p. liv, speaks of Anon.'s remarks in Blackwood in terms of decided contempt. ED.] 
R. G. WHITE (Shakespeare's Scholar, pp. 44-48) opposes the emendation of 
Collier's MS., because it is 'not absolutely necessary,' and is, moreover, a descent 
from poetry to prose. The best portion of White's remarks is a refutation of 
Collier's rash assertions that 'Imogen would not study metaphors at such a 
moment,' and that 'genuine passion avoids figures of speech.' In White's subse- 
quent edition, in 1860, his own contribution to the discussion is mainly a reference 
to the foregoing paper in his Shakespeare's Scholar. STAUNTON quotes Steevens's 
extract from an old Comedy (the title whereof Steevens could not remember) and 
adds another 'equally pertinent,' from Middleton's Michaelmas Term, 'Why 
should not a woman confess what she is now, since the finest are but deluding 
shadows, begot between tirewomen and tailors? for instance, behold their parents! ' 

III, i, 4. Collier's annotator proposes a change which everyone must admit to be 
singularly striking and ingenious. HALLIWELL (Folio edition, 1865): '[Collier's 
MS.], not being acquainted with the figurative idiomatic phraseology which was 
current under various forms in the dramatic literature of Shakespeare's period, 
gives a reading which is unquestionably more suitable to modern hearers, and, 
under any circumstances, must be considered a verbal alteration of peculiar 
ingenuity.' DYCE (ed. ii.) refers to the emendation by Collier's MS. as 'most 
ingenious.' The CAMBRIDGE EDITION (ed. i, 1866): If the text be right, the 
meaning probably is: 'Whose mother aided and abetted her daughter in the trade 
of seduction.' Such a person is introduced by Middleton in A Mad World, My 
Masters, where in Act I, sc. i, we find: 'See where she comes, The close curtezan, 
whose mother is her bawd?' It suits the character of Imogen that she should 
conceive a circumstance to account for, and in some measure palliate, her husband's 
fault. Ibid. (ed. ii.) Dr W. ALOIS WRIGHT adds to the foregoing note the following 
comment: 'The passage from Middleton is quoted in WarburtonMS., but it does 
not justify the explanation above given, which I always regarded as very doubtful. 
If the reading in the text be correct, Johnson's interpretation is right. Compare 

IV, ii, 108-111.' R. M. SPENCE (N. 6 Qu., VI, i, 52, 1880): A few lines below, in 
the same speech of Imogen, we read: 'All good seeming . . . shall be thought 
Put on for villainy: not born where 't grows,' etc. So the beauty which Imogen 
feared had seduced Posthumus into infidelity to her was ' not born where it grew, 
was not native, but the product of meretricious art. Of the seeming bloom on the 
vice-paled cheek, the paint-pot was the "mother." HUDSON (1881) : That is, who 
was born of her paint-box; who had no beauty, no attraction, no womanhood in her 
face, but what was daubed on; insomuch that she might be aptly styled the creature 
of her painting, one who had daubery for her mother. So, in Lear II, ii, Kent says 
to Oswald, 'You cowardly rascal, Nature disclaims in thee; a tailor made thee.' 
And when Cornwall says to him, 'Thou art a strange fellow; a tailor make a man?' 
he replies, 'Ay, a tailor, sir; a stonecutter, or a painter, could not have made him 
so ill, though they had been but two hours at the trade.' A figure more in Shake- 
speare's style than this [the present text] is hardly to be met with in the whole 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 223 

Poore I am ftale, a Garment out of fafhion, 

And for I am richer then to hang by th'walles, 55 

55. I am] I'm Pope,+. 55. th'walles] the walls Cap. et seq. 

compass of his plays. . . . Nothing short of a written order direct from the Poet 
himself would persuade me into the substitution [of Collier's MS.], and even then I 
should entreat him to reconsider before he authorized the change. R. ROBERTS 
(New Sh. Soc. Trans., 1880-6, p. 202): Compare: 'If Madame Newport should not 
be link't with these Ladyes, the chain wold never hold; for shee is sister to the 
famous Mistress Porter . . . and to the more famous Lady Maryborough (whose 
Paint is her Pander).' Newes from the New-Exchange, or the Commonwealth of 
Ladies. Printed in the yeere of Women without Grace, 1650, p. Q. Again, com- 
pare: 'Finally hee would thou his equalls . . . and said that his Arrne was his 
Father, his works his Linage.' Shelton's Transl. of Don Quixote, 1632, f. 133. 
[Br. NICHOLSON (N. 6* Qu., VI, viii, 241, 1883) pronounced these two quotations 
'exact parallels' to Imogen's words. Their value is, I fear, weakened by their 
late date. ED.] INGLEBY: The hysteria passio was, on more special grounds, 
called 'the mother,' as in Lear, II, iv, 56. Accordingly the word stands for the 
characteristic strength or weakness of woman ; and here it seems to stand for fe- 
male vanity. IBID. (Revised ed.) justly remarks that 'the use of the word "mother" 
must not here be confounded with the meaning as a warranty for female tender- 
ness, nor with the hysteria passio for which it sometimes stands.' THISELTON: 
The Jay itself is no sham, for all its showy plumage: the jay of Italy is an egregious 
fraud, the daughter of her pigmentary adornments, to which she owes her ex- 
istence, such as it is, and without which she would not count. But it is not unlikely 
that there is a concurrent allusion to the 'mother' of fluids. Minsheu explains: 
'the mother or lees of wine, so called, because it nourisheth and preserveth the wine 
as a mother.' We might interpret, 'Whose quality depends on her paint.' There 
may also be a connection between the ' mother ' and the colour of the liquid, of which 
it may have been regarded as the source. DOWDEN : The suggestion ' whose mother 
wore her painting,' or 'saw her painting' (letters transposed from 'was'), meaning 
whose mother was of the same ill trade, has not hitherto been made. If we might 
disregard the parenthesis, a slight emendation would alter the sense. Imogen 
might have had a thought similar [to the quotation from Middleton given by the 
Cambridge edition], but have been unable, like Desdemona, to frame her lips 
to utter so gross a word; and we might read: 'Some jay of Italy Whose mother 
was her painting hath betray'd him.' 

[The whirlpool of comment that has eddied about this phrase has, apparently, 
revealed only 'motion without progression.' I am content to accept the text as 
it stands with Dr Johnson's paraphrase. In the Text. Notes the conjectures are 
recorded of Zachary Jackson, Andrew Becket, and George Gould, careless and 
confident amenders of Shakespeare's, whose random guesses I announced, long ago, 
I should cease to record on these pages. They may be found duly credited by the 
CAMBRIDGE EDITORS, whose long-suffering toleration exceeds mine. Possibly it is 
well in emergencies like the present to set forth every conjecture, and I have, 
therefore, set forth those of these three copesmates. ED.] 

54. Garment out of fashion] STEEVENS: Thus, in Westward for Smelts, 
1620: ' But (said the Bainford fish-wife) I like her as a garment out of fashion.' 

55. hang by th'walles] STEEVENS: This does not mean to be converted into 

224 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT m, sc. iv. 

I muft be ript : To peeces with me : Oh ! 56 

Mens Vowes are womens Traitors. All good feeming 

By thy reuolt(oh Husband) fhall be thought 

Put on for Villainy ; not borne where't growes, 

But worne a Baite for Ladies. 60 

Pifa. Good Madam, heare me. 

Imo. True honefb men being heard, like falfe dSneas, 
Were in his time thought falfe : and Synons weeping 63 

56. Oh!] Ff, Rowe i, Coll. ii, iii. Oh, 61. Good] Om. Pope, Theob. Han. 
Rowe ii,+. 01 or O, Cap. et cet. Warb. 

57. good feeming] good-seeming Ktly. 61. me.] me Rowe,+- 

59. borne] born F 3 F 4 et seq. 62-68. Mnemonic Pope, Warb. 

growes,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 62. True honejl] True-honest Walker 

Knt, Coll. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. (Crit., i, 33), Dyce ii. 
grows; Theob. et cet. 63. Synons] Synon's Rowe. Sinon's 


hangings for a room, but to be hung up, as useless, among the neglected contents 
of a wardrobe. So in Meas. for Meas.: ' Which have, like unscour'd armour, hung 
by the wall.' I, ii, 171. When a boy, at an ancient mansion-house in Suffolk, 
I saw one of these repositories, which (thanks to a succession of old maids!) had 
been preserved, with superstitious reverence, for almost a century and a half. 
Clothes were not formerly, as at present, made of slight materials, were not kept in 
drawers, or given away as soon as lapse of time or change of fashion had impaired 
their value. On the contrary, they were hung up on wooden pegs in a room ap- 
propriated to the sole purpose of receiving them; and though such cast-off things 
as were composed of rich substances were occasionally ripped for domestick uses 
(viz., mantles for infants, vests for children, and counterpanes for beds), articles of 
inferior quality were suffered to 'hang by the walls' till age and moths had de- 
stroyed what pride would not permit to be worn by servants or poor relations. 
'Comitem horridulum trita donare lacerna' (Pers. I, 54) seems not to have been 
customary among our ancestors, . . . and there is yet in the wardrobe of Covent- 
Garden Theatre a rich suit of clothes that once belonged to King James I. When 
I saw it last it was on the back of Justice Greedy, a character in Massinger's New 
Way to Pay Old Debts. [M ALONE disagrees with this view, which really seems to 
be correct, in the following note:] Imogen, as Mr Roberts suggests to me, 'alludes 
to the hangings on walls, which were in use in Shakespeare's time.' These being 
sometimes wrought with gold or silver, were, it should seem, occasionally ript and 
taken to pieces for the sake of the materials. 

56. I must be ript] Both ROLFE and DOWDEN see a play on words here, and 
refer to Cloten's threat to Pisanio : ' He haue this secret from thy heart, or rip Thy 
heart to finde it.' III, v, 108. I venture to think that it would be more ac- 
curately denned as a figure or metaphor than as a play on words. ED. 

56. Oh !] Is this an exclamation of anger, or of sorrow, or of scorn, or is it a 
shudder? ED. 

62, 63. honest men . . . thought false] ECCLES suggests that 'heard' is 
here repeated in reply to what Pisanio has uttered. This seems very doubtful, if 
the punctuation proposed in the following note by Vaughan is to be accepted. 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 2 2$ 

Did fcandall many a holy teare : tooke pitty 64 

From moft true wretchedneffe. So thou, Poflhumus 

Wilt lay the Leauen on all proper men ; 66 

64. teare:] tear, Pope, Han. Dyce ii, 66. Leauen on] leven to Ff, Rowe, 
Hi, Glo. Cam. Pope, Theob. Warb. Johns, level to 

tooke] tooky F 2 . took F 3 F 4 . Han. 

65. wretchedneffe.] wretchedness: Cap. on all proper] on all; proper 
et seq. Daniel. 

VAUGHAN (p. 444): This is, 'honest men when they spoke like' ('being heard like') 
'yEneas were in the time of /Eneas thought false'; not, as all editors seem to under- 
stand, 'honest men were thought false, like false ^Eneas, as soon as they were 
heard.' We should print thus: True honest men, being heard like false ^Eneas, 
were in his time thought false.' DOWDEN says of this punctuation that 'perhaps it 
is right.' It seems to me entirely right. ED. 

63. Synons] In the 'skilful painting, made for Priam's Troy,' which poor 
Lucrece sees and describes there is much about Sinon's perjury and his 'borrow'd 
tears,' and how she tears his likeness in the picture with her nails. R. of L., 1521- 

64. tooke pitty] That is, abstracted pity. 

65. So thou, Posthumus] WARBURTON: When Posthumus thought his 
wife false, he unjustly scandalised the whole sex. His wife here, under the same 
impression of his infidelity, attended with more provoking circumstances, acquits 
his sex, and lays the fault where it is due. The poet paints from nature. This 
is life and manners. [This idea Warburton proceeds to amplify in half a dozen 
commonplace lines. The whole note, EDWARDS opines, might be referred as an 
example under his canon that 'The Profess'd Critic, in order to furnish his quota 
to the bookseller, may write Notes of Nothing; that is, Notes which either explain 
things which do not want explanation; or such as do not explain matters at all, but 
merely fill up so much paper.'] 

66. lay the Leauen] CAPELL (p. 112): To 'lay the leaven' on anything is a 
scripture phrase; and used (as grammarians are wont to term it) in malam partem, 
for vitiate or corrupt it, the sense it has here; and is also that of 'o'erleaven' in 
Hamlet, I, iv, 29; but in Meas. for Meas. we have 'leaven'd,' its participle, in the 
sense of seasoned simply: for 'leaven' is a sour dough, seasoned with salt; ... to 
a lump of this dough before salting (at which time it is insipid and tasteless) is 
Ajax compared by Thersites in Tro. and Cress., II, i, 15. 

66. Leauen] UPTON (p. 212): A reference to i Corinthians, v. 6-8, 'a little 
leaven leaveneth the lump,' explains this present passage, which means that Posthu- 
mus ' will infect and corrupt their good names, like sour dough that leaveneth the 
whole mass, and will render them suspected. In line 68 I would read, ' From thy 
great /a//.' Compare, 'And thus thy fall hath left a kind of blot; to mark the full- 
fraught man and best indued with some suspicion. I will weep for thee; For this 
revolt of thine, methinks, is like Another fall of man.' Hen. V: II, ii, 138. [The 
similarity between this passage and the present would lend unusual plausibility to 
Upton's conjecture, if the smallest objection could be raised against 'faile.' In 
WORDSWORTH'S quotation (p. 333) of this passage from Cymbeline, fall is printed 
without comment. I have failed to find it in any text. ED.] 

66. proper men] DOWDEN: Not, I think, handsome men (a frequent meaning 

22 6 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

Goodly, and gallant, fhall be falfe and periur'd 67 

From thy great faile : Come Fellow, be thou honeft, 

Do thou thy Matters bidding. When thou feeft him, 

A little witneffe my obedience. Looke 70 

I draw the Sword my felfe, take it, and hit 

The innocent Manfion of my Loue (my Heart :) 

Feare not, 'tis empty of all things, but Greefe : 

Thy Mafter is not there, who was indeede 

The riches of it. Do his bidding, ftrike, 75 

Thou mayft be valiant in a better caufe ; 

But now thou feem'ft a Coward. 

Pif. Hence vile Inftrument, 
Thou (halt not damne my hand. 

Into. Why, I mufl dye : 80 

And if I do not by thy hand, thou art 
No Seruant of thy Matters. Againft Selfe-flaughter, 82 

67. Goodly, and gallant] goodly and 75. Jlrike,] strike; Pope,+. strike, 

gallant Han. Dyce, Ktly. Glo. Cam. Cap. et seq. 

69. bidding.] Ff, Rowe, Coll. Ktly, 76. caufe;] cause, Pope, + , Knt, Coll. 
Cam. bidding: Pope et cet. Sta. Cam. 

70. obedience.] Ff, Rowe, + , Cam. 79. [Hurling it away. Coll. iii. 
obedience: Cap. et cet. Si. And if] An if Walker. 

Looke] Look, F 3 F 4 , Cap. Look! 82. Againjl] 'Gainst Pope,+, Dyce, 

Pope et cet. ii, iii. 

73. Feare not,] Fear not; Cap. et seq. 

of 'proper'), but rather honest, respectable, as in 'a proper gentlewoman.' 2 Hen. 
IV: II, ii, 169. 

75. Do his bidding, strike] Compare the treatment of this scene in the two 
versions: that in Boccaccio, and that in Westward for Smelts. In the former it rises 
to a level no higher than the rest of the story; but in the latter it has, in rude out- 
lines, the pathos and beauty of the present scene a proof quite sufficient, as I 
think, to show that it is an adaptation from Shakespeare. ED. 

82, etc. Against Selfe-slaughter, etc.] Once before we have had a reference 
to this 'divine prohibition.' Hamlet wishes 'that the Everlasting had not fix'd 
His canon 'gainst self-slaughter!' In reference to this passage (see note ad loc., 
I, ii, 132, of the present edition). R. GRANT WHITE remarks, 'Shakespeare may 
have known the Bible, as he knew all other things in his day knowable, so much 
better than I do that I may not without presumption question what he says about 
it. But I have not been able to discover any such specific prohibition? Bishop 
WORDSWORTH (p. 149) : There is nothing in which Shakespeare is more emphatic 
than in representing the act of suicide as a direct violation of the Divine law [as in 
Hamlet and in the present passage]. I am not aware that such a prohibition is to 
be found in the Holy Scripture [foot-note: Unless it be in the Sixth Command 
ment]; in Cymbeline any reference to Revelation would have been out of place. 
The 'canon,' therefore, to which our poet refers must be one of natural religion. 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 227 

There is a prohibition fo Diuine, 83 

That crauens my weake hand : Come, heere's my heart : 

84. That] That'tVa.un. 84. heart:] heart- Rowe,+. heart. 


[It is unlike Shakespeare to refer, without due authority, to a specific 'canon/ or 
to a 'divine prohibition.' A conviction, therefore, has never deserted me that 
eventually time would vindicate him. Almost discouraged by a fruitless search 
through a printed collection of 'The Canons of the Church' from the earliest 
years down to the time of Shakespeare, at last, in happy hour, through a common 
friend, I applied to Father CLIFFORD, formerly a member of the English Province 
of the Jesuits, and now parish priest of 'Our Lady of Mercy' in Whippany, New 
Jersey, whose wide and accurate learning is acknowledged in two hemispheres. 
From his courteous hands I have received the following note, whereby the question 
is finally set at rest, and Shakespeare's accuracy vindicated: 'The ecclesiastical 
enactments on the subject of suicide are very rigid, very specific; and almost as old 
as Church legislation itself. Thus: (A) In the Rituale Romamim, in current use 
today, we have the following: De Exequiis: Cap. 2: Quibus non licet dare eccle- 
siasticam sepulturam. S. 3: Se ipsos occidentibus ob desperationem vel iracundiam 
(non tamen si ex insania id accidat) nisi ante mortem dederint signa poenitentiae. 
(B) Father Lehenkuhl (vol. i. of his Theologia Moralis, editio sexta) quotes the 
Dccretales as affording abundant evidence of the Church's mind in the matter. 
(The Decretales or Litterae Dccretales, compiled by Alexander III. (1159-1187), 
were published by Gregory IX, and afterwards re-edited again under Papal direc- 
tion by S. Raymund de Pennaforte (1234), commonly known as S. Raymundus 
Non-natus. The contents of this remarkable collection of Decisions on Cases 
that had come up for solution previous to the twelfth century really carry one 
back to the fourth, and, possibly (?), to the third century.) (C) Bishop Hefele 
(Hist. Ch. Councils) quotes a canon (No. 4) of the XVI. Synod of Toledo: 'If anyone 
has attempted to commit suicide and has been prevented, he is to be excluded for 
two months from all fellowship with Catholics and from the Holy Communion.' 
I quote from William Clark's Trans., vol. v, p. 245. Edinburgh, T. and T. Clark. 
(D) Cardinal de Lugo (a Spanish Jesuit Theologian of great name and influence) 
cites some very recondite and curious evidence from S. Augustine Contra Petili- 
anum, cap. XXIV, apropos of the Circumcelliones, or Circuitores, who defended 
suicide, apparently, in just such cases as Hamlet finds himself in, and who even 
described it as a species martyrii. (E) In the De Civitate Dei, cc, xvii-xxviii, of 
Book i, the Saint discusses quite an array of instances and cases, and invariably 
concludes against the lawfulness of suicide in any circumstances whatsoever. 
It is a most interesting discussion, Lucretia, Cato, Regulus, Judas Iscariot, 
they all come up for notice. (F) A Council of Braga (Concilium Bracharense), 
anno 411, is also instanced by De Lugo; but scholars, I believe, are agreed that the 
Council in question left no clear evidence behind it. The decrees usually cited are 
now known to be spurious. Yet, spurious or genuine, they are very old and show 
the mind of the time, say, of a century and half later. In all these enactments 
the word canon is explicitly used. Whether the Elizabethans vaguely appre- 
hended all this intricate and ecclesiastical connotation in their use of the word, 
or whether Shakespeare saw it and felt it, is a nice point that I should like to see 

228 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

Something's a-foot : Soft, foft, wee'l no defence, 85 

Obedient as the Scabbard. What is heere, 

The Scriptures of the Loyall Leonatus, 

All turn'd to Herefie ? Away, away 

Corrupters of my Faith, you fhall no more 

Be Stomachers to my heart : thus may poore Fooles 90 

Beleeue falfe Teachers : Though thofe that are betraid 

Do feele the Treafon fharpely, yet the Traitor 92 

85. Something's] Something Han. ii. 88. [Pulling his letter out of her 
a-foot] F 2 . afoot F 3 F 4 . in front Bosom. Rowe (Letters Pope), + - 

Coll. MS. afore't Rowe et seq. 89. Faith,] faith! Theob. Warb. et 

[Opening her breast. Rowe. seq. 

Joft,] Ff, Rowe,+. soft! Coll. 90. heart:] heart! Cap. heart. 

Sing. Dyce, Ktly. soft; Cap. et Dyce. 

cet. 91. Though] Om. Pope, Han. 

86. heere,] Ff, Rowe. here; Knt. thofe that are] those, are Vaun. 
here? Pope et cet. are] art F 4 . 

85. Something's ... no defence] This line, VAUGHAN (p. 445) suggests, 
should be placed in a parenthesis, whereby it is the 'heart' and not Imogen herself 
generally that is made obedient to the scabbard. DOWDEN adopted the sug- 
gestion. Would not the time, however, which Imogen must take in discovering 
what it is which is afore her heart, and the delay implied by 'Soft, soft/ break 
this connection with heart, when heard on the stage? This line is highly dramatic. 
There lies in it surprise, wonderment, and ' soft, soft ' shows that she was searching 
fold after fold of her garment until she finds the letters beneath the inmost of all, 
next to her very heart. ED. 

87. The Scriptures] STEEVENS: So Ben Jonson, in The Sad Shepherd: 'The 
lovers' scripture, Heliodore's, or Tatii.' [I, ii, 'scriptures' here means novels, 
stories, not letters. ED.] Shakespeare means, however, in this place an opposi- 
tion between 'scripture,' in its common signification, and heresy. [It seems to me 
it would be more correct to say that having called the dear letters of her loyal 
lover 'scripture,' the instant thought of his disloyalty as quickly suggested 'heresy.' 

ED.] HERAUD (p. 331): Where did Imogen find this 'canon 'gainst self- 
slaughter? not in the 'scriptures,' to which Imogen afterwards alludes, for they 
have no special prohibition of such a crime; and the Hebrew annals, like the 
Roman, contain many instances of self-sacrifice. The curious use made of those 
'scriptures' as a simile might, again, be almost taken as a testimony against the 
reformers in favour of the claims of the Catholic Church to set her authority 
above the written word. [And so Heraud's note runs on, to prove that Shake- 
speare was an 'extreme Protestant' and would 'no more admit a paper Pope 
than he would a personal one, ' etc. I do not, I cannot believe that Heraud 
imagined that Imogen, in referring to the 'Scriptures' of Leonatus, supposed that 
what was afore her heart was a copy of Posthumus's Bible, and yet his words 
come perilously near that meaning. Probably he considered it so evident that 
love-letters were intended that he did not deem it worth while to mark the 
distinction. ED.] 

ACT III, SC. iv.] 


Stands in worfe cafe of woe. And thou Pojlhumus, 

That didd'ft fet vp my difobedience 'gainft the King 

My Father, and makes me put into contempt the fuites 

Of Princely Fellowes, malt heereafter finde 

It is no a6le of common paffage, but 

A ftraine of Rareneffe : and I greeue my felfe, 

To thinke, when thou (halt be difedg'd by her, 




93-95. Lines end: woe ...Jet vp ... 
Father ...Juites Cap. Var. '78, '85, Ran. 
Steev. Varr. Eel. Knt, Coll. Sing. Dyce, 
Glo. Cam. Huds. Rife, Dtn, Dowden. 

93. thou] thou too, Ktly. conj. 

94. That didd'Jl fet vp] Ff, Rowe, 
Han. Var. '73, Mai. Knt, Coll. Sing. 
Dyce, Sta. Ktly. That set Pope, Theob. 
Warb. That set'st Johns. That 
diddcst set up Var. '78, '85. thou that 
did'st set up Cap. et cet. 

94-96. Four lines, ending: dif obe- 
dience.. .makes. ..fuites.. .finde (reading 
A gainst. ..and did'st make. ..even the suits) 

Lines end: 'gai nft... contempt 

...finde Mai. Sta. fet. ..vp... Father... 
fuites. ..finde Ingl. 

95. My Father] Om. Pope, Theob. 
Warb. Johns. 

and makes] Ff. and mad'st 
Ro\ve,+, Cap. Var. '78, '85, Ran. 
Eel. and didst make Han. mad'st 
Var. '73. and make Cap. et cet. 

95, 96. fuites... finde] One line Ktly. 

96. Fellowes,] Fellows, F 4 . fellows; 
Rowe, Pope, Han. 

Jlialt] shall Sta. ii. (misprint). 

98. greeue} grieve F 3 F 4 . 

fclfe,] self Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

99. difedg'd] dis-sieg'd Theob. conj. 
(Sh. Rest., 189, withdrawn.) 

93-95. Stands . . . the suites] Within the compass of these three lines 
so many changes have been made in the division of them, for the sake of scansion, 
that the CAMBRIDGE EDITION apparently gave up the attempt to set them forth 
in Text. Notes with intelligible clearness and devoted a full page to reprint the 
various versions at full length. I do not flatter myself that I have succeeded where 
my betters have failed. If I have failed I could be extremely sorry that it was not 
in a better cause. For what do all these changes amount to, when no ear either 
can, or ought to, detect them on the stage? unless we return to the sing-song chant 
of Betterton's days? Is rhythm to be our master? The cadences into which 
Shakespeare's music flows, under the stress of deep emotion, do not depend on the 
length of lines or on their division. ED.] 

96. Princely Fellowes] MALONE: One of the same fellowships or rank with 
myself. COLLIER pronounced 'Fellows' 'absurd,' and in his second and third 
editions adopted the reading of his MS. followers. ANON. (Blackwood, Oct., 1853, 
p. 471): Imogen means princely equals. This is undoubted. Posthumus was 
beneath her in rank; yet, for his sake, she had declined the proposals of suitors as 
high-born as herself. 

97. common passage] SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, occurrence. 

98. straine of Rarenesse] SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, motion of the mind, im- 
pulse, feeling. 

98. I greeue my selfe, etc.] Compare Hermione's pathetic speech to 
Leontes, in The Wint. Tale: 'how this will grieue you, When you shall come 
to clearer knowledge that You thus haue publish'd me.' II, i, 119 (of this 
ed.). ED. 

230 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT m, sc. iv. 

That now thou tyreft on, how thy memory 100 

Will then be pang'd by me. Prythee difpatch, 

The Lambe entreats the Butcher. Wher's thy knife? 

Thou art too flow to do thy Matters bidding 

When I defire it too. 

Pif. Oh gracious Lady : 105 

Since I receiuM command to do this bufineffe, 
I haue not flept one winke. 

Imo. Doo't,and to bed then. 

Pif. He wake mine eye-balles firft. 109 

TOO. That] Whom Pope,-f-. Johns. Sta. break. ..first Rowe, Pope, 

101. me.} me Pope, Theob. ii, Theob. Warb. Hal. crack. ..first Coll. 
Han. ii, iii. (MS.). make. ..first Ktly. 

102. thy} the F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Han. wake... out first Johns, conj. Ingl. waste 

103. too} to F 2 . ...first Elze. wake. ..blind first Han. et 
109. wake...firfl} Ff (eye-balls F 4 ), cet. 

100. thou tyrest on] WHITNEY (Cent. Diet.} : The Primary intransitive mean- 
ing of to 'tyre' is: To engage in pulling or tearing or rending: used especially in 
falconry of hawks pouncing upon their prey. The secondary meaning is: To be 
earnestly engaged; to dote; gloat [as in the present line]. 

101. pang'd] For many other examples of verbs formed from nouns, see ABBOTT, 
290; where 'panging' is quoted from Hen. VIII: II, iii, 15: "Tis a sufferance 
panging As soul and body's severing.' 

109. lie wake mine eye-balles first] JOHNSON: I read: I'll wake mine 
eye-balls out first, or blind first. [Of these two readings, only the former is John- 
son's own; the latter appeared in Hanmer's text twenty years before the date of 
Johnson's edition.] STEEVENS: Dr Johnson's conjecture may receive some sup- 
port from the following in The Bugbears, a MS. comedy more ancient than Cym- 
beline: 'I doubt Least for lacke of my slepe I shall watche my eyes oute.' [Steevens's 
quotations, which cannot be verified, should be received with caution. ED.] 
Again in The Revenger's Tragedy, 1608: 'A piteous tragedy! able to wake An old 
man's eyes bloodshot.' [Hazlitt-Dodsley reads 'able to make' and in a foot-note 
says: 'The Qto reads wake.' Churton Collins also reads 'make' and no foot-note.] 
Again, in The Roaring Girl, 1611: 'I'll ride to Oxford, and watch out my eyes, but 
I'll hear the brazen head.' COLLIER (ed. ii, reading cracke for 'wake'): Neither 
Hanmer nor any of his successors has informed us where the expression to 'wake 
eye-balls blind' is to be found. It is, in truth, without precedent, whereas 'to crack 
the eye-balls' is a phrase perfectly natural, and requires no addition of 'blind' 
or of any other word. Our text is that of the MS. and we are confident it is right. 
STAUNTON after referring to Hanmer's emendation and that of Collier, 'who,' 
he says, 'adopts the almost ludicrous alteration of his MS.,' remarks: 'There is 
not the slightest need for a change of any kind. "Wake" is a synonym for watch, 
and to watch is a technical term in falconry for the cruel method of taming the 
newly-taken hawks by depriving them of sleep. "I'll wake mine eye-balls" then, 
means, "I'll prevent sleep even by the tortures of my eye-balls." The very ex- 
pression, indeed, though overlooked by all the editors, occurs in Lust's Dominion, 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 231 

[109. He wake mine eye-balles first] 

I, ii: " I'll still wake And waste these balls of sight by tossing them In.," ' etc. So, 
also, in Middleton's Roaring Girl, [quoted by Steevens]. DYCE (Strictures, p. 212) : 
' To crack the eye-strings 1 is a not uncommon expression, and, indeed, occurs in this 
very play, 'I would have broke mine eye-strings, crack'd them,' etc., I, iv, 24; but 
who ever heard of 'cracking the eye-balles,' though Mr Collier calls it 'a phrase 
perfectly natural? ... I cannot think that [in the passage quoted by Mr Staun- 
ton] the verb 'wake' (after which Mr Staunton throws out the comma) governs 
'eye-balls,' the meaning I conceive to be, 'I'll still keep myself awake, and waste 
these balls,' etc. (So in Spenser: 'All night she watcht; ne once adowne would 
lay Her dainty limbs on her sad dreriment, But praying still did wake, and waking 
did lament.' The Faerie Queene, b. i, c. xi, st. 32). Some word, therefore, seems to 
be required after ' eye-balls ' ; nor is the metre, which throughout this scene is far from 
irregular, complete without it. [This note Dyce repeated in his ed. ii.] INGLEBY 
quotes from Democritus his Dreame, Peter Woodhouse, 1605: 'and then I make no 
doubt, Thou'lt laugh no more, but weep thine eye-balles out.' p. 2, ed. Grossart. 
[But 'weeping' is not waking. Here, if ever, we must obey the only safe rule that 
the hardest reading is to be preferred. Staunton is, I think, right in adhering to 
the Folio, if any legitimate sense can be obtained from it. Dyce himself does not 
appear to be thoroughly convinced of the necessity of emendation; he says: 'some 
word seems to be required after eye-balls.' This is not saying that the line would 
be unintelligible without it. The objection, at first sight, to Staunton's interpre- 
tation is that watch and 'wake' are hardly synonyms. Watch but not 'wake' is 
the technical term used in the training of hawks. HARTING (p. 45) quotes from 
Edmund Bert's Treatyse of Hawks and Hawking, 1619: 'I have heard of some who 
watched and kept hawks awake seven nights and as many days.' This use of 
watch is frequent in Shakespeare, but even had he meant it here he could hardly 
have used it in place of 'wake'; even to a falconer's ears it might have sounded 
strange to hear Pisanio say 'I'll watch my eye-balls first.' What is needed, there- 
fore, to uphold the present text are examples of the use of 'wake' in the sense 
of watch. The N. E. D. is not, at this writing, advanced as far as the letter W. 
Next to it in value is The Century Dictionary, there, under 'wake,' WHITNEY gives 
a quotation from Syr John Maundeville's Voiage, which seems exactly in point. 
In his chapter xlviii, Syr John says: 'in thaf. countrey is an olde castell that is on 
a rock, yt men call the castell of Spirys, and there men finde an hawke sitting upon 
a perch right well made & a faire lady of Fayry that keepeth it, & he that will wake 
this same hawke seven days and seven nights, . . . alone without any company 
and without slepe, this faire ladie shall come unto him at the vii dayes ende & 
shall graunte unto him the first thing that he shall aske of worldly things. . . . 
And so uppon a time it befell that a man which that tyme was Kinge of Armonye 
[Armenia] that was a right doughty man waked uppon a tyme, and at the seven 
dayes ende the lady came to him and bade him aske what he would for he had 
wel done his devoure [devoir]. . . . Also a poore mannes soone as he waked on a 
tyme, and asked the lady that he might be rych and happy in marchaundise and the 
lady graunted him. . . . Also a Knight of the Templars waked likewise and when 
he had done, he desired to have a purse full of golde. . . . But he that shal wake 
hath great nede for to kepe him from slepe, for if he sleepe he is lost that he shall 
neuer bee seene.' pp. 110-112, ed. Ashton. Thiselton also refers to the Century 
Dictionary. After such an array of examples where ' wake ' is used in the sense of 

232 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

Imo. Wherefore then no 

DidcTft vndertake it? Why haft thou abus'd 
So many Miles, with a pretence ? This place ? 
Mine Action ? and thine owne ? Our Horfes labour ? 
The Time inuiting thee? The perturb'd Court 
For my being abfent ? whereunto I neuer 115 

Purpofe returne. Why haft thou gone fo farre 
To be vn-bent ? when thou haft 'tane thy ftand, 
Th'elected Deere before thee ? 

Pif. But to win time 
To loofe fo bad employment, in the which 1 20 

no. Wherefore] Ah, wherefore Pope, Var. '73. return? Rowe ii, et cet. 

Theob. Warb. And wherefore Coll. 117. vn-bent? when] Ff, Rowe, Pope. 

MS. unbent when Han. Knt, Dyce, Sta. 

113. Action?] action Var. '73. action, Glo. Cam. unbent, when Theob. et cet. 

Cap. et seq. 'tane] tane Ff . ta'en Rowe et seq. 

115. abfent?] Rowe ii, + , Glo. Cam. 118. Tk'] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. Dyce 
absent, Ktly, Dyce ii, iii. absent; Ff ii, iii. The Cap. et cet. 

et cet. 119. time] time; Var. '21. time, 

116. returne] Ff, Pope,+, Ktly, Coll. 

Glo. Cam. return; Rowe ii. return! 120. loofe] lofe F 4 . 

watch and of a torturing watch are we justified in changing Shakespeare's 
text? To be sure, these examples are all from one very old writer and all from one 
chapter, but he uses throughout the language of the common people, and it is fair 
to assume that he was commonly understood. And is it not also fair to assume that, 
in spite of the changes in language between the years when the First Folio and the 
Fourth were printed, ' wake ' still retained its meaning throughout those sixty-two 
years and was duly comprehended both by Shakespeare's compositors and by his 
auditors, and that it was only through the decline of Falconry that the force of the 
word became lost? ED.] 

in, 112. abus'd So many Miles] A vivid personification of miles, implying 
that they had rights which those who travelled them were bound to respect. Here 
Pisanio had 'abused' them by not fulfilling the purpose which he had in view when 
he set out to journey over them. 'Abus'd' occurs in its ordinary meaning in line 
134, below. ED. 

117. To be vn-bent] JOHNSON: To have thy bow unbent, alluding to an 
hunter. [Did Dr Johnson drop some of his aitches? or was the dropping in his 
day allowable in 'hunter/ as it still is in honour, hour, etc.? ED.] MADDEN (p. 
236) : It was a question to be asked, for when the deer are driven by the stand, then 
comes the moment for action. A stand was a hiding place constructed in the 
thickest brake, commanding the land across which the deer were expected to pass. 

118. Th'elected Deere before thee] M ALONE: So, in The Passionate Pil- 
grim: 'When as thine eye hath chose the dame, And stall'd the deer that thou 
should'st strike.' line 299. 

120. loose] DELIUS: To 'lose' may be used as the opposite of to win, and it 
may also mean to be free from, to be loose from. [This note of Delius, VAUGHAN 
(p. 447) controverts, but I think he misinterprets Delius's doppelsinnig, which he 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 233 

I haue confider'd of a courfe: good Ladie 121 

Heare me with patience. 

lino. Talke thy tongue weary, fpeake : 
I haue heard I am a Strumpet, and mine eare 
Therein falfe ftrooke, can take no greater wound, 125 

Nor tent, to bottome that. But fpeake. 

Pif. Then Madam, 
I thought you would not backe againe. 

I mo. Moft like, 
Bringing me heere to kill me. 1 30 

Pif. Not fo neither : 
But if I were as wife, as honeft, then 
My purpofe would proue well : it cannot be, 
But that my Mafter is abus'd. Some Villaine, 
I, and fmgular in his Art, hath done you both 135 

121. courfe:] course. Coll. Dyce, Sta. Cap. 

Sing. Ktly, Glo. Cam. 133. well:] well. Johns, et seq. 

122. me] Om. Cap. (corrected in 134-136. But that...imurie.] Lines 
Errata.) end: abus'd ... Art ... iniurie. Cap. 

patience] patence F 2 . et seq. (except Ktly, Cam., who follow 

123. weary,] weary; Cap. et seq. FI). 

fpeake] Om. Vaun. 134. abus'd.] Ff. abus'd, Rowe, Pope. 

124. / haue] I've Pope, + , Dyce ii, abus'd; Theob. et seq. 

Hi. 135. /, and] Ff. And Pope,+. Ay, 

125. ftrooke] ftrook F 3 F 4 , Rowe i, and Rowe et cet. 

takes as meaning an 'equivocation/ as it certainly does mean usually; but here, 
I think, the excellent German editor intends simply that the word is capable of two 
interpretations, without any implication of equivocation or double meaning, in 
malam partem, as the old grammarians would say. ED.] 

121, 122. good Ladie Heare me with patience] I marvel that neither Capell 
nor other editor has here added a stage direction: Imogen makes a gesture of im- 
patience; just as in line 213 of this scene, when Pisanio says to Imogen: 'Heere is a 
boxe,' Capell obligingly inserts a double dagger to let us know that Pisanio hands 
it to her. One is almost tempted to assert that, other than the very, very scanty 
stage directions in the Folio, Shakespeare needs none from the first page of The 
Tempest to the last of Pericles. ED. 

126. Nor tent] MURRAY (N. E. D.}: A probe. 'Modest Doubt is cal'd . . . 
the tent that searches To'th' bottome of the worst.' Tro. 6* Cress., II, ii, 16. 

132. But if I were] Rev. JOHN HUNTER: That is, I thought that if I were. 

134, 135. Some Villaine, I, and singular, etc.] VAUGHAN: These lines 
should run thus, probably: 'But that my master is abus'd: some villain, Some 
villain ay, and singular in his art.' No words are so often lost by mistake in 
Shakespeare as words repeated; and the repetition here is natural. [Vaughan fol- 
lowed, without investigation, Capell's text. Had he only looked occasionally into 
the Folio, I think that both he and his readers would have been happier. He 
believed he was adding 'some villain' to line 134; in reality he was prefixing it to 



[ACT in, sc. iv. 

This curfed miurie. 

Into. Some Roman Curtezan f 

Pifa. No, on my life : 

He giue but notice you are dead, and fend him 
Some bloody figne of it. For 'tis commanded 
I mould do fo : you mail be mift at Court, 
And that will well confirme it. 

Imo. Why good Fellow, 

What fhall I do the while ? Where bide ? How Hue ? 
Or in my life, what comfort, when I am 
Dead to my Husband ? 

Pif. If you'l backe to'th'Court. 

lino. No Court, no Father, nor no more adoe 
With that harm, noble, fimple nothing: 





137. Curtezan?] Ff, Rowe, Pope. 
curtezan Theob. Han. Warb. Johns. 
curtezan. Cap. et cet. 

138. life:} life. Pope et seq. 

139. but] F 2 . him F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. 

140. of it.} of it: Pope et seq. 

141. fo:] so. Pope,+. 
mift] miss'd Rowe. 

143. Fellow} Fellow; Rowe, Pope. 

144, 153. bide] 'bide Theob. ii, Warb. 

147. to'th'] F 2 . to tti* F 3 F 4 , Rowe, + . 
to the Cap. et seq. 

Court.} court Pope et seq. 

148. Father] Father; Rowe et seq. 

149. 150. With...Clotten] One line 
Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. Cap. Dyce, 

149. noble} ignoble noble B. Nichol- 
son (N. & Q., Dec., 1868). nothing noble, 
Ingl. i, Dtn. that ignoble Elze. no, 
no noble Perring. hardly noble Leo. 

noble, fimple] noble-simple D. 
C. T. (N. & Q., June, 1882). 

fimple nothing:] fimple nothing; 
F 2 , Ingl. fimple nothing? F 3 F 4 . simple 
nothing, Rowe, Pope, Coll. i, Dyce i, 
Glo. Cam. Dtn. simple, Nothing, 
Cloten: Theob. Warb. simple nothing, 
Cloten: Han. Cap. Dyce (reading 
Cloten ,') ii, iii, Huds. simple, nothing, 
Johns. Sta. Sing. Ktly. simple, empty 
nothing, Coll. ii, iii. (MS.), noble 
simply in nothing, Vaun. simple, 
nothing; Var. '73 et cet. 

line 135; and thereby changing lines that possibly needed no change. The same 
emendation occurred previously to CRAIG, but he properly placed the repetition at 
the beginning of line 135. ED.] WALKER (Grit., iii, 323): I am all but certain 
we should read and arrange: 'And singular in 's art, hath,' etc. I follow the Folio, 
only expunging 'I' (Ay) after 'villain,' and altering 'his' to 's.' [Walker's library 
was small, and he is possibly, therefore, excusable; but I think Walker's editor, 
Lettsom, should have noted that the omission of ' I ' is as old as Pope, and that of 
the two emendations the alteration of 'his' to 's' is alone Walker's and so trifling 
as to be hardly worth recording. ED.] 

140. 'tis commanded] ROLFE: This is implied in the injunction 'to make 
me certain it is done,' which Pisanio is left to interpret his own way. 

142. will well confirme it] ECCLES: As that circumstance might be sup- 
posed soon to reach the ears of Posthumus, though himself absent. 

147. you'l backe to'th'Court] ECCLES: It is not easy to say what follow- 
ing expedient he would have suggested to her, if such had been her determination. 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 235 

That Clotten, whofe Loue-futte hath bene to me 150 

As fearefull as a Siege. 

Pif. If not at Court, 

Then not in Britaine muft you bide. 

Imo. Wherethenf 154 

150. That Clotten,] Ff. That Cloten: 154. Imo.] Luc. F 4 . 

Ro\ve. Cloten: Pope. Imo. Where then?] Imo. Hath 

153, 154. Then ...Where then?] One Han. Warb. MS. 

line, given to Pisan. Han. Warb. Where then?] What then Cap. 

MS. conj., Ran. Huds. 

The account intended to be sent to her husband of her death would in that case 
have lost its effect, and consequently must have been laid aside. 

149. that harsh, noble, simple nothing] MALONE: Some epithet of two 
syllables has here been omitted by the compositor; for which, having but one 
copy, it is now vain to seek. WHITE justly adds: 'but no addition is needed to 
perfect the sense.' SINGER (Shakespeare Vindicated, etc., p. 308) goes even further 
and asserts that the 'line is quite as harmonious, and more effective,' without any 
addition. BULLOCH (1868, p. 275): Some dozen years ago I adopted the follow- 
ing reading: 'that harsh noodle simple mouthing fool .' Noodle is not in Shake- 
speare, neither is mouthing, though 'mouthed' is and so is ' mousing '; fool is sup- 
plied; the terms are all applicable and the measure is filled up. R. M. SPENCE 
(N. 6 Qu., VI, i, 52, 1880): 'Noble' I take to be here used in its monetary sense. 
'Harsh' I regard as a misprint for trash. The line I read thus: 'With that trash 
noble, simple nothing, Cloten.' She calls him first a 'trash noble' a base coin; 
then, correcting herself, as even that was too good a name for him, she calls him 
a 'simple nothing.' ARTHUR GRAY (N. &* Qu., VII, vi, 343, 1888): 'Noble' is 
unquestionably right. It is practically the synonym of 'simple' and, like it, may 
be used in the honourable sense of artless, ingenious, or mockingly, as foolish. 
[Hereupon follow examples of the use of ' noble ' in the two opposed senses, which, 
we are told, are practically synonyms, but unfortunately, do not cure the halting 
rhythm.] Br. NICHOLSON (N. & Qu., VII, viii, 45, 1889) defends the reading he had 
proposed many years before. See Text. Notes. He urges, first, that Cloten was 
both by birth and character an 'ignoble noble'; secondly, that the phrase, while 
stronger than 'that harsh,' is less strong than, but a fitting preliminary to, the 
climax 'simple nothing'; thirdly, that the similarity between 'ignoble' and 'noble' 
gives a ready cause for the compositor's catching up the latter only. PORTER and 
CLARK remark that the time of the missing foot is filled up by ' Imogen's exasper- 
ated pause, when she can think of nothing bad enough further, except his name.' 
[If ever a poet writ whose selection of words approached perfection, it is Shake- 
speare. We all know this; and yet when there is a chance of ekeing out the metre 
with a word of two syllables, how eager we all are light-heartedly to fill the gap 
and expect an admiring world to acknowledge our success in recalling Shakespeare's 
very word. But the world is cold, and scorns our word and instantly substitutes 
a true one of its own. 'Tis with our emendations, as our watches, none are just 
alike, but each believes his own. The line, I think, needs no aid beyond the pause 
which Miss Porter and Miss Clarke suggest. ED.] 

154. Where then?] CAPELL (p. 112): There is no accounting for this question, 
and making it proper, if we suppose it connected with the others that follow: but 

236 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

[154. Wherethen?] 

considering it a question apart, and the others as afterthoughts, 'Where then' may 
be right; and its rectitude would appear in the action, by a due length of pause be- 
tween that and the other questions. [Capell does not here mention his own con- 
jecture What then?, which was probably an afterthought, see page 14 of his Various 
Readings. Six years later, in 1785, Monck Mason made the same conjecture.] 
MALONE: Perhaps Imogen silently answers her own question: 'anywhere. Hath 
Britain,' etc. THISELTON (p. 32): This is equivalent to / care not where. ELZE 
(p. 316): Imogen cannot possibly be the speaker of the two lines following 'Where 
then?.' The original distribution of the lines, in my opinion, was this: 'Pisanio. 
Hath Britain all the sun that shines? Day, night, Are they not but in Britain? 
Imogen. I'the world's volume Our Britain . . . There's livers out of Britain.' 
VAUGHAN, whose New Readings, etc., was published in the same year with Elze's 
Notes, also made a new distribution of speeches, as follows: Imogen asks, 'Where 
then?' Pisanio replies, 'Hath Britain all the sun,' etc.; and, continuing, concludes 
with, 'Prythee think, There's livers out of Britain,' Whereto Imogen answers, 
'I am most glad you think of other place.' Pisanio resumes, 'The Ambassador,' 
etc. In the course of Pisanio's speech, line 157, Vaughan changes 'but not in't' 
to 'but not it.' [This re-arrangement DOWDEN pronounces 'bold,' which it cer- 
tainly is, but not, I think, too bold. I can only sigh under my breath, 'Pereant qui 
ante nos nostra dixerunt.' Exactly the same arrangement had occurred to me. 
It seems highly unnatural that Imogen after the sad wail from her darkened 
soul, 'Where then?' should at once answer her own question with a cheerful al- 
lusion to sunlight over the whole globe, and then go on trippingly, rehearsing the 
advantages of leaving the island, advantages that would come more naturally from 
Pisanio, arguments leading up to his counsel to Imogen actually to follow Posthu- 
mus to Rome. His was no plan formed on the spur of the moment; as the con- 
ference goes on, we see that every detail had been anticipated by him, and note how 
tactfully he deals with his gracious Lady from the very first intimation of his plan, 
'I thought you would backe againe,' on through, 'Then not in Britaine must you 
bide,' until we hear this first cheering note 'Hath Britaine all the sun that shines,' 
and at its conclusion how pitifully Imogen's words sound, 'I am most glad you think 
of other place.' The chief est objection to this re-arrangement, apart from its 
boldness, is, I think, to be found in the poetic imagery, ignoble though it be, in 
which Pisanio, of all men! and at such a tragic hour! indulges. I do not forget how 
a poetic thought, or worse, even a pun, will prove the fatal Cleopatra to Shake- 
speare, and he will follow it to ruin, but in the present burst of ill-timed patriotism 
there is no charm of poetry nor cadence of rhythm to allure him astray. A nest 
of sticks in a great pool as a description of England never fell from lips that had 
once called it 'this precious stone set in a silver sea.' Never would Shakespeare, 
speaking of his own 'demi-Paradise,' have used a degrading image, like the present, 
or like Byron's 'yeasty waves.' I am sure that the lines beginning with 'Day? 
Night? ' and ending with ' Swannes-nest ' are by the same tawdry hand that added 
to The Dirge, 'Golden lads and girls all must Like Chimney sweepers come to 
dust.' Finally, this omission does not affect the rhythm harmfully. 'Hath 
Britaine all the Sunne that shines? prythee thinke ' has but one extra syllable, which 
is common, line 156 has one. ED.] DOWDEN: I suppose that Imogen at first 
cannot think of leaving Britain; then pauses; and then suddenly determines that she 
will leave her country. 

ACT III, SC. iv.] 



Hath Britaine all the Sunne that fliines? Day? Night? 
Are they not but in Britaine/ I'th'worlds Volume 
Our Britaine feemes as of it, but not in't : 
In a great Poole, a Swannes-neft, prythee thinke 
There's liuers out of Britaine. 

Pif. I am moft glad 
You thinke of other place : Th'Ambaffador, 



155. Day? Night?] Day, night, Theob. 
et seq. 

156. I'M] Ith' F 3 F 4 . rthe Cap. et 

157. of it,.. .in't:} off it,... in it Schmidt 
(Lex., s. v. ' off ') in it,.. .of it; Daniel, 
Huds. of it,.. .it, Vaun. 

in't] Ff, Rowe, Cap. Dyce, 
Sta. Sing. Ktly, Glo. Cam. in it Pope 
et cet. 

158. nejl,] Ff, Rowe i. nest. Rowe, 
+ , Ktly. nest: Cap. et cet. 

158. prythee] F 2 . prethee F 3 F 4 , Rowe 
i. prithee Rowe ii, Knt, Dyce, Glo. 
Cam. Pr'ythee Pope et cet. 

159. liuers] living Pope, Theob. 
Han. Warb. Eel. 

1 60. / am] Fm Pope, + , Dyce ii, iii. 

161. place:] place. Cap. et seq. 

77*'] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. Dyce 
ii, iii, Sing. Ktly. The Cap. et cet. 

Ambaffador] embassador Cap. 
Var. '78, '85, Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr. 
Sing. Coll. iii. 

155. Hath Britaine all the Sunne that shines] MALONE: Shakespeare 
seems here to have in his thoughts a passage in Lily's Euphues, 1580, which he has 
imitated in Rich. II: [I, iii, 275], ' Nature hath given no man a country, no more than 
she hath a house or lands, or liuings. . . . Plato would never accompt him ban- 
ished yat had ye Sun, Fire, Aire, Water and Earth, that he had before, where he 
felt the Winter's blast and the Summer's blaze, where ye same Sun, and the same 
Moone shined, whereby he noted that every place was a country to a wise man, 
and al parts a pallace to a quiet mind. . . . How can any part of the world be dis- 
tant farre from the other, when as the Mathematicians set down that the earth is 
but a point being compared to ye heauens?' Letters of Euphues, p. 187, ed. Arber. 

157. Britaine seemes as of it, but not in't] HUDSON*: Daniel's change is 
fully warranted by the context. 'To be in the world, but not of it' has long been 
a sort of proverbial phrase. INGLEBY considers Daniel's transposition as 'specious,' 
and observes, 'But the "great pool" stands for the ocean, and not for the world. 
Britain is "in the world's volume," but seems not to be so, being divisa toto orbe by 
the sea, as a swan's nest in a great pool is divided from the land.' DOWDEN: I 
take the text to mean Britain is a page of the world's great volume, but as it were, 
a page torn from it 'of it, but not in it'; it is islanded in ocean like a swan's nest 
in a pool, far from the world, as is a swan's nest from the shores of the pool. The 
'world' means the terrene, inhabited world, and Britain was not in it, as Battista 
Guarino writes: 'Britannia ipsa, quae extra orbem terrarum posita est' quoted 
in Einstein's Italian Renaissance in England, p. 19 n. So in Trevisa's translation 
of Bartholomew Glanvil (Of Anglia}: 'England is the most island of Ocean, and is 
beclipped all about by the sea, and departed from the roundness of the world,' i. e., 
of it, yet not in it. 

158. Swannes-nest] WALKER (Vers., 235) calls attention to this hyphenated 
word as an illustration of his observation that 'Such combinations as "Luds' town," 
" Heaven's Gate," and others of the same kind are pronounced as if they were single 
words, with the accent on the first syllable.' See III, i, 39. 

238 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

Lucius the Romane comes to Milford-Hauen 162 

To morrow. Now, if you could weare a minde 

Darke, as your Fortune is, and but difguife 

That which t'appeare it felfe, muft not yet be, 165 

But by felfe-danger, you fhould tread a courfe 

163. morrow.] Ff, Rowe,+, Ktly. mask Kinnear. blind Vaun. 
morrow: Cap. et cet. 165. fappeare] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. 

minde] mien Warb. Theob. Dyce ii, iii. Ktly. to appear Cap. et cet. 
Han. mine Theob. conj. (withdrawn). 166. JJiould] shall Var. '73. 

163. weare a minde] WARBURTON: What had the darkness of her mind to do 
with the concealment of person, which is the only thing here advised? On the 
contrary, her 'mind' was to continue unchanged, in order to support her change 
of fortune. Shakespeare wrote, ' wear a mien.' Or, according to the French orthog- 
raphy, from whence I presume arose the corruption, 'wear a mine.' [Mine was 
Theobald's conjecture, in a letter to Warburton.] JOHNSON: To wear a dark 
mind is to carry a mind impenetrable to the search of others. Darkness, applied to 
the mind, is secrecy; applied to fortune, is obscurity. The next lines are obscure. 
'You must,' says Pisanio, 'disguise that greatness, which, to appear hereafter in its 
proper form, cannot yet appear without great danger to itself.' HEATH (p. 481): 
That is, Now, if you can suffer your mind to be disguised in conformity to your 
fortune. That the mind was to be disguised, as well as the person, Pisanio plainly 
tells Imogen on the next page, 'you must forget to be a woman,' etc. CAPELL (p. 
112): -Previous to his proposal about her person, Pisanio enquires about the state 
of his mistress's 'mind'; whether she can 'disguise that,' put off the princess, and 
submit herself to her fortune; and, to the end she may appear what she really is in 
some future time, forego the appearance of it now when it cannot be worn without 
danger. This seems to be the sense of this difficult passage, which the Author's 
masculine brevity has rendered obscure. VAUGHAN (p. 453): What Pisanio 
counsels her to disguise principally, if not solely, is her sex; her greatness was al- 
ready disguised by the costume of a franklin's wife. I understand ' which to ap- 
pear itself must not yet be, but by self-danger' as equivalent to 'which cannot 
yet appear in an undisguised form without destruction to self.' So I would inter- 
pret the whole thus: 'If you would but disguise that womanhood, which cannot 
possibly yet appear openly and in its own character without self-destruction, you 
would,' etc. What the Poet so meant is shown by Pisanio's explanation of his ad- 
vice in the next speech which he makes, about the change of fear into courage, and 
all the exterior and interior characteristics of a woman into those of a youthful 
man. THISELTON: The following words of Musidorus to Pyrocles on the latter's 
assumption of the Amazonian garb, strongly confirm the Folio text 'weare a mind': 
'to take this womanish habite (without you frame your behaviour accordingly) 
is wholly vaine: your behaviour can never come kindly from you, but as the mind 
is proportioned unto it.' Arcadia, p. 44. [Capell's paraphrase is, I think, the 
happiest and most concise. ED.] 

165. That which t'appeare it selfe, must not yet be] ABBOTT ( 296): 
That is, that which, as regards showing itself, must not yet have any existence. 
DEIGHTON: Abbott's rendering does not take into account the words 'but by self- 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 239 

Pretty, and full of view : yea, happily, neere 167 

The refidence of Pofthumus ; fo nie ( at leaft ) 

That though his Actions were not vifible, yet 

Report fhould render him hourely to your eare, 170 

167. Pretty, and] Privy, yet Coll. ii. 168. nie] F 2 . nigh F 3 F 4 , Om. Vaun. 

(MS.). Privy, and Coll. iii. (MS.). 168. lea/I] lafl Ff. 

Happy and Cartwright. Ready, and 169. Actions] action Rowe, Pope, 

Bulloch. Han. 

happily] haply Pope et seq. 169. yet] Om. Pope,+. 

167. Pretty, and full of view] WARBURTON: That is likely to prove suc- 
cessful. JOHNSON: With opportunities of examining your affairs with your own 
eyes. CAPELL (p. 112): Full of fair view, or affording fair prospect of turning out 
happily. STEEVENS: This may mean, affording an ample prospect, a complete 
opportunity of discerning circumstances which it is your interest to know. Thus, 
in Pericles, 'full of face' appears to signify 'amply beautiful,' [i Gower, 23]; and 
Duncan assures [Macbeth] that he will make him 'full of growing,' i. e., of 'ample 
growth,' [I, iv, 29]. COLLIER (Notes, etc., p. 521): What can be the meaning of 
'pretty' here? It is an indisputable blunder, perhaps from defective hearing; 
Pisanio is showing Imogen how she may remain concealed, and yet have a full 
view of all that is passing around her. [The MS. thus amends: 'Privy; yet full 
of view.' She was to remain private and unknown, while she was able to mark 
all that was done by others.] WHITE (ed. i.): Here 'pretty' seems to be used as a 
diminutive of proper, suitable, as 'my daughter's of a pretty age,' i. e., to be married. 
Rom. &* Jul., I, iii. The reading of Mr Collier's MS. is merely specious. IBED. 
(ed. ii.) : Obscure. ' Pretty ' may mean nicely proper; ' full of view,' open. But the 
passage is very unsatisfactory, and yet not certainly corrupt. STAUNTON: But 
that [Collier's MS.] implies the misprinting of two words together, we should un- 
hesitatingly adopt his emendation; for Privy restores sense to the passage, and may 
have been mistaken for 'Pretty' in old writing, where the one was spelt Prime and 
the other 'Pretie.' BR. NICHOLSON (N. & Qu., VI, viii, 241, 1883): Collier's 
privy appears to be the best change yet proposed, but the then English did not, 
as does the correctness of this age, require the change of 'and' to yet. The word 
privy gives a Shakesperian antithesis to 'full view,' explained in the next clause. 
Unseen by Posthumus, you can see him, or be so nigh that 'Report should render 
him hourly to your ear, As truly as he moves.' THISELTON: 'Tread a course' 
suggests an equestrian allusion, and for 'Pretty' we may, therefore, compare 'and 
for a need, to ride pretty and well' (Patient Grissel, II, i, Sh. Soc., p. 19). 'Full 
of view' can, having regard to 't'appeare it selfe,' only be equivalent to 'for all 
to see,' whence soever the metaphor may be drawn; it is the opposite of 'viewless.' 
I have no doubt that the source of the metaphor running through the passage is to 
be found in the tournament, in which the combatants wore armour which so far 
disguised them that they could be recognized only by the devices they bore, and 
which was to protect that which could not be uncovered without 'selfe-danger,' 
while they performed the 'courses' (see Arcadia, p. 62) in full view of the specta- 
tors. DOWDEN: Perhaps 'Pretty' means becoming, but I think it qualifies 'full 
of view,' as it seems to qualify 'dark' in the following from Beaumont and Fletcher, 
'Mistress, it grows somewhat pretty and dark.' Beggar's Bush, V, i. 

170. render] Both WALKER (Vers., 67) and ABBOTT ( 465), for the sake of what 



[ACT in, sc. iv. 

As truely as he mooues. 

Imo. Oh for fuch meanes, 
Though perill to my modeftie, not death on't 
I would aduenture. 

Pif. Well then, heere's the point : 
You muft forget to be a Woman : change 
Command, into obedience. Feare , and Niceneffe 
( The Handmaides of all Women, or more truely 
Woman it pretty felfe) into a waggifh courage, 




172. meanes,] means! Cap. et seq. 

173. Though] Through Heath, Johns, 
conj. Ran. 

174. aduenture.} adventure Ktly. 
adventure! Cam. 

175. heere's} there' 's F 4 , Rowe. 
176-187. Mnemonic Pope. 

176. forget] forgot Theob. ii. (mis- 

Woman:] Woman, Rowe, Pope, 

177. into] in Rowe ii. 
179. Woman it] W Oman's Walker 
(Crit., iii.). Woman her very Wray 
ap. Cam. 

it} Ff, Coll. i, ii, Wh. i, Sta. 
Ktly, Cam. Ingl. it's or its Rowe et cet. 

into a] to Pope,+. to a Steev. 
Var. '03, '13, Knt. 

courage} Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Cap. carriage Coll. MS. courage; 
Theob. et cet. 

they are pleased to term 'versification' or 'rhythm,' would have us pronounce 
('soften,' Abbott calls it) this word into a monosyllable. 

173. Though perill, etc.] HEATH: I think it more probable that the poet wrote 
'Through peril,' etc. JOHNSON: I read ' Through peril.' 'I would for such means 
adventure through peril of modesty'; I would risk everything but real dishonour. 
[Heath's Revisal and Johnson's Edition were published in the same year, 1765. 
But before Johnson had completed his edition he must have seen Heath's volume; 
he speaks in his immortal Preface of the 'gloomy malignity' with which Heath 
attacks Warburton. Priority in this case is of small moment. Their emendation 
has received but slight regard. They have only one solitary follower. In the 
preceding line, is Capell's exclamation point after 'means' quite right? Does 
it not separate that word too widely from its verb, 'adventure'? ED.] 

176-179. change Command . . . courage] DEIGHTON: You must ex- 
change that habit of command, to which you have been brought up, for obedience; 
that timidity and coyness, which are the accompaniments of all womankind or, I 
might say more truly, which make up the very nature of fascinating woman, for a 
roguish courage. 

179. Woman it pretty selfe] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. Its): The original 
genitive or possessive neuter was HIS, as in the masculin^, which continued in 
literary use till the i7th century. But with the gradual substitution of sex for 
grammatical gender in the concord of the pronouns, the indiscriminate use of his 
for male beings and for inferior animals and things without life began to be felt 
inappropriate, and already in the Mid. Eng. period its neuter use was often avoided, 
substitutes being found in thereof, of it, the, and in N. W. dialect, the genitive use of 
his, it, which became very common about 1600, and is still retained in [certain 
counties]. Finally, it's arose, apparently in the south of England, and appears 
in books just before 1600. It had been, no doubt, colloquial for some time previous, 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 241 

Ready in gybes, quicke-anfwer'd, fa\vcie,and 180 

As quarrellous as the Weazell : Nay, you muft 

Forget that rareft Treafure of your Cheeke, 

Expofing it (but oh the harder heart, 183 

183. heart,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Johns, hap! Warb. Theob. Han. heart! Cap. et cet. 

and only gradually attained to literary recognition. Its was not admitted in the 
Bible of 1611 (which has thereof, besides the his, her of old grammatical gender); 
the possessive it occurs once, ['That which groweth of it owne accord of thy harvest, 
thou shalt not reape,' etc. Lev., xxv, 5], but was altered (in an edition of 1660) 
to its, which appears in all editions. 7/5 does not appear in any of the works of 
Shakespeare published during his lifetime (in which and the First Folio the pos- 
sessive // occurs 15 times), but there are 9 examples of it's and i of its in the plays 
first printed in Folio of 1623. In one of these at least (Hen. VIII: I, i, 18, 'Each 
following day Became the next dayes master, till the last Made former Wonders, 
it's') the word is probably Shakespeare's own (unless he wrote his). By this time 
it's had become common in literature, from which the possessive use of it soon 
disappeared; the neuter his is found as late as 1675. 

181. quarrellous] CRAIGIE (N. E. D.): Quarrelsome. In common use from 
about 1560 to 1650. 

181. Weazell] TOPSELL (pp. 725-733) devotes eight Folio pages to this little 
animal, yet nowhere attributes to it any general disposition to quarrel, but rather 
restricts its range of animosity. 'They are,' he says, 'in perpetual enmity with 
swine, Ravens, Crowes, and Cats.' Their 'epithets are, feareful, In-creeper, and 
swift, and besides these I finde not any materiall or worthy to bee rehearsed.' 
It is only when it is used medicinally, whether eaten raw, or baked, or powdered, 
as set forth by Topsell, that its virtues shine. ED. 

183. Exposing it] WHITE (ed. ii.): In Shakespeare's time gentlewomen com- 
monly wore masks in the open air. 

183. oh the harder heart] JOHNSON: I think it very natural to reflect in this 
distress on the cruelty of Posthumus. CAPELL: This has reference to Posthumus 
whose 'hard heart' drove them to these extremities. HUDSON: Pisanio apprehends 
that Imogen, in the part she is going to act, will feel the need of a man's harder or 
tougher heart. PORTER and CLARK: Referring to Posthumus, whose harder 
heart, harder than his own in proposing such exposure, has driven them to these 
extremities. ROLFE : This too hard hard heart of mine. Compare the use of the 
comparative in Latin. [To the same effect, attributing the reference to Pisanio 
himself. HERFORD]. INGLEBY (Revised ed., p. 105): That is, too hard, Pisanio 
turns aside for a moment to blame and excuse himself for the suggestion. WYATT: 
I am not certain of the meaning of these words, and therefore give three other in- 
terpretations before adding one of my own: (i) 'How more than hard his (Pos- 
thumus's) heart,' i. e., for compelling you to such hardships. (2) 'This too hard 
heart of mine,' which urges you to such a course. (3) Pisanio apprehends that 
Imogen, in the part she is going to act, will feel the need of a man's harder, or 
tougher heart. (4) I would suggest as possible: 'O, the danger of your heart 
becoming harder, more like a man's, when you don man's attire!' The following 
'Alack, no remedy!' at least seems to lend some countenance to this suggestion. 
DOWDEN: I take it to mean '0, the more than cruelty of it!' taking 'hard heart' 

242 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. iv. 

Alacke no remedy ) to the greedy touch 

Of common-kiffmg Titan: and forget 185 

Your labourfome and dainty Trimmes, wherein 

You made great htno angry. 

Into. Nay be breefe ? 
I fee into thy end, and am almoft 
A man already. 190 

Pif. Firft, make your felfe but like one, 
Fore-thinking this. I haue already fit 192 

184. remedy )\ remedy! Mai. Steev. conj. 

et seq. 188. breefe?] breefe: F 2 . brief: F 3 F 4 

185. Titan:] Titin: F 2 . Titan, Glo. et seq. 

Cam. 191. one,] one. Rowe ii. et seq. 

forget] forgot F 2 . forego Cap. 192. this. 7] this, / Rowe et seq. 

as equivalent to severity, cruelty. For 'harder heart' Daniel suggested 'ardour, 
heat.'' [No explanation yet given seems altogether satisfactory; Dowden's comes the 
nearest, I think. The reference cannot be to Pisanio, so it seems to me. He did not 
create the situation, he was merely an agent. His words sound to me like an echo of 
'oh, the pity of it, lago!' And yet this has far too tragic a tone at this particular 
point of the speech; when the foundations of Imogen's deepest life are shattered it is 
an anticlimax almost verging on the comic to bewail an injury to her complexion! 
And yet, in the same breath, Pisanio refers to Imogen's 'dainty trims' an illusion 
not far removed from her complexion. May we not infer that Imogen herself per- 
ceived how inappropriate were Pisanio's words, by stopping them with 'Nay, be 
brief '? Just, as on a later occasion, Guiderius says to Arviragus, ' Prythee, have done 
And do not play in wenchlike words with that Which is so serious.' ED.] 

185. common-kissing Titan] STEEVENS: Compare: 'and beautiful would 
haue bene, if they had not suffered greedy Phoebus, ouer-often, and harde, to kisse 
them.' Sidney, Arcadia, Lit., 3, p. 248 verso. 

186. laboursome and dainty Trimmes] HUDSON: It seems as if the Poet 
meant to gather up the whole traine of womanly graces and accomplishments in 
this peerless heroine; so he here represents her as a perfect mistress in the art of 
dressing so much so as to provoke the jealousy of Juno herself. And he appears 
to have deemed it not the least of a lady's duties to make herself just as beautiful 
and attractive as she could by beauty and tastefulness of dress, this being one of 
her ways of delighting those about her. 

191, 192. but like one, Fore-thinking this] THISELTON (vindicating this 
penetration): 'Fore-thinking' is here, I believe, the word that is perhaps more 
correctly spelt 'for- thinking'; 'this' either sums up the femininities upon which 
Pisanio has enlarged in his last speech, or as he speaks he may actually point to 
Imogen's dress. Imogen is no longer to cherish these foibles in her mind. She 
is to repent them, or perhaps even the word will bear the meaning of renouncing or 
forsaking. [Hereupon follow examples of 'forthenke,' from The Romaunt of the 
Rose, Skeats's Chaucer, 3957; of 'forethinke,' from the Faerie Queene, IV, xii, 14; 
and from Spotswood's Hist, of the Church of Scotland, 1655, p. 229. Many more 
are given by BRADLEY (N. E D., s. v.) with several shades of meaning, whereof the 
nearest approach to Thiselton's ' renouncing ' or ' forsaking ' seems to be to despise 

ACT in, sc. iv.] CYMBELINE 243 

('Tis in my Cloake-bagge) Doublet, Hat, Hofe, all 193 

That anfwer to them : Would you in their feruing, 

(And with what imitation you can borrow 195 

From youth of fuch a feafon ) 'fore Noble Lucius 

Prefent your felfe, defire his feruice : tell him 

Wherein you're happy ; which will make him know, 

If that his head haue eare in Muficke, doubtleffe 199 

194. Would] 'Would Theob. ii. 198, 199. which. ..Muficke,] In paren- 

Warb. theses (subs.) Pope ii, Theob. Warb. 

feruing] seeming Daniel. Varr. et seq. 

196. 'fore Noble] before Pope, Han. 198. will... know,] Ff, Rowe, Pope i, 

197. feruice:] service, Theob. et seq. Sta. Ingl. (without comma after know 

198. you're] Ff, Rowe,+, Cap. Dyce, Dowden). will., Pope ii, Theob. 
Sta. Ktly, Glo. Cam. you are Var. '73 Warb. you will. ..know, Coll. well... 
et cet. know, Vaun. you'll... know, Han. et cet. 

happy;] Ff, Theob. Warb. 199. Muficke,] musick; Theob. Warb. 

Johns, happy, Rowe et set. Johns. 

or neglect, but this, says Bradley, is in 'Old English only'; the essential thought 
which seems to run through the definitions is that of regret or repentance. This 
idea will give a meaning to the present sentence, and hereby 'save the face' of the 
compositors, but the question then arises, will it apply to Imogen in her present 
circumstances? Thiselton thinks it does apply, and he may be right; it obeys the 
golden rule of Durior lectio, etc. And yet even this golden rule should give way 
when, with only a change in punctuation, we can escape all hermeneutical torture, 
and find so easy a solution as that started by Rowe, and adopted by every editor 
since his day. See Text. Notes. ED.] 

192. fit] That is, prepared, ready. 

194. in their seruing] That is, with their aid. 

196. such a season] SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, of such an age. 

198. happy] STEEVEXS: That is, whereon you are accomplished. 

198, 109. which will make him know, If that his . . . eare, etc.] THEOBALD, 
in his Shakespeare Restored, seven years before his edition appeared in 1733, fol- 
lowed Rowe's punctuation of a comma after ' happy ' instead of the semi-colon of the 
Folio, and so missed the meaning, yet suggested an emendation which so commended 
itself to Pope that he adopted it in his second edition, of which fact Dr Johnson 
was evidently ignorant, or he would never have here indulged in his heartsome sneer 
at Theobald for 'one of his long notes.' Theobald (Sh. Rest., p. 153) says, 'it is 
evident that this passage is faulty in the pointing and in the Text. "Which will 
make him know" What? What connection has this with the rest of the sen- 
tence? Surely, Shakespeare can't be suspected of so bald a meaning as this: 
"If you tell him wherein you're happy, that will make him know wherein you're 
happy"; yet this is the only meaning the words can carry as they now stand. 
In short, I take the Poet's sense to be this: Pisanio tells Imogen, if she would dis- 
guise herself in the habit of a youth, present herself before Lucius, offer her service, 
and tell him wherein she was happy, i. e., what an excellent talent she had in 
singing, he would certainly be glad to receive her. Afterwards Belarius and 
Arviragus, talking of Imogen, [remark how 'angel-like he sings!']. I doubt not, 
therefore, but the passage should be restored thus: "Wherein you're happy (which 



[ACT in, sc. iv. 

With ioy he will imbrace you : for hee's Honourable, 
And doubling that, moft holy. Your meanes abroad 
You haue me rich, and I will neuer faile 
Beginning, nor fupplyment. 

Imo. Thou art all the comfort 
The Gods will diet me with. Prythee away, 
There's more to be confider'd : but wee'l euen 



200. you:] you, Glo. 

201. Your] For Anon. ap. Eel, Coll. 
ii. conj. 

abroad:] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Var. 
'21, Sing, abroad, Theob. Var. '73, 
Knt, Coll. Dyce, Sta. Ktly, Glo. Cam. 
abroad? Johns. abroad! Anon. ap. 
Eel. abroad Ingl. abroad Han. et cet. 

202. me rich] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Sing. 
me rich; Theob. Han. Johns, made 
me rich Anon. ap. Eel. me, rich; 
Warb. et cet. 

203. Beginning] Revenue Kinnear. 
fupplyment] supply Pope,+. 

204. Thou art] Thou'rt Pope, + , Dyce 
ii, iii. 

205. 209. Prythee] F 2 . Prethee F 3 F 4 , 
Rowe i. Prithee Rowe ii, Knt, Dyce, 
Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. Pr'ythee Pope et 

206. conftder'd:] considered, Coll. 
euen] do even Eel. conj. even 

do Ktly conj. leave Vaun. need Wray 
ap. Cam. 

will make him so, If that his head have ear in music); doubtless," etc.' This note 
was repeated substantially in Theobald's edition. MALONE, reading with Hanmer 
you'll, observes that ' the words were probably written at length in the manuscript, 
you will, and you omitted at the press; or " will " was printed for we'll.' STAUNTON: 
Neither you'll of Hanmer, nor you will of [Collier] is satisfactory. We might per- 
haps come nearer to Shakespeare by reading, 'Which will make him bow' (i. e., 
incline, yield, etc.); a change supported by, 'Orpheus, with his lute, made trees 
. . . Bow themselves when he did sing.' Hen. VIII: III, i, 4. INGLEBY: That is, 
which will make him know whether he has an ear for music. DEIGHTON: Which he 
will quickly discover if he has the smallest ear for music. THISELTON: Nothing could 
be more persuasive than Imogen's voice. See IV, ii, 463; also IV, ii, 48; V, v, 280. 

201. holy] SCHMIDT (Lex.}: Pious, godly, virtuous, righteous, of a pure heart. 

201. Your meanes abroad] MALONE: As for your subsistence abroad, you 
may rely on me. So, ' thou should'st neither want my means for thy relief, nor my 
voice for thy preferment.' III, v, 43. KNIGHT: Surely 'abroad' is not here used 
in the sense of being in foreign parts. It is the old adverb on brede. The means of 
Imogen are far off, not at hand, all abroad, as we still say. STAUNTON: 
'Abroad,' that is, disbursed, expended. Rev. JOHN HUNTER: You have me, or the 
credit of my name, as your means abroad, rich in what you entrusted to me for the 
benefit of Posthumus. DOWDEN: As to your means abroad, you have me and I 
am rich. [As this interpretation is the latest, so it seems to me the best. ED.] 
SPRENGER, to whom a little English seems to have proved a dangerous thing, ob- 
serves that ' it appears to have escaped Elze's notice that the present passage is one 
of the most corrupt in the play; it cannot, as it stands at present, be explained in 
any admissible manner. I conjecture that Shakespeare wrote: "Your means 
abroad, I hope, be rich: and you will never fail In begging our supplyment." 

205. diet] MURRAY (N. E. D., s. v. i. trans.): To feed in a particular way, or 
with specified kinds of food. In a figurative sense [the present passage quoted]. 

206, 207. wee'l euen All thet good time will giue vs] JOHNSON: We'll make 

ACT in, sc. iv.J CYMBELINE 245 

All thEt good time will giue vs. This attempt, 207 

I am Souldier too, and will abide it with 
A Princes Courage. Away, I prythee. 

Pif. Well Madam, we muft take a fhort farewell, 210 

Leaft being mift, I be fufpected of 
Your carriage from the Court. My Noble Miftris, 
Heere is a boxe, I had it from the Queene, 
What's in't is precious : If you are ficke at Sea, 
Or Stomacke-qualm'd at Land, a Dramme of this 215 

Will driue away diftemper. To fome fhade, 
And fit you to your Manhood : may the Gods 
Direct you to the beft. 

Imo. Amen : I thanke thee. Exeunt. 219 

207. thm] F x . 211. Leajl] Lejl Ff. 

207, 208. attempt, I. ..too,] Ff. at- 214. you are] you're Pope,+, Dyce 
tempt I., Rowe ii. (too, Rowe i.), ii, iii. 

Cap. Varr. Mai. Ran. Dyce i, Sing. 215. Stomacke-qualm'd] stomach 

Ktly, Glo. Cam. attempt I'm soldiered qualm 1 d Rowe. 

to, Han. attempt I'm.. .to, Pope et cet. 216. dijlemper.] distemper Pope, 

209. Away,} Haste away, Han. Theob. Warb. Johns. 

210. farewell,] Ff, Rowe i, Han. 217. Manhood:] manhood. Var. '73. 
Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. farewel. Rowe 218. bejl.} best! Pope et seq. 

ii, Pope, farewe'l; Theob. et cet. [Giving clothes, etc. Coll. iii. 

our work even with our time: we'll do what time will allow. SCHMIDT (Lex.) defines 
'even,' as a verb, by 'to act up to, to keep pace with,' which the N. E. D. adopts 
tot idem vcrbis. In illustration, Schmidt gives 'to even your content.' All's Well, 
I, iii, 3, and the present passage in Cymbeline, which he paraphrases, 'we'll profit 
by any advantage offered.' In the A 7 . E. D. the present passage is the only quota- 
tion. Is it not possible, however, to take 'even,' as a verb, in its primary significa- 
tion,' to level, render plain, or smooth 1 and then paraphrase Imogen's cheering, 
courageous words thus: 'there's more to be considered; but whatsoever good, time 
may bring us, we'll smoothe and even it all '? ED. 

208. I am Souldier too] WARBURTON: I have enlisted and bound myself 
to it. MALONE: Rather, I think, I am equal to this attempt, I have enough 
ardour to undertake it. STEEVENS: Mr Malone's explanation is undoubtedly 
just. 'I'm soldier to' is equivalent to the modern cant phrase, 'I am up to it,' 
i. c., I have ability for it. DOWDEX is the only editor who, in the paraphrase, 
' courageously prepared for,' seems to have perceived that there is here no reference 
to ardour or ability, but solely to courage, and to the courage of a Prince, the great- 
est of soldiers. ED. 

213. Heere is a boxe] MALONE: Instead of this box, the modern editors have 
in a former scene made the Queen give Pisanio a vial, which is dropped on the stage 
without being broken. 

213. I had it from the Queene] CRAIG: Probably these words would be 
spoken aside, [as 'likely to excite Imogen's distrust,' adds DOWDEX], 

246 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. v. 

Scena Quinta. 

Enter Cymbeline ^ Quecne, Cloten , Lucius , 2 

and Lords. 
Cym. Thus farre,and fo farewell. 4 

1. Scena Quinta] Scene in. Rowe. Lords and Attendants. Han. 

Scene vn. Eccles. 4. farre,] far, F 4 , Rowe,+. far; 

The Palace. Rowe. Cap. et seq. 

2, 3. Enter.. .and Lords.] Enter... 

i. Scena Quinta] ECCLES: This I assign to the afternoon of the same day to 
which the last two scenes belong, so as to leave time for Pisanio to perform his 
journey back to court after his separation from Imogen somewhere in the neigh- 
bourhood of Milford-Haven. As haste was necessary, and he may be imagined 
to travel when alone with greater expedition, he may, perhaps, have accomplished 
in less than a day what, during his attendance upon his mistress, may have re- 
quired a somewhat longer period. That so little time was necessary, however, for 
going and returning, obliges us to suppose the residence of Cymbeline at no very 
remote distance from the above-mentioned harbour, since the whole of Pisanio's 
absence is here conceived to be included within a compass of time equal to about two 
days and nights. Lucius here takes leave of the king upon setting out for Milford- 
Haven, where he was either to embark, or be joined by the Roman troops from 
Gaul. Cloten had said, in the concluding scene of the last act as it is now disposed 
of, to Lucius, 'His majesty bids you welcome Make pastime with us a day, or 
two, or longer/ &c. But we shall find it necessary to conceive Lucius to have 
remained many more days at the court of Cymbeline, according to the system here 
laid down, namely, while lachimo was proceeding to Rome, and the letter of 
Posthumus on the road from thence, and even somewhat longer, since we find him 
here setting out just before the reappearance of Pisanio, after his return from his 
attendance upon Imogen. DANIEL (New Sh. Soc. Trans., 1877-79, P- 2 44) : 
DAY 8.- In Cymbeline's Palace. The ambassador Lucius takes his departure, and 
desires 'a conduct over-land to Milford-Haven.' Lucius has sojourned in Cym- 
beline's court since Day No. 4; since then the space between Rome and Britain has 
been twice traversed by lachimo going to Rome, and by the post bringing letters 
from Posthumus to Pisanio and Lucius himself appears to have informed the em- 
peror of the failure of his embassy, and to have received a reply; for he says 

'My emperor hath wrote, I must from hence.' 

The 'day or two longer' during which he was invited to rest at Court would hardly 
suffice for this, unless we are to imagine that Rome is only 'behind the scenes, in 
the green-room.' 1 Yet more than a day or two is inconsistent with Cymbeline's 
remark immediately after Lucius's departure. He misses his daughter 

'She hath not appear'd 
Before the Roman, nor to us hath tender 'd 
The duty of the day,' etc. 

And this scene, be it observed, cannot be put earlier in time, as with Act III, sc. i. 

1 See Professor Wilson's Time- Analysis of Othello, New Sh. Soc. Trans. j 1875-76, 
part ii, p. 375. 

ACT in, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 


Luc. Thankes, Royall Sir : 5 

My Emperor hath wrote, I muft from hence, 
And am right forry, that I muft report ye 
My Mafters Enemy. 

Cym. Our Subjects (Sir) 

Will not endure his yoake ; and for our felfe 10 

To fhew leffe Soueraignty then they, muft needs 
Appeare vn-Kinglike. 

Luc. So Sir : I defire of you 
A Conduct ouer Land, to Milford-Hauen. 
Madam, all ioy befall your Grace, and you. 15 

6. wrote,} Ff, Rowe, Coll. Glo. Cam. Glo. Cam. overland Dyce ii, iii. 
wrote; Pope et cet. 15. Madam.} All joy befall your 

hence,} Ff, Rowe,+, Ingl. hence; Grace! and Madam, you! Huds. 
Cap. et cet. your Grace, and you.} Ff, Rowe, 

7. am} I'm Anon. ap. Cam. Pope, his Grace, and you! Cap. conj. 
ye] you Var. '73. Ran. your Grace, and yours! Cap. 

12. vn-Kinglike} F 2 F 3 , Pope, +. Dyce. your Grace, and you Coll. ii, 
un-King like F 4 , Rowe. unkinglike Sta. your Grace! Queen. And you! 
Cap. et seq. Cam. Edd. conj., Rife, Glo. your Grace; 

13. So Sir:} F 2 . So, Sir: F 3 F 4 , Rowe, and you! Coll. iii. your Grace, and you, 
Pope, Theob. Warb. Johns. Glo. Cam. sir. Jervis. your grace and you! [To 
So, Sir. Coll. So, Sir, Han. et cet. Cloten. Anon. ap. Cam. your grace; 

of you] Om. Han. you Walker. adieu! Vaun. your Grace, and you! 

14. ouer Land} over-land Dyce i, Sta. Theob. et cet. 

was necessary; for Imogen's absence now is the consequence of those journeyings to 
and from Rome since Lucius's arrival. The King sends to seek Imogen, and it 
then appears that she is really missing. Cloten remarks that he has not seen 
Pisanio, her old servant, these two days. Exeunt all but Cloten. To him enters 
Pisanio, who has returned to Court. Cloten bullies him into telling where his 
mistress has gone, and induces him to provide a suit of Posthumus's garments in 
which he resolves to set out in pursuit of Imogen. 

6, 7. wrote, . . . hence, And am] The punctuation here has been deemed im- 
portant, on it apparently depends a nominative to 'am.' Pope placed a semicolon 
after 'wrote,' and retained the comma after 'hence'; this was not altogether satis- 
factory, it converted ' wrote ' to an absolute use, without any direct object. CAPELL, 
however, retained the semicolon, and added another after 'hence,' which has main- 
tained its position to this day, and obliges 'am,' in the next line, to find a first person 
by implication. ED. 

ii. Soueraignty] SCHMIDT (Lex.}: That is, royal dignity. 

13. So Sir: I desire of you] WALKER (Crit., iii, 325): Qu., 'I desire you.' 
(Perhaps, too, 'So, sir; I desire you,' etc., but I greatly doubt this.) DYCE (ed. ii.) : 
Collier alters [the colon of the Folio] to a full stop. But though we have had before 
[III, i, 92] 'So, sir,' as a complete sentence, here it can hardly be disjoined from the 
words which follow. [May not 'so' here mean 'very good,' as DEIGHTON gives it, 
or any equivalent phrase of acquiescence? In this case its disjunction, from the 
words which follow, is complete. ED.] 

14. Conduct] SCHMIDT (Lex.}: Escort, guard. 

248 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. v. 

Cym. My Lords, you are appointed for that Office : 16 
The due of Honor, in no point omit : 

15. ioy befall your Grace, and you] CAPELL (whose text differs from the 
Folio only in yours instead of 'you'): Though the editor is clear that there is a 
printer's mistake in this line, he is not so at present that he has mended it rightly; 
but is more inclined to think it lay in 'your' than in 'you,' and that 'your' should 
be his; let the reader determine. [This conjecture of his for 'your' was put forth 
by Malone, and the reading yours for 'you' by Steevens; and in neither case was 
there any acknowledgement or reference to Capell. Dyce pilloried Steevens, but 
he did not know, as, possibly, he should have known, that Malone was equally in 
fault. ED.] DANIEL (p. 88): Read, 'All joy befall your grace! Madam, and 
you!' Lucius is addressing the King; he wishes him all joy, and then, turning to 
the Queen, he wishes her the like. HUDSON: I have varied a little from this 
[reading of Daniel] for metre's sake. [Thus, ' All joy befall your Grace! and, madam, 
you!'] THISELTON: 'Your Grace, and you,' /. e., I think, 'you as Queen, and as 
friend.' INGLEBY remarks that the words 'and you' appear to indicate Cymbe- 
line. BR. NICHOLSON (N. 6 Qu., VII, ii, 23, 1886) quotes the various explana- 
tions of this line, and, as to Ingleby's suggestion, that 'and you' refers to Cym- 
beline, says that the ' fatal objection is that Lucius, taking formal leave and bearing 
back a declaration of defiance, is made, with complete disregard to etiquette and 
precedent, to take leave first of the Queen, one not of royal blood, and then of 
the King, in words and in a sequence, as though he were an all but unregarded 
William newly married to a Mary, the rightful queen. He thus omits also to take 
leave of the son of this queen, whom he is made to consider a principal personage, 
and who had been appointed as his immediate attender and entertainer. II, iii, 68. 
And since the simple "and you" is an absurdly impolite way of addressing a king,^ 
an enemy king, to whom he is ambassador, it is suggested that the metrically 
needless sir may possibly have dropped out. Lastly, it is absurd that Lucius, even 
in mere courtesy, should wish all joy, that is victory, to one whom he is about to 
assail as a rebel. As to the Globe variation, one asks in vain, Where is the adieu 
to the King? He is made a puppet not worth taking into account; the Queen 
alone receives his wishes, while the text is needlessly altered to make her answer 
him. Dyce most oddly says that here " So, sir: " can hardly be disjoined, as they are 
by the colon, from the words which follow. The disjunction brings out the haughti- 
ness of state with which the Roman, again an ambassador, after suggesting a favor- 
able answer, receives the same decision, "So, sir, your words are spoken: I now 
desire of you safe conduct to Milford Haven." With the same haughtiness he, 
either after "So, sir:" or after "Haven" not improbably, indeed, after both 
makes his farewell but silent obeisance to the King, who from that moment is a 
rebel to Augustus, and the King in return gives an equally formal and silent ac- 
knowledgement of it and of his assent to the request. If we do not accept these 
silent actions we make both the King and the Roman utter barbarians, and the 
former one who does not even deign to notice Lucius's request for an escort. 
Then the Ambassador, turning to the Queen, who is no recognized arbitress of 
peace or war, or, indeed, politically speaking, no political personage at all, 
and making another knee-bend, addressing her with "Madam . . . grace," and 
lastly to Cloten, who had been specially appointed as his care-taker, but of whom 
he had taken a correct measurement, he, simply, and in the same breath, adds, if 
the text be right, "and you." I say if the text be right, for independently I was led 

ACT in, sc. v.j CYMBELINE 249 

So farewell Noble Lucius. 18 

Luc. Your hand, my Lord. 

Clot. Receiue it friendly : but from this time forth 20 

I weare it as your Enemy. 

Luc. Sir, the Euent 
Is yet to name the winner. Fare you well. 

Cym. Leaue not the worthy Lucius, good my Lords 
Till he haue croft the Seuern. Happines. Exit Lucius, &c 25 

Qu. He goes hence frowning : but it honours vs 
That we haue giuen him caufe. 

Clot. 'Tis all the better, 
Your valiant Britaines haue their wi fries in it. 

Cym. Lucius hath wrote already to the Emperor 30 

How it goes heere. It fits vs therefore ripely 
Our Chariots, and our Horfcmen be in readineffe : 
The Powres that he already hath in Gallia 33 

22. Sir,] Om. Pope,+. 28. better,] better; Theob. Warb. et 

23. winner.] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. win- seq. 

ner; Cap. et cet. 29. Brilaines] Britains F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 

25. the Seuern] Severn Ff, Rowe i. Theob. i, Cap. Britons Pope et cet. 

Happines.] Happiness! Pope et 30. wrote] wrot F 2 , Cap. 

seq. 31. ripely] F 2 , Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

ripely, F 3 F 4 et cet. 

to wish that yours, the suggestion of Steevens [Capell's text. ED.], were the 
text reading, as this would more mark his veiled contempt for the private, but 
insolent and interfering, son of a widow, Neither Ingleby's suggestion nor the 
Globe's alteration would be out of place were they necessary, but my contention 
is that in the acted play they are unnecessary.' [If action be here so essential to the 
comprehension of the text, it is difficult to believe that Shakespeare would not have 
given us some intimation of what that action should be, not in a stage direction, 
Shakespeare does not stoop to that, except on the rarest occasion, but by some 
expression let fall by the speaker or by some one present. In the last scene (V, 
v, 390), when Belarius thinks he may have addressed Cymbeline discourteously, 
he says, 'here's my knee.' Thus here, had Lucius made a 'knee-bend' to the 
Queen, as Nicholson surmises, and an 'obeisance' to the King, I think we may 
safely trust Shakespeare to have given us a hint. This is not denying that Dr 
Nicholson is right. It may be as he says. We must never forget that to him we 
owe the palmarian solution of that incomplete line in Malvolio's day-dream, 'And 
play with my-some rich jewel,' where the steward was about to say 'play with my 
chain ' when it flashed on his mind that his chain was a servile badge. ED.] 

25. Till he haue crost the Seuern] ECCLES: This renders it probable that the 
residence of Cymbeline was supposed to be at no great distance from the sea. 

31, 32. It fits vs . . . our Horsemen be] This 'be' may be either an infini- 
tive with to omitted, or the subjunctive with that omitted. The latter seems 
preferable. ED. 

THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. v. 

Will foone be dravvne to head, from whence he moues 

His warre for Britaine. 35 

<2. 'Tis not ileepy bufmeffe, 
But muft be look'd too fpeedily,and ftrongly. 

Cym. Our expectation that it would be thus 
Hath made vs forward. But my gentle Queene, 
Where is our Daughter ? She hath not appear'd 40 

Before the Roman, nor to vs hath tendered 
The duty of the day. She looke vs like 
A thing more made of malice, then of duty, 
We haue noted it. Call her before vs, for 44 

36. not] no Daniel. Cap. (corrected us in Errata), Sing. 
bttfineffe,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. looks on's Anon. ap. Cam. looks us 

Coll. Cam. business; Theob. et cet. Johns, et cet. 

37. too] FL 43- duty,] duty; Pope et seq. 

38. would] Jhould Ff, Rowe,-f, Varr. 44, 45- We haue] We've Pope,+, 
Ran. Dyce ii, iii. 

42. looke is] lookes as F 2 . looks as 44. vs,] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. us; Cap. 

F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. et cet. 

42. She looke vs like] Does this mean 'she looks to us,' i. e., where 'us' is 
the dative and Imogen is passive, and appears to be in the eyes of Cymbeline 'a 
thing of malice '? or does it mean ' she looks at us,' where Imogen is active and glares 
with malice at her father? In other words, is it Cymbeline who is surly or Imogen? 
It is pleasant to know that only two or three editors attribute the fault to Imogen, 
and they would probably soften their decision by explaining that Cymbeline mis- 
interpreted Imogen's gentle looks. The following critics apparently think that 
Imogen's looks were really malicious: RANN, HERFORD, and VAUGHAN. The first 
interprets the phrase: 'She looks on us, eyes us, or surveys us.' The second: 
'Looks upon us like.' And the third thus comments: '"She gives us a look more 
like that of a being who is showing malignity, than of one tendering duty." As she 
has not appeared this morning, the Poet proceeds, in order to avoid misconstruction 
of the verb in the present tense, " she looks," with " we have noted it." The follow- 
ing critics are in favour of Imogen: CAPELL: That is, looks on us, eyes us, or surveys 
us [thus far Rann copied Capell, but did not complete CapelPs note, who adds], 
an expression suiting the surly mood of the speaker. WHITE, HUDSON, SCHMIDT 
(Lex.), ROLFE, DEIGHTON, DOWDEN, all repeat the same phrase: 'she seems to us.' 
KEIGHTLEY (Exp.) sweeps the horizon with the remark: 'I think we should insert 
on, at, or to after 'look.' SINGER follows F 4 in his text, and naively remarks that 
'"looks us" is an awkward phrase.' Whereto DYCE replies, 'in spite of its "awk- 
wardness," it is assuredly the right reading; our early writers frequently use the 
word "look" with an ellipsis of the word which modern phraseology requires after 
it. Thus, "By looking back what I have left behind.'" A nt. & Chop., Ill, xi, 33 
(or 57 of this ed.). ABBOTT ( 220): 'Us' probably is used for 'to us' in [this pas- 
sage]. IBTD. ( 200) gives instances of the omission of a preposition after 'look'; 
thus, 'Look our dead.' Hen. V: IV, vii, 76; 'I must go look my twiggs.' All's 
Well, III, vi, 115; 'He hath been all this day to look you.' As You Like It, II, v, 34. 



We haue beene too flight in fufferance. 

Qu. Royall Sir, 

Since the exile of Pofthumus , moft retyr'd 
Hath her life bin : the Cure whereof, my Lord, 
'Tis time muft do. Befeech your Maiefty, 
Forbeare fharpe fpeeches to her. Slice's a Lady 
So tender of rebukes, that words are ftroke;, 
And ftrokes death to her. 

Enter a Meffenger. 

Cym. Where is me Sir ? How 
Can her contempt be anfwer'd ? 

Me/. Pleafe you Sir, 

Her Chambers are all lock'd, and there's no anfwer 
That will be giuen to'th'lowd of noife, we make. 



45. flight} light Ff, Rowe,+, Cap. 
Varr. Ran. 

[Exit a Servant. Theob. ...Mes- 
senger. Han. 

48. bin] been F 4 . 

49. Befeech] 'Beseech Theob. ii, + , 
Varr. Mai. Ran. Steev. Varr.- Knt, 
Sing. Ktly. 

51. ftroke;,} ftrokes, Ff. 

54. Jhe Sir? How] she? lion* Pope, 
she? and hoiu Han. she, sirrah? Ingl. 

57. lock'd} Ff, Rowe,-f , Sta. lock'd; 
Cap. et cet. 

58. to'th'] to th' F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+. to 
the Cap. et seq. 

lowd of noife] Ff (loud F 3 F 4 ), 
Var. '73, '78. loud noise Var. '73, 
Coll. i, Ktly. loud'st of noise Cap. 
Mai. Steev. Varr. Knt, Dyce i, Sta. 
Cam. Dowden. loud'st noise Coll. 
(MS.), Sing. White, Dyce ii. loudest 
noise Rowe et cet. 

51. stroke ;,] A semicolon has here usurped an s. There is no such excuse, how- 
ever, in I, v, 93, where a parallel instance of erroneous punctuation occurs. ED. 

58. to'th'lowd of noise] COLLIER (ed. i.) : The preposition of is mistakenly 
inserted after 'loud'; it is needless to the sense and injurious to the metre. 
SINGER: It is most probable that of is a misprint for 'st. DYCE (Remarks, p. 256): 
'Loud noise' [of Collier, ed. i .] does not afford the meaning which the Poet certainly 
intended, viz., that the very loudest noise which they could make drew forth no 
answer. VAUGHAX: The Folios are right, and all editors and critics, from Rowe 
to the last commentator, are wrong in their corrections of them, probable as they 
seem to be. It has escaped the observation of the best lexicographers of the 
English language, including Junius and Skinner [The Century and N. E. D. ED.], 
that 'loud' was in the fifteenth [?] and sixteenth centuries not an adjective only, 
but a substantive, signifying 'high and full sound.' So in Holland's Plinie, where 
the author is full of animated comment on the nightingale's song : ' For at one time 
you shall heare her voice ful of loud, another time as low; and anon shrill and on 
high.' The tenth Booke, chap. 29. I should certainly read 'the loud of noise.' 
[Vaughan gives no example from the fifteenth century; Holland's Plinie was pub- 
lished in 1601, which is, strictly, the seventeenth century, but may be reasonably 
considered as of the sixteenth. PORTER and CLARK, staunchly loyal to the Folio, 
assert that it is right, and, that albeit without another example in proof, 'loud' is 

252 THE TRACED IE OF ACT in, sc. v. 

Qu. My Lord, when laft I went to vifit her, 
She prayM me to excufe her keeping clofe, 60 

Whereto conftrain'd by her infirmitie, 
She fhould that dutie leaue vnpaide to you 
Which dayly fhe was bound to proffer : this 
She wifh'd me to make knowne : but our great Court 
Made me too blame in memory. 65 

Cym. Her doores lockM ? 

Not feene of late ? Grant Heauens, that which I 
Feare, proue falfe. Exit. 

Qu. Sonne, I fay, follow the King. 

Clot. That man of hers, Pifanio, her old Seruant 70 

I haue not feene thefe two dayes. Exit. 

Qu. Go, looke after : 
Pi/a nio, thou that ftand'ft fo for Pofthumus, 73 

60. clofe,] close; Theob. et seq. 69. Jay,] say; Rowe, Pope, Han. 

65. too] to F 4 . follow] follow you Han. 

66. doores] door's Knt. 71. Exit.] Exit Cloten. After line 

67. 68. Not. ..Feare] As one ' line, 72. Cap. 

Rowe et seq. (except Coll. i, ii, Sing. 72. after:] Ff. after Rowe, Pope, 

Ktly). Theob. Warb. Var. '73. after him. 

67. Grant Heauens] Grant, Heavens, Ktly. after. Johns, et cet. 

Cap. et seq. 73. thou that ftand'ft] that stands 

69. Sonne,] Son, F 3 F 4 . Go, son Steev. Johns, 
conj. Son, son, Walker, Huds. 

a noun. We may all echo Thiselton's wish that Vaughan had vouchsafed us a few 
more examples, more especially since it seems to me not improbable that 'the 
ful of loud' is a misprint for 'ful oft loud.' Plinie is enthusiastic over the wonderful 
range and power of the song, and in the sentence quoted by Vaughan the word 'of 
is at the end of the line, where a / might readily have slipped out. I am bound to 
say that there is no indication of a missing letter in my copy of Plinie; I suggest it 
merely as a possibility, which would grow to a probability, if no other example of 
'loud' as a noun is to be found in English literature. ED.] 

63. bound] DOWDEN: Does this mean bound in duty? or is the sense ready, 
willing, as often? 

65. too blame in memory] ABBOTT ( 73) furnishes several examples of 'too* 
used in connection with 'blame,' and suggests that 'perhaps "blame" was con- 
sidered an adjective, as in, "In faith, my lord, you are too wilful-blame."- r Hen. 
IV: III, i, 177.' Inasmuch as Shakespeare uses the idiom, and it is common in 
Elizabethan writers, there seems no urgent reason why we should discard it, espe- 
cially where it seems to add strength to the context. ED. 

72, 73. Go, looke after: Pisanio, thou that, etc.] VAUGHAN (p. 462): Such 
interrupted language, and so sudden an apostrophe to Pisanio, involving so 
unusual a change of person, leave me in little doubt that in the two commands, 
'son, I say, follow the King' (very imperative words, not admitting very slow 
performances), and 'Go look after,' were two commands to two different persons. 

ACT in, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 253 

He hath a Drugge of mine : I pray, his abfence 

Proceed by fwallowing that. For he beleeues 75 

It is a thing moft precious. But for her, 

Where is fhe gone ? Haply difpaire hath feiz'd her : 

Or wing'd with feruour of her loue, (he's flowne 

To her defir'd Pofthumus : gone fhe is, 

To death, or to difhonor, and my end 80 

Can make good vfe of either. Shee being downe, 

I haue the placing of the Brittifh Crowne. 

Enter Clot en. 
How now, my Sonnef 

Clot. 'Tis certaine fhe is fled : 85 

Go in and cheere the King, he rages, none 
Dare come about him. 

Qu. All the better : may 
This night fore-flail him of the comming day. Exit Qu. 89 

75. that.] that, Coll. that; Rowe et 85. fled:] Cap. Var. '78, '85, Mai. 

cet. Ran. Steev. Varr. Knt. fled, Warb. 

77. Haply] haply, Theob. Warb. et fled. Ff, et cet. 

seq. 86. King, he rages,] king; he rages, 

79. is,] Ff , Rowe, Cap. is Pope et cet. (or rages;) Cap. et seq. 

80. dijhonor,] dijhonour, F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 88. [Aside. Walker, Glo. Cam. Dyce 
Pope, Han. dishonour; Theob. Warb. ii, Coll. iii, Dowden. 

et seq. 89. day.] day! Pope et seq. 

The author wrote: ' I have not seen these two days. [Exit Cloten.] Queen (to 
Attendant). Go, look after Pisanio, thou, that stands so for Posthumus.' That is, 
'look thou after Pisanio, who stands so for Posthumus.' Nothing could be more 
natural than that the Queen, having once already directed Cloten to follow the 
King, and, having heard but now that Pisanio had not lately been seen, should 
dismiss her attendant to search for Pisanio. [In this interpretations of these 
puzzling lines, HANMER anticipates Vaughan, but with a little more violence to the 
text, thus: 'I have not seen these two days. [Exit.] Queen [To the Messenger]. 
Go, look after Pisanio he that standeth so for Posthumus,' etc. Neither Hanmer 
nor Vaughan indicates, however, the exact time of the Messenger's departure; it is 
probably after 'He hath a drug of mine,' which the Queen gives as reason for send- 
ing after him. To be relieved from supposing that Pisanio is here apostrophised is 
certainly a gain, and purchased, too, at little cost. ED.] 

88, 89. may This night fore-stall him of the comming day] MALONE: May 
his grief this night prevent him from ever seeing another day, by an anticipated 
and premature destruction. BRADLEY (N. E. D., s. v. forestall, 4 b.): To bar, or 
deprive (a person) by previous action from, of, out of (a thing). [The present line 
quoted.] WYATT: It seems to me preferable to give the sentence a figurative 
meaning: 'May this (night of) sorrow and despair caused by Imogen's disap- 
pearance deprive him of (the coming day of) her succession to the throne and happy 
reign.' DOWDEN: Wyatt's interpretation seems to be somewhat strained. The 

254 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. v. 

Clo. I loue, and hate her : for fhe's Faire and Royall, 90 

And that.fhe hath all courtly parts more exquifite 
Then Lady, Ladies, Woman, from euery one 92 

go. Royall,] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce, Sta. ning Han. Than lady Ladies; winning 

Ktly. royal; Cap. et cet. Warb. Than lady, ladies, woman; Pope 

91. that Jhe] Om. Ingl. conj. et cet. Than lady, lass, or woman; 

92. Then... Woman,] F 2 F 3 . Than... or Than lady, lassie, woman; Elze. 
Ladies Woman, F 4 . Than Lady, Ladies, Than, birlady, any woman; Sprenger. 
Woman, Rowe. Than any lady, win- 92. euery] each Pope,+. 

Queen hopes that the King's violent agitation may end her husband's life. 
WALKER (Crit., iii, 325): Would the Queen have said this to Cloten? [Foot-note 
by] LETTSOM: And would even Cloten take no notice, if such a speech had been 
addressed to him? It is strange the Old Corrector [/. e., Collier's MS.] did not add 
an Aside here. [See Text. Notes.] 

90, 91. for she's Faire . . . And that she hath] That is, because she's 
fair. . . . And because that she hath, etc. See ABBOTT, 285, if need be. 

92. Then Lady, Ladies, Woman, from euery one, etc.] WARBURTON: 
This line is intolerable nonsense. It should be read and printed thus, 'Than lady 
Ladies; winning from each one,' The sense of the whole is this, I love her be- 
cause she has, in a more exquisite degree, all those courtly parts that ennoble 
(lady) women of qualities (ladies) , winning from each of them the best of their 
good qualities, etc. 'Lady' is a plural verb, and 'Ladies' is a noun governed of 
it; a quaint expression in Shakespeare's way, and suiting the folly of the character. 
['Warburton's acuteness seems usually to have forsaken him the moment he lost 
his malignity. As some beasts muddy the water by trampling before they drink, 
so nothing is palatable to Warburton but what he has made turbid.' Landor, 
Conversation between Dr. Johnson and Home Tooke. ED.] SEWARD (Note on 
Spanish Curate, I, i, p. 185): I cannot see any impenetrable nonsense in this, 
unless o'er-weaning criticks will labor to expound it into such. The Poet's text 
is a just climax; scU. 'She hath all courtly parts more exquisite than any single 
Lady whoever; ay, than many Ladies; nay, than the whole sex put together.' 
Ferdinand, speaking of his Mistress Miranda, says almost the same thing in The 
Tempest. 'But you, O you, So perfect and so peerless are created Of ev'ry creature's 
best.' III, i, 47. [It is not impossible, nay, it is highly probable, that in the 
notes to this play we have the very last editorial work of poor, neglected, poverty- 
stricken Theobald. On the title-page to this, the second volume of Seward's 
edition of Beaumont & Fletcher, it is stated that ' The Custom of the Country, The 
Elder Brother, The Spanish Curate to page 233 are Printed under the Inspection of 
the late Mr Theobald.' Theobald died in 1744. The ten volumes were long in 
going through the press, and are all dated 1750. JOHNSON adopted the same in- 
terpretation as above of the present line, and M ALONE adopted the reference to 
The Tempest. TOLLET added an apposite reference to All's Well: 'Lafeu. Are 
you companion to the Count Rousillon? Parolles. To any count, to all counts, to 
what is man.' II, iii, 202. All commentators agree in the interpretation of the 
present passage as first given by Theobald (probably) in Seward's volume, except 
CRAIG, who has the following note on it: There are many certainly corrupt 
passages in this ill-printed play (we have unfortunately no Quarto to assist us); 



The beft me hath, and fhe of all compounded 

Out-felles them all. I loue her therefore, but 

Difdaining me, and throwing Fauours on 

The low PqfthumuS) flanders fo her iudgement, 

That what's elfe rare, is choak'd : and in that point 

I will conclude to hate her, nay indeede, 

To be reueng'd vpon her. For, when Fooles fhall- 

Entcr Pifanio. 

Who is heere? What, are you packing firrah ? 
Come hither : Ah you precious Pandar, Villaine, 
Where is thy Lady ? In a word, or elfe 
Thou art ftraightway with the Fiends. 





94. Oiil-fclles] Excels Coll. conj. 

all.} Ff, Pope, Coll. all Dyce, 
Sta. all: Rowe et cet. 

therefore,] therefore; Rowe et seq. 
96. flanders] she slanders Ktly. 

99. For, when Fooles Jhall ] F 2 , 
Coll. i, ii, Ktly. For, when Fooles 
F 3 F 4 (Fools F 4 ), Rowe i. For when 
Fool. Rowe ii. For when fools- 
Pope. For when fools Shall (Shall 
begining line 101), Theob. et cet. 

100. Scene vi. Pope, Han. Warb. 

101. What, are] Ff, Rowe, Cap. Dyce, 

Glo. Cam. What are Pope. What! are 
Theob. et cet. 

102. Ah] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Ah! Theob. Warb. Johns. Ah, Cap. et 

Pandar, Villaine,] Pope, Theob. 
i, Han. Pander, Villain, Ff, Rowe, 
Warb. Johns, pandar! Villain, Cap. et 

103. word,] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. word; 
Cap. et cet. 

104. Thou art] ThoiCrl Pope,+, Dyce 
ii, iii. 

[Drawing his sword. Theob. 

this is one. Shakespeare never wrote this nonsense. It is best to leave it, but 
he may have written something like this: ' she hath all courtly parts more excellent 
Than loveliest ladies; robbing [or stealing] from every one The best,' etc. If the 
line be nonsense, as Warburton and Craig assert, is it, therefore, misplaced in 
Cloten's mouth? If the speeches of Cloten are read aloud, no one, I think, can 
fail to observe in them a certain jerkiness, as though the words were jolted forth, 
they do not glide trippingly (or, rather, they trip too much), but come spasmodi- 
cally. This is one of his characteristics, and by it Belarius recognized him after 
long years. It was by 'the snatches in his voice, And burst of speaking' (IV, ii, 
142) that made Belarius 'absolutely' certain of his identity. Can we ask for an 
illustration of his manner of speaking better than the present line? Each degree of 
comparison, 'Lady Ladies Woman,' explodes separately. ED.] 

99. when Fooles shall] THISELTON: Cloten possibly had in view some para- 
phrase of the proverb 'Fools' haste is no speed.' This seems to me to be confirmed 
by 'are you packing sirrah'; but, at least, Pisanio practically finishes the sentence 
for Cloten in this sense, when he says at the end of this scene 'This Fooles speede 
Be crost with slownesse; Labour be his meede.' 

101. packing] STAUNTON: Plotting, contriving, scheming. 

102. Pandar, Villaine,] WALKER (Crit., i, 31): Perhaps, ' pandar- villain !' 
The reading in the edition of 1821 [Capell's] seems more probable. 

2 c6 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. v. 

Pif. Oh, good my Lord. 105 

Clo. Where is thy Lady ? Or, by lupiter, 
I will not aske againe. Clofe Villaine, 
He haue this Secret from thy heart, or rip 
Thy heart to fincle it. Is fhe with Pojlhumus ? 
From whofe fo many waights of bafeneffe, cannot no 

A dram of worth be drawne. 

Pif. Alas, my Lord, 

How can fhe be with him ? When was fhe mifs'd ? 
He is in Rome. 

Clot. Where is fhe Sir? Come neerer : 115 

No farther halting : fatisfie me home , 
What is become of her ? 

Pif. Oh, my all-worthy Lord. 

Clo. All-worthy Villaine, 
Difcouer where thy Miftris is, at once, 1 20 

105. good my] my good Theob. Warb. 108. Ik] Will Ktly, Dyce ii, iii. 
Johns. 116. farther] Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. Sta. 

106. lupiter] Jupiter Var. '21, Cam. further Johns, et cet. 

Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 117. her?] her: Ff. her. Rowe, Pope, 

107. Clofe] Come, thou close Anon. Theob. Han. Warb. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 
ap. Cam. her, Cap. (corrected in Errata). 

Villaine] villain, thou Steev. 118. Lord.] Lord! Rowe et seq. 

conj. villain, I Ktly, Dyce ii, iii. 119. Villaine] villain! Rowe et seq. 

107. Close] That is, secret, as in 'still close as sure.' I, vii, 166. 

107. Villaine] WALKER (Crit., ii, 44) devotes a chapter on Villaine and Vil- 
lainie confounded, wherein the present word is the first example. 'For "villaine" 
read wllainie, metri gratia. This correction also spares us the repetition of " villain " 
three times within a few lines. The mode of address (abstractum pro concrete) 
is frequent in Shakespeare and his contemporary poets. Gifford, if I understand 
him aright, has made the same remark, Massinger, vol. iii, p. 580, ed. ii.' [VAUGHAN 
makes the strange remark that 'S. Walker suggests "villany" conjecturally, but 
does not adduce any examples which confirm his supposition.' Of course, where 
conjectures are concerned, downright confirmation is always an open question. 
But Walker, in fact, presents ten or twelve examples which he himself believes 
amply confirm his conjecture, a conclusion which, I think, many students will 
share who read his chapter. ED.] 

115. Come neerer] HUDSON: He means 'Come nearer to the point.'' Speak 
more to the purpose. [In support of this just interpretation, CRAIG quotes: 
'What need'st thou run so many miles about, When thou may'st tell thy tale a 
nearer way.' Rich. Ill: IV, iv, 461. There is a sinister idea in Hen. V: 'give 
us leave Freely to render what we have in charge; Or shall we sparingly show you 
far off The Dauphin's meaning,' etc. I, ii, 238. ED.] 

ACT in, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 257 

At the next word : no more of worthy Lord : 121 

Speake, or thy filence on the inftant, is 
Thy condemnation, and thy death. 

Pif. Then Sir : 

This Paper is the hiftorie of my knowledge 125 

Touching her flight. 

Clo. Let's fee't : I will purfue her 
Euen to Augujlus Throne. 

Pif. Or this, or perifli. 

She's farre enough, and what he learnes by this, 130 

May proue his trauell, not her danger. 

Clo. Humh. 132 

121. worthy Lord:] Ff. worthy lord, 129-131. [Aside. Rowe et seq. 

Rowe i. worthy lord. Rowe ii. et seq. 129. Or this, or periJJt] Given to 

As a quotation, Theob. Warb. Johns. Cloten, Johns, conj., Ran. Ingl. i. 

Sta. Dyce ii, iii, Glo. Cam. 130. enough,] enough; Theob. et seq. 

126. [Presenting a letter. Mai. Pre- 131. trauell] travail H. Ingl. conj. 
senting Posthumus's letter. Ingl. 132. Humh.] Ff, Rowe,+. Humh! 

127. fee't] feet F 2 . Cap. Humph! Var. '03, '13, '21. Hum! 

128. [He reads it. Coll. ii. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

125. This Paper] Pisanio afterwards (V, v, 330) says that this was a counter- 
feit letter of Posthumus which he had by accident in his pocket! It is to be feared 
that this is one of the instances of the ' folly of the fiction ' which Dr Johnson found 
in this play; any comment on it would be, therefore, wasted on ' unresisting im- 
becility.' ED. 

129. Or this, or perish] JOHNSON: These words, I think, belong to Cloten. 
Then Pisanio, giving the paper, says to himself: 'She's far enough,' etc. RANN: 
Give me the paper, or thou diest. M ALONE: Cloten knew not, till it was tendered, 
that Pisanio had such a letter as he now presents; there could, therefore, be no 
question concerning his giving it freely or withholding it. These words, in my 
opinion, relate to Pisanio's present conduct, and they mean, I think, 'I must either 
practise this deceit upon Cloten, or perish by his fury.' INGLEBY, by an evident 
oversight, adopted Johnson's conjecture in his text with the following note: 'The 
alteration, however, is not necessary to explain Pisanio's subsequent account of this 
interview; for Cloten had already threatened him with death if he did not disclose 
Imogen's whereabouts.' In the Revised Ed., by his son, the error is corrected, and 
the present words given to Pisanio. THISELTON: As Pisanio says this he hands 
Cloten the letter, the Aside not commencing until the next line. He means 
Cloten to understand that he yields to the latter's threats, while he really ex- 
presses a wish that Cloten may not reach Imogen before he arrives at Augustus's 
throne (which, considering the state of war, was a perilous thing to attempt, and 
would scarcely assist his design), or that he should perish in the attempt. DOWDEN: 
Perhaps these words are not spoken aside, and are meant to deceive Cloten by 
apparent reluctance in showing a letter which Pisanio believes can really do no 
harm to Imogen. 




[ACT in, sc. v. 

Pif. He write to my Lord fhe's dead : Oh Imogen , 133 

Safe may ft thou wander, fafe returne agen. 

Clot. Sirra, is this Letter true? 135 

Pif. Sir, as I thinke. 

Clot. It is Poflhumus hand, I know't. Sirrah, if thou 
would'ft not be a Villain, but do me true feruice: vnder- 
go thofe Imployments wherein I fhould haue caufe to vfe 
thee with a ferious induftry, that is, what villainy foere I 140 
bid thee do to performe it, dire6tly and truely, I would 
thinke thee an honeft man : thou fhould'ft neither want 
my meanes for thy releefe, nor my voyce for thy prefer- 

Pif. Well, my good Lord. 

Clot. Wilt thou ferue mee ? For fince patiently and 145 
conftantly thou haft ftucke to the bare Fortune of that 
Begger Poflhumus^ thou canft not in the courfe of grati- 
tude, but be a diligent follower of mine. Wilt thou ferue 
mee ? 

Pif. Sir, I will. 150 

Clo. Giue mee thy hand, heere's my purfe. Haft any 
of thy late Mafters Garments in thy poffeffion ? 

Pif an. I haue (my Lord) at my Lodging, the fame 
Suite he wore, when he tooke leaue of my Ladie & Mi- 154 

133, 134. [Aside. Theob. 

133. write to] write Walker. 
Jhe's] Jhe is Ff, Rowe. 

dead:} Ff, Cap. dead. Rowe et 

134. agen.} Ff, Rowe i, Sta. again. 
Rowe ii, et cet. 

137. Pofthumus] F 2 , Var. '78. Post- 
humus's F 3 , Rowe,+. Posthumu's F 4 . 
Posthumus' Cap. et cet. 

138. but do] but to do Rowe, Pope. 

139. Imployments] employments F 3 F 4 . 

140. thee with] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. 
Dyce, Glo. Cam. thee, with Theob. et 


140. foere} Joe're F 3 F 4 . soe'er Rowe. 

141. do to performe} Ff, Rowe, Pope. 
do, perform Han. do, to perform Theob. 
et cet. 

truely,] truly: Pope, Han. truly. 
Coll. i. 

142. man:] man, Pope, Han. 

148. mine.] mine Dyce, Sta. 
mine: Glo. 

151. hand,} hand; Var. '73, Coll. 
Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

153. at my} at the F 4 , Rowe, Pope i, 

137. Clot. It is Posthumus hand, etc.] FLEAY (Life, etc., p. 246) believes 
that this play was written at different times, the last three Acts in 1606 just after 
Lear and Macbeth. 'Especially should III, v, be examined,' he says, 'from this 
point of view, in which the prose part is a subsequent insertion, having some slight 
discrepancies with the older parts of the scene.' 




Clo. The firft feruice thou doft mee, fetch that Suite 155 
hither, let it be thy firft feruice, go. 

Pif. I fhall my Lord. Exit. 

Clo. Meet thee at Milford-Hauen : (I forgot to aske 
him one thing, He remember't anon:) euen there, thou 
villaine Poflhumus will I kill thee. I would thefe Gar- 160 
ments were come. She faide vpon a time (the bitterneffe 
of it, I now belch from my heart) that fhee held the very 
Garment of Po/lhumus, in more refpect, then my Noble 
and naturall perfon ; together with the adornement of 
my Qualities. With that Suite vpon my backe wil I ra 165 
uifh her : firft kill him, and in her eyes; there fhall me fee 
my valour, which wil then be a torment to hir contempt. 
He on the ground, my fpeech of infulment ended on his 
dead bodie, and when my Luft hath dined (which, as I 169 

155. fetch] fetch me Cap. 

157. Exit.] Exeunt. Ff. 

158. Meet... II auen] In Italics, as 
quotation, Han. Sta. 

Hauen:} Ff. Haven? Rowe,+. 
Haven Han. Haven. Coll. \Vh. i. 
Haven! Dyce, Coll. iii, Glo. Cam. 

159. thing,] thing; Cap. et seq. 

160. villaine] F 2 . villain, F^F 4 , 
Rowe, Var. '03, '13, '21, Coll. i, ii. 

164. per/on;] person, Pope et seq. 

165. backe] back, Cap. et seq. 

1 66. eyes;] eyes Ro\ve,+. eyes. 

167. hir] FI. 

1 68. infulment] infnltment Ff. 

169. bodie, and] Ff, Rowe, Pope, 
Han, Glo. Cam. Dyce ii, Wh. ii. body; 

and Theob. Warb. Johns, body 
and Cap. et cet. body / know what 
I'll do, and Cap. conj. 

158. Meet thee at Milford-Hauen] HAXMER and STAUNTON put these 
words in Italics very properly, as it seems to me, to indicate that they are quoted. 
Cloten reads them from the feigned letter Pisanio has given him. ED. 

158, 159. I forgot to aske him one thing] ECCLES, in a note on line 177, 
'How long is't since she went to Milford Haven?' suggests that this 'is the inquiry 
that before he had forgotten to make.' THISELTON: As to the rest of this speech, 
Pisanio evidently overhears Cloten. [Thus only (and there is not, in the text, a 
tittle of evidence of it) can Pisanio's word in the last scene of the play be trusted. 

161, 162. the bitternesse of it, ... from my heart] DEIGHTON: That is, 
he can get rid of it now, since his prospect of revenge is so near at hand. 

169. bodie, and] VAUGHAN contributes here a long note with an arrangement 
of the punctuation, which DOWDEN commends as making 'the whole passage run 
more smoothly. 5 Vaughan's note reveals not only his complete misapprehension 
of CapelPs punctuation, but contains the statement that 'Capell, for the same 
purpose, actually inserted "I know what I'll do" before "and." A glance at 
Capell's text at once shows that this statement is without foundation. Capell's 
text has no such insertion. In his Notes (p. 113) but I will not repeat his un- 
savory explanation. Cloten's whole speech is not a subject for comment. I am, 
however, certain that had Vaughan, who is prone to be over-hasty, comprehended 

260 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. v. 

fay, to vex her, I will execute in the Cloathes that fhe fo 170 
praisM :)to the Court He knock her backe, foot her home 
againe. She hath defpis'd mee reioycingly, and He bee 
merry in my Reuenge. 

Enter Pifanio. 
Be thofe the Garments ? 175 

Pif. I, my Noble Lord. 

Glo. How long is't fince fhe went to Milford-Hauen ? 

Pif. She can fcarfe be there yet. 

Clo. Bring this Apparrell to my Chamber, that is 
the fecond thing that I haue commanded thee. The third 180 
is, that thou wilt be a voluntarie Mute to my defigne. Be 
but dutious, and true preferment fhall tender it felfe to 
thee. My Reuenge is now at Milford, would I had wings 183 

171. knock] kick Han. Warb. and true, Walker, Ingl. duteous-true, 

174. Enter...] Enter Pisanio with a and Elze. 

suit of deaths. Rowe. 183. Mil-ford,} Mil-ford; Cap. et seq. 

179. Chamber} chamber; Cap. et seq. would} '"would Theob. ii, Warb. 

1 80. thee.] thee: Cap. et seq. Johns. Cap. Mai. Steev. Varr. Knt, 
182. dutious, and true] Ff. duteous Sing. 

Capell, neither his own note nor Dowden's commendation would ever have been 
written. ED. 

181. voluntarie Mute] DEIGHTON: That is, willingly silent, not by neces- 
sity or compulsion; with an allusion to the mutes in Turkish harems, who were, if 
not dumb by nature, made so by having their tongues cut out that they might not 
be able to reveal secrets. 

182. dutious] Another example of the class of words wherein, before the 
termination ous, the compositors of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were 
wont to insert at will an i where we now have an e or a u, or no vowel at all, such 
as jealous (uniformly so spelled in Othello); prolixious (Meas.for Meas., II, iv, 162); 
robustious (Ham., Ill, ii, 10; Hen. V: III, vii, 150); tempcstious (Webbe, Disc, of 
Eng. Poetrie, p. 47, ed. Arber); dexterious (Twel. Night, I, v, 58); it is noteworthy 
that in Love's Lab. Lost, IV, i, we have, in line 71, 'beauteous,' and in the next line, 
72, 'beautious'; this practice descended even to Milton, in whose Samson Agonistes, 
line 1627, we find 'All with incredible, stupendous force.' It may be said to have 
survived even to the present day, in common speech, in tremendious and mis- 
chiemous. The substance of this note will be found in the foregoing references to 
Twel. Night and Love's Lab. Lost of this edition. ED. 

182. dutious, and true preferment] WALKER (Crit., iii, 326): What has true 
preferment to do here? Point: 'Be but dutious and true, preferment shall,' etc. 
[This punctuation is plausible, and may be right; but 'true preferment' may not be 
so far wrong as Walker supposes. There may be therein the suggestion of a con- 
trast between what Cloten can offer, which would be solid and substantial, and 
what Pisanio might hope for from his loyalty to Imogen and Posthumus, which 
would be insubstantial and false. ED.] 

ACT in, sc. v.] CYMBELINE 2 6l 

to follow it. Come, and be true. Exit 

Pif. Thou bid'ft me to my loffe : for true to thee, 185 

Were to prone falfe, which I will neuer bee 
To him that is moft true. To Milford go, 
And finde not her, whom thou purfueft. Flow, flow 
You Heauenly bleffings on her : This Fooles fpeede 
Be croft with flowneffe ; Labour be his meede. Exit 190 

184. //.] Ff, Rowe, Coll. it! Pope et 187. To him] To her Han. To Him 
cet. Anon. ap. Cam. 

185. my] thy Coll. ii. (MS.), Huds. 

185. to my losse] COLLIER (ed. ii.): Thy and 'my' were often confounded by 
the old printers, and this seems a case of the kind; the MS. puts thy for 'my,' and 
with apparent reason; it was to Cloten's loss that he bade Pisanio be true, because 
Pisanio was resolved to be true to his own master, Posthumus, who, he was per- 
suaded, was himself true, not meriting any part of the accusation of falsehood made 
to Imogen. 

187. To him that is most true] THISELTOX: That is, 'to Jove.' The cir- 
cumstances clearly preclude any other interpretation. Pisanio could not apply 
the epithet 'most true' to Posthumus; see his soliloquy on Posthumus's letter, 
III, ii, 1-23. Nor could he say that he would never be false to Posthumus whose 
command he disobeys, and to whom he has just said that he would write that 
Imogen is dead. Pisanio is one of Shakespeare's great minor characters. DOWDEN 
quotes Thiselton's interpretation, and adds 'perhaps right,' wherewith, I think, 
ihere will be general acquiescence. In the Cam. Ed. there is recorded a conjecture 
by 'Anon.' (whom I almost always suspect to be the peerless Editor himself) of 
'To Him.' This, if I understand it, with its capital H, is a reference to an authority 
far higher than the 'Jove' of Thiselton. Are we quite sure, however, that Shake- 
speare's audience, or any audience, could recall Pisanio's former mistrust or present 
deception so swiftly as to perceive that he here refers to a heavenly standard and 
not to Posthumus himself? His latest references to Posthumus have been un- 
swerving confidence in the absolute truth of Posthumus as regards Imogen. Do 
we not, without stopping to reason, almost instinctively accept the fact that truth 
to Cloten is falsehood to Posthumus, loyalty to the one is disloyalty to the other? 
And may not this fleeting allusion to Posthumus's truth, if it really is so, be one of 
Shakespeare's artful devices to soften our hearts unconsciously towards Imogen's 
cruel husband, and prepare us gradually for his full pardon at our hands? That 
I do not err in supposing that Pisanio's reference 'to him that is most true' is 
generally accepted as referring to Posthumus, Malone's note on this passage, I 
think, will show: 'Pisanio, notwithstanding his master's letter, commanding the 
murder of Imogen, considers him as true, supposing, as he has already said to her, 
that Posthumus was abused by some villain, equally an enemy to both.' CAPELL'S 
note is to the same effect. I do not forget that an actor could reveal the meaning 
of Anon.'s conjecture by lifting his eyes to Heaven. ED. 

188, 189. Flow, flow ... on her] VAUGHAN: This means, 'abound to the utter- 
most in her,' 'come in a flood tide.' 'Flowing,' in Shakespeare, commonly signifies 
'abounding greatly in measure and in degree.' 

262 THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT in, sc. vi. 

Scena Sexta. 

Enter Imogen alone . 2 

hno. I fee a mans life is a tedious one, 
I haue tyr'd my felfe : and for two nights together 4 

1. Scena Sexta.] Scene iv. Rowe. Cloaths. Rowe. Enter.. .'tir'd like a 
Scene vn. Pope, Han. Warb. Johns. boy. Coll. MS. Enter... attired like a 
Scene vm. Eccles. boy. Coll. ii. 

The Forest and Cave. Rowe. Before 3. one,] one: Pope et seq. 

the Cave of Belarius. Cap. Wales: 4. / haue] I've Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii. 

before the cave of Belarius. Dyce. tyr'd] tired F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope i, 

2. Enter...] Enter Imogen in Boy's Han. 'tir'd Sing. Coll. ii. (MS.). 

i. Scena Sexta] ECCLES : The time is the evening of the same day with that of the 
two preceding scenes. Imogen, having parted from Pisanio in the morning and wan- 
dered alone during the intermediate part of the day, having directed her steps 
towards Milford-Haven, arrives, accidentally, at the cave of Belarius a little be- 
fore he and his youths return from hunting, and when they are about to pre- 
pare for supper. DANIEL (Sh. Soc. Trans., 1877-79, P- 2 45)- When Pisanio 
parted from Imogen Milford was within ken, but since then, for two nights to- 
gether, she has made the ground her bed, and now on the third evening she arrives, 
faint with hunger and fatigue, before the cave of Belarius. If we suppose, as 
I think we may, this scene to occur on the same day as the preceding scene, we 
get including this day, the day of her departure from court, and the two inter- 
vals suggested by the time she has wandered alone a period of five days, which 
may be considered sufficient, dramatically, for the journeyings to and from the 
vicinity of Milford, and not altogether inconsistent with Cymbeline's remark 
as to her not having lately paid him the daily duty she was bound to proffer. 
She may have seen him on the day of her departure (Day 6); on the next three 
days she is absent from his presence, and on the fourth (this Day No. 8) he notices 
her absence and discovers that she has fled. Even Cloten's remark of his not 
having seen Pisanio for these two days need not form any serious objection to 
this scheme of time; and all we can say to Pisanio's remark on quitting Imogen, 
that Lucius would be at Milford-Haven on the morrow, is that his prediction 
has not been verified. Imogen goes into the cave in search of food, and Belarius, 
Guiderius, and Arviragus, returning from hunting, find her there and welcome 
her to their rustic hospitality. It is ' almost night ' when this scene closes. 

An interval, including one clear day on the principle of allowing to Cloten for 
his journey into Wales about the same time that has been allowed to Imogen and 

4. I haue tyr'd my selfe] COLLIER (ed. ii, reading 'I have 'tir'd myself): 
That is, Attired myself; this emendation is from the MS. . . . We have still some 
doubt whether the meaning of Imogen be that she has dressed herself like a boy, 
or that she has wearied herself; in the first line she says that 'a man's life is a 
tedious one,' and in the next she may reasonably follow it up by stating that she 
had tired herself. DYCE (Strictures, etc., p. 214): This emendation certainly does 
not make Imogen say, as Mr Collier supposes, that 'she has dressed herself like a 

ACT in, sc. vi.] CYMBELINE 263 

Haue made the ground my bed. I fhould be ficke, 5 

But that my refolution helpes me : Milford, 

When from the Mountaine top, Pifanio fhew'd thee, 

Thou was't within a kenne. Oh loue, I thinke 

Foundations flye the wretched : fuch I meane, 9 

5-18. Mnemonic Warb. 7. top,] top Ff et cet. 

5. ground] gound F 2 . 8. was't] Ff. 

bed.] bed: Coll. Sing. kenne.] F 2 F 3 . ken. F 4 , Rowe,+, 

6. me:] me. Pope et seq. Coll. ii, Ktly. ken: Cap. et cet. 

7. Mountaine top] mountain -top Oh lone,] Oh, Jove, F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 
Theob. ii, Han. Var. '03, '13, '21, Knt, Jove! Cap. et seq. 

Coll. Dyce, Sta. Sing. Ktly, Glo. 9. wretched:] wretched, F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 

Cam. Pope, Han. 

boy'; it makes her say that 'instead of walking about in puris naturalibus, she 
has put on some clothes.' 

4. my selfe .-] THISELTON (Rule xiii.) : An italicised colon sometimes seems to 
stand for a note of exclamation; and may, at times, be used, by a slight extension 
of the present use of that note, for the purpose of emphasis. [Is it a fact that 
the Elizabethan compositor's case was so ill-supplied with exclamation marks that 
the compositor had to resort to the ampler supply of Italic colons? Can any 
reason be given why, when he had the exclamation marks under his hand in the 
case before him, and it was the type he needed, he should move to an adjoining 
case for an Italic colon? I cannot answer, Davus sum, non (Edipus. ED.] 

6. my resolution helpes me] Possibly 'helps' here means cures, as it is 
used several times in All's Well (see SCHMIDT, Lex.); although, strictly speaking, a 
cure can only follow sickness, with which Imogen was merely threatened. 

6. Milford] LADY MARTIN (p. 195): Oh, that name, Milford-Haven! I 
never hear it spoken, see it written, without thinking of Imogen. Weary and 
footsore, she wanders in, with the dull ache at her heart far worse to bear than 
hunger yearning, yet dreading, to get to Milford, that 'blessed Milford,' as once 
she thought it. When I read of the great harbour and docks which are now 
there I cannot help wishing that one little sheltering corner could be found to 
christen as Imogen's Haven. Never did heroine or woman deserve to have her 
name thus consecrated and remembered. 

8. kenne] MURRAY (N. E. D.) : Range of sight or vision. 

9. Foundations] BRADLEY (N. E. D., 4): That which is founded or established 
by endowment; an institution (e. g., a monastery, college, or hospital) established 
with an endowment and regulations for its maintenance. [That Imogen refers 
to such a 'foundation' as a hospital I think her next words show. Of course, we 
all see the play on the word in a double sense, by imputing to what is fixed and 
founded the power of flight; and who does not feel the pathos of this wan smile in 
the hour of her hopeless misery? DELIUS, however, takes a different view; he 
thinks that 'foundation' refers to Milford, which, 'by its very nature, built and 
founded on the earth, should be immoveable, and yet flies when the wretched 
approach it for relief. Imogen has again lost the road to Milford which she had 
lately seen from the mountains.' Delius may be right; but the fact that to this 
day in England charitable institutions are called 'Foundations,' coupled with 
what Imogen goes on to say, weakens his interpretation; as it seems to me. ED.] 



[ACT in, sc. vi. 

Where they fhould be releeu'd. Two Beggers told me, 10 

I could not miffe my way. Will poore Folkes lye 

That haue Afflictions on them, knowing 'tis 

A punifhment, or Triall ? Yes; no wonder, 

W T hen Rich-ones fcarfe tell true. To lapfe in Fulneffe 

Is forer, then to lye for Neede : and Falfhood 15 

Is worfe in Kings, then Beggers. My deere Lord, 

Thou art one o'th'falfe Ones : Now I thinke on thee, 

My hunger's gone ; but euen before, I was 

At point to fmke, for Food. But what is this? 

Heere is a path too't : 'tis fome fauage hold : 2O 

I were beft not call ; I dare not call : yet Famine 

Ere cleane it o're-throw Nature, makes it valiant. 

Plentie, and Peace breeds Cowards : Hardneffe euer 

Of Hardineffe is Mother. Hoa? who's heere ? 24 

10. releeu'd] believed John Hunter 

Beggers] Beggars F 3 F 4 . 

11. way.] Ff, Rowe, + , Ktly. way: 
Cap. et cet. 

Folkes] Folks F 3 F,. folk Var. 
'73, '78, '85, Ran. 

12. afflictions] affliction Han. 
them,] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. Dyce, 

Glo. Cam. them; Cap. et cet. 

13. Yes; no] yes no Pope, yet no 

14. Rich-ones] rich ones Rowe et seq. 
tnte.] Ff, Rowe,+, Glo. true: 

Cap. et cet. 

15. Neede:] need, Glo. 

17. Thou art] ThoiCrt Pope,+, Dyce 

* * TTyi 

n, in, Wn. i. 

17. o'th'] F 4 , Rowe, + . o'/A F 2 . 
oltt F 3 . o'the Cap. et seq. 

IQ. [Seeing the Cave. Rowe. 

20. too't:] to't: Ff, Cap. Dyce, Sta. 
Sing. Glo. Cam. to't Rowe,+. to it 
Johns, to it: Var. '73 et cet. (subs.) 

21. 7 were] 'Twere Pope, Theob. Han. 
Warb. It were Var. '73. 

22. cleane it] it clean F 3 F 4 , Rowe, 
Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 

makes] make Ff. 

23. breeds] breed Han. 

Cowards:] cowards, Ff, Rowe, 

24. 26. Hoa?] Ho? F 4 . Ho! Rowe et 

13. or Triall] DOWDEN: That is, a test of their virtue. 

14. To lapse in Fulnesse] DOWDEN: To fall from truth in a state of pros- 
perity; which reminds Imogen of Posthumus, who, in the fulness of possessing her 
love, had lapsed. 

15. Is sorer] JOHNSON: Is a greater or heavier crime. 

18. but euen before] SCHMIDT (Lex.): That is, just, precisely. In King 
John, 'And even before this truce, but new before,' etc., Ill, i, 233; or as Portia, in 
Mer. of Ven., 'and even now, but now, This house, these servants and this same 
myself Are yours,' etc., Ill, ii, 171. 

19. At point] For examples of a similar use of at, see ABBOTT, 143. 

21. I were best] For this construction, see ABBOTT, 352, and 'Best draw my 
Sword,' line 27, below. 

24. Hoa? who's heere?] LADY MARTIN (p. 197): In my first rehearsals of 
this scene I instinctively adopted a way of my own of entering the cave which 

ACT in, sc. vi.] CYMBELINE 265 

If any thing that's ciuill, fpeake : if fauage, 25 

Take, or lend. Hoa? No anfwer? Then He enter. 

25. thing] Om. F 3 F 4 . '73. Take, or yield food: Han. Take 
fpeake: if ]f peak, if F 3 F 4 , Rowe i. 'or't end ho! Warb. Take or lend Ho! 

26. Take, or lend. Hoa?}Fi. Take, Johns. Take or rend. Ho! Sprenger. 
or lend Ho! Rowe, Pope, Theob. Var. Take, or lend. Ho! Cap. et cet. 

I was told was unusual. . . . Mr Macready, after expressing many apprehensions, 
thought I might try it. ... Imogen's natural terror was certain to make her ex- 
aggerate tenfold the possible dangers which that cave might cover, from wild 
animals or, still worse, from savage men. . . . The 'Ho! who's here?' was given 
with a voice as faint and as full of terror as could be, followed by an instant 
shrinking behind the nearest bush, tree, or rock. Then another and a little bolder 
venture: 'If anything that's civil, speak!' Another recoil. Another pause: 
'If savage, take or lend! Ho!' Gaining a little courage, because of the entire 
silence: 'No answer? then I'll enter!' peering right and left, still expecting 
something to pounce out upon her, and keeping ready, in the last resort, to fly. . . . 
And so, with great dread, but still greater hunger, and holding the good sword 
straight before her, she creeps slowly into the cave. 

25, 26. If any thing that's ciuill, speake : if sauage, Take, or lend] 
WARBURTON: For 'take or lend' we should read, 'Take 'or't end,' that is, take my 
life ere famine end it. 'Or' was commonly used for ere. HEATH (p. 483): That 
is, either take my life or render me your assistance. CAPELL (p. 112): The 
meaning is, Take me for food, or lend food to me; and is proper enough in her 
circumstances, whatever the savage might be, beast or man. JOHNSON: I ques- 
tion whether after the words 'if savage' a line be not lost. I can offer nothing 
better than to read: 'If any thing that's civil, take or lend, If savage, speak.' If 
you are civilized and peaceable, take a price for what I want, or lend it for a future 
recompense; if you are rough, inhospitable inhabitants of the mountian, speak, 
that I may know my state. STEEVENS: It is by no means necessary to suppose 
that 'savage hold' signifies the habitation of a beast. It may well be used for 
the cave of 'a savage' or wild man. M. MASON (p. 330): Steevens is right in 
supposing that 'savage' does not mean, in this place, a wild beast, but a brutish 
man, and in that sense it is opposed to 'civil'; in the former sense the word human 
would have been opposed to it and not 'civil.' I should be inclined to read, 'if 
savage, take or end,' if I did not suspect that 'take or lend' might have been a 
proverbial expression in use at that time, though not now understood. M ALONE: 
Dr Johnson's interpretation of the words 'take, or lend' is supported by what 
Imogen says afterwards: 'Before I enter'd heere, I call'd, and thought To have 
begg'd, or bought, what I have took.' KNIGHT (reading 'If anything that's 
civil, speak; if savage take, or lend'): It is scarcely necessary to affix any 
precise meaning to words which are meant to be spoken under great trepidation. 
The poor wanderer entering the cave which she fears is ' some savage hold ' exhorts 
the inhabitant to speak if civil if belonging to civil life. This is clear. But we 
doubt whether she goes on to ask the savage to take a reward for his food or to 
lend it; in that case she would address ideas to the savage which do not belong 
to his condition. . . . We have ventured to print the passage as if the expression 
'if savage' were merely the parenthetical whisper of her own fears 'If anything 
that's civil, speak; take, or lend.' The 'if savage' is interposed when no answer 

2 66 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. vi. 

Beft draw my Sword ; and if mine Enemy 27 

But feare the Sword like me, hee'l fcarfely look on't. 

Such a Foe, good Heauens. Exit. 29 

27. and if] an if Huds. 29. good] ye good Cap. 

28. 29. hee' '1... Heauens.] One line Exit] She goes into the Cave. 
Walker. Rowe. 

29. Such] Grant such Pope,+. 

is returned to 'speak.' HARTLEY COLERIDGE (ii, p. 192): The text is probably 
right. Shakespeare does not plan his sentences beforehand, and lay them out in 
even compartments; they grow and expand, like trees, towards heaven. If you 
be civil, speak; nay, but however savage, at least assist me for recompense. 
SCHMIDT (Lex., s. v. lend): Perhaps 'take or leave,' i. e., destroy me or let me live. 
'If the strawy Greeks . . . Fall down before him, like the mowers swath; here, 
there, and everywhere, he leaves and takes.' Tro. & Cress., V, v, 26. BR. NICHOL- 
SON (N. & Q., VII, i, 423, 1886): Imogen calls out, 'if you be savage, still you 
can understand my wants and questions, here take this I offer' advancing her 
hand with her purse in it, or lifting it horizontally from her girdle 'or lend me 
what I want.' INGLEBY: No explanation or emendation of this phrase hitherto 
proposed is satisfactory. . . . After all, the sense is so doubtful that 'speak' and 
'take, or lend' might, as Johnson proposed, change places; or 'civil' and 'savage* 
might do so. DEIGHTON: That is, probably, take money for the food I so surely 
need or bestow it upon me out of compassion; 'lend' is frequently used by Shake- 
speare without the idea of return, though generally in this sense figuratively. 
HERFORD: Take payment, or give me (food). The ellipse is harsh, and not quite 
clear; but Imogen's preoccupation with the thought of food makes it very natural. 
WYATT: If 'take' has the meaning [of taking money in exchange for food], 'lend' 
cannot have its usual modern sense, for a stranger could not proffer money and in 
the same breath suggest a loan; 'lend' is frequently used by Shakespeare without 
the notion of return. VAUGHAN (p. 555): The words 'speak' and 'take, or lend' 
have been understood as addressed to the inmate of the cave; but I take them to 
be, like the words immediately following, 'then I'll enter,' expressive of Imogen's 
intentions. Indeed, it seems almost absurd that Imogen should ask the inmate 
of the cave, supposed or found incapable of conversation with her, to 'take or 
lend' words of which he knew not the meaning. I would read: 'if savage, 
Take on lend. Ho! No answer; then I'll enter.' The whole amounts to this: 
'If he be one capable of conversation, I will speak; if a wild rustic, incapable of it, 
I will take upon loan' 'Ho! no answer; then I'll enter.' 'Lend' was a noun 
substantive when Shakespeare wrote, equivalent to loan. So (I borrow the quo- 
tation from Latham's Johnson's Diet.}: 'For the lend of the ass you might give me 
the mill.' The Crafty Miller. DOWDEN: I think that 'or' here means ere (as 
often it does), before. If robbers lurk in the cave, Imogen bids them 'take,' seize 
on, what she possesses, before they 'lend,' afford her the sustenance she needs. 
Lines [25 and 26 in the next scene] addressed to 'civil' men refer to the begging 
or buying which she would have addressed to civil occupants of the cave. 

27. Best draw my Sword] For examples of similar construction, see ABBOTT, 
351, and 'I were best,' line 21, above. 

29. Such a Foe, good Heauens] Cf. 'good Newes Gods', III, ii, 42. 

ACT in, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 267 

Scena Septima. 

Enter Belarius, Guiderius, and Aruiragus. 2 

Bel. You Polidore haue prou'd beft Woodman, and 

Are Mafter of the Feaft : Cad^cvall, and I 

Will play the Cooke, and Seruant, 'tis our match : 5 

The fweat of induftry would dry, and dye 

But for the end it workes too. Come, our ftomackes 

Will make what's homely, fauoury : Wearineffe 

Can fnore vpon the Flint, when reftie Sloth 

Findes the Downe-pillow hard. Now peace be heere, 10 

Poore houfe, that keep'ft thy felfe. 
Gui. I am throughly weary. 
And. I am weake with toyle, yet ftrong in appetite. 13 

i. Scena Septima.] Ff, Cap. Scene 10. Downe-pillow] Ff, Rowe i, Ktly, 

continued, Rowe et cet. Dyce ii, iii. down pillow Rowe ii. et 

3. Polidore] Paladour Theob. + , cet. 

Cap. Polydore Var. '73 et seq. Now] F 2 , Glo. No F 3 F 4 . Now, 

4. Cadwall] Cadwal Pope et seq. Cap. et cet. 

5. Seruant,] servant; Theob. et seq. n. felfe.] self! Pope et seq. 

6. of] and Cam. (misprint?) [Exit, to the Cave. Cap. 

7. too] to Ff. 12,13. lam] I'm Pope, + , Dyce ii, iii. 
Come,] Come; Cap. et seq. 12. throughly] througly F 3 . thor- 

o. re/lie] Sing. Ktly. restive Steev. oughly Theob. ii, Warb. Johns. Coll. 
Var. '03, '13. refty Ff et cet. Wh. i. 

3. Woodman] REED (Meas. for Meas., IV, iii, 170): A 'woodman' seems to 
have been an attendant or servant to the officer called Forrester. See Man wood, in 
the Forest Laius, 1615, p. 46. It had, however, a wanton sense. [Here it signifies, 
of course, merely a hunter.] MALONE: So in Lucrece: 'He is no woodman that 
doth bend his bow To strike a poor unseasonable doe.' 580. 

5. our match] STEEVENS: That is, our compact. See III, iii, 81-83. 

6. The sweat of industry, etc.] VAUGHAN: The language here is to our ears 
unpleasant and inappropriate, but chiefly because we regard sweat as the perspira- 
tion collected on the surface of the skin. But Shakespeare treats it here as a vital 
and virtuous juice in the tissues of industry, which, if industry were disappointed of 
its reward, would dry up and perish out of its constitution. Possibly it is since 
Shakespeare's day that the word 'sweat' has caught up associations which make 
it unpleasant. He often uses it in tragic passages. [See the Bible, passim.] 

9. restie] CRAIGIE (N. E. D., 2): Disinclined for action or exertion; sluggish; 
indolent, lazy. [Examples here follow from Coopers' Thesaurus, 1565; Golding, 
1571, and from Jonson, 1609, but none so good as the present. Cotgrave, s. v., 
Cabrer stir le devoir, gives, 'To be restie, or backward in duetie.' ED.] STAUNTON: 
Dull, idle, perhaps uneasy, 

ii. Poore house, that keep'st thy selfe] Thus in As You Like It: 'But at 
this hour the house doth keep itself; There's none within.' V, iii, 82. 



[ACT in, sc. vii. 

GUI. There is cold meat i'th'Caue, we'l brouz on that 
Whil'ft what we haue kill'd, be Cook'd. 15 

Bel. Stay, come not in : 

But that it eates our victualles, I fhould thinke 
Heere were a Faiery. 

Gui. What's the matter, Sir ? 

Bel. By lupiter an Angell : or if not 20 

An earthly Paragon. Behold Diuineneffe 
No elder then a Boy. 

Enter Imogen. 

Imo. Good matters harme me not : 

Before I enterM heere, I calPd, and thought 25 

To haue beggM, or bought, what I haue took : good troth 
I haue ftolne nought, nor would not, though I had found 
Gold ftrew'd i'th'Floore. Heere's money for my Meate, 28 

14. /'/&'] UK F 2 F 3 . i'the Cap. et seq. 
Cane,] cave; Cap. et seq. 
brouz] F 2 F 3 . browse Dyce, Sta. 

Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. bronze F 4 et cet. 

15. we haue} we've Pope,+. 

16. [Re-enter Belarius. Cap. 
Stay,] Stay; Cap. et seq. 

in:] in Rowe,+, Ktly. in. 
Coll. Dyce, Glo. Cam. 

[Looking in. Rowe. 

17. 1 8. Mnemonic Warb. 

18. Heere] Ff, Rowe i. He Rowe ii, 
Ingl. // Pope, Theob. Han. Warb. 
Here Johns, et cet. 

20-22. Angell: ... Paragon. ...Boy.] 
angel /...paragon.. ..boy. Rowe,-f. angel: 
...paragon!. ..boy. Cap. angel /...para- 
gon!... boy! Var. '73 et seq. 

23. Enter...] Re-enter... Dyce. 
24-28. Mnemonic Warb. 

24. majlers] master Ff, Rowe, Pope. 

25. call'd,] call'd; Theob. Warb. Cap. 
et seq. 

26. To haue] T'have Pope, + , Dyce 
ii, iii. 

27. nought,] Ff, Rowe,+. naught; 
Dyce. nought; Cap. et cet. 

I had] I'd Pope,+. 

28. ftrew'd i'th'] Strewed in the Ingl. 



i'th'] F 2 F 4 , Rowe,+. ith' F 3 . 
i'the Coll. Dyce, Sta. Sing. Ktly, Glo. 
Cam. o'th or o'the Han. et cet. 

28-30. Lines end: for ... Boord, ... 
parted Ingl. 

28. Mcate,] meat: Cap. et seq. 

14. we'l brouz on that] MURRAY (N. E. D.}\ To browse properly im- 
plies the cropping of scanty vegetation said of goats, deer, cattle. [The present 
is the earliest instance recorded by Murray of the use of ' browse ' in a figurative 
sense. If this prove correct, it is perhaps worthy of remark that even now, when 
use and wont have familiarized us with fanciful uses of the term, to speak of 'brows- 
ing on cold meat' would raise a smile, and that this smile must have broadened 
into a laugh when, for the first time, a Globe audience heard this huntsman's word 
put into a huntsman's mouth, and thus drolly applied. ED.] 

21. An earthly Paragon] Thus in Two Gent., 'Valentine. and is she not a 
heavenly saint.' Proteus. No; but she is an earthly paragon.' II. iv, 146. 

26. To haue begg'd] For instances of the Complete Present Infinitive, see 
ABBOTT. 360. 

28. Gold strew'd i'th'Floore] BOSWELL: Change to 'o'the floor' is un- 

ACT III, SO vii.] 



I would haue left it on the Boord, fo foone 
As I had made my Meale ; and parted 
With Pray'rs for the Prouider. 

GUI. Money ? Youth. 

Aru. All Gold and Siluer rather turne to durt, 
As 'tis no better reckon'd, but of thofe 
Who worfhip durty Gods. 

lino. I fee you're angry : 
Know, if you kill me for my fault, I mould 
Haue dyed, had I not made it. 

Bel. Whether bound ? 

lino. To Milford-Hauen. 

Bel. What's your name ? 

lino. Fidcle Sir : I haue a Kinfman, who 
Is bound for Italy ; he embark'd at Milford, 




29. Boord,} board F 3 F 4 , Ro\ve, Pope, 
Han. Glo. Cam. 

30. Meale;] meal, Coll. Glo. Cam. 
parted] parted thence Pope,-K 

parted so Cap. 

32. Money? Youth.} Money, Youth? 
Rowe et seq. 

33. to durt,] doe diirl, FjF,. do durt, 
F 4 . to dirt, Rowe. to dirt! Pope et seq. 

36. you're] F,F 4 , Rowe,+, Cap. Dyce, 
Sing. Ktly, Glo. Cam. your F 2 . yo it- 

are Var. '73 et cet. 

39. Whether] Whither F 4 . 

40. Hauen,] Haven, sir. Cap. Steev. 
Var. '03, '13. 

41. What's] Say, what is Han. What 
is Cap. Steev. Var. '03, '13, Knt. 

42. Sir:] Sir. Var. '73, Coll. Dyce, 
Ktly. Glo. Cam. 

43. he embark' 'd] he 'embark'd Pope. 
he embarques Han. Eccl. Ingl. i. here 
embark'd Vaun. 

necessary. 'In' was frequently used for on. Thus, in the Lord's Prayer: 'Thy 
will be done in earth.' COLLIER (ed. ii.) : Further on we have 'fallen in this offence' 
[line 45] for 'fallen into this offence,' and there is as much reason for amending the 
one as the other. 

30. As I had made my Meale ; and parted] The Text. Notes show how 
editors, in the belief that this line needs a syllable, supplied the gap. M ALONE 
added 'With' from the next line, and bids us say 'Prayers' as a disyllabic. KEIGHT- 
LEY adopted this injunction, with its division of the line. I cannot believe that 
the line needs anything but a very timid pause after 'Meale.'- ED. 

42. Fidele] Our German brothers find some difficulty in transferring this 
name into their own language, where it will then bear a signification which by no 
means comports with Imogen's tragic situation. TIECK converts it to Fidelia; 
HERTZBERG, to Fidel-is; and GILDEMEISTER, to Fidus. ED. 

43. he embark'd at Milford] INGLEBY: ' Embark'd ' not only mars the sense, 
but makes Imogen say what is absurd. H. INGLEBY (Ingleby, ii.): Some editors 
read embarks, after Hanmer, but Posthumus might well be supposed to be on the 
high seas, and Imogen about to join him in Italy. THISELTON: That is, 'was to 
embark.' The tense may perhaps be explained by taking ' he embark'd at Milford ' 
as virtually in the oratio obliqua; it is as if Imogen were thinking of a letter in which 
Posthumus might have written 'I embark at Milford.' 



[ACT in, sc. vii. 

To whom being going, almoft fpent with hunger, 
I am falne in this offence. 

Bel. Prythee (faire youth) 

Thinke vs no Churles : nor meafure our good mindes 
By this rude place we liue in. Well encountered, 
Tis almoft night, you fhall haue better cheere 
Ere you depart : and thankes to ftay, and eate it : 
Boyes, bid him welcome. 

Gui. Were you a woman, youth, 
I fhould woo hard, but be your Groome in honefty : 
I bid for you, as I do buy. 



45. I am] I'm Pope,+, Dyce ii, iii. 

47. Churles:] churls, Pope ii,+, 
Coll. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. 

48. Well encountered^ Ff. Well-en- 
counter'd. Rowe. W 'ell-encounter 'd ! 
Pope. Well encountered! Theob. et cet. 

49. night,] night: Cap. et seq. 

50. depart:] depart, F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+- 
thankes] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce. Glo. 

Coll. iii, Cam. thanks, Cap. et cet. 

eate it:] Ff, Rowe. eat. Var. '73. 
eat it. Pope et cet. 

53. woo] wooe F 2 F 3 , Pope,+. woe 
F 4 , Rowe, Johns. 

53. hard,] hard Knt, Dyce, Wh. Sta. 
Glo. Cam. 

Groome in honejly:] F 2 . Groom 
in honejly; F 3 F 4 , Rowe,+, Cap. Ingl. 
groom. In honesty Tyrwhitt, Var. '78 
et cet. 

54. I bid for you, as I do buy.] Ff (doe 
F 2 F 3 ), Rowe, Pope, Theob. Warb. Coll. 
i, iii, Dyce, Wh. i, Ktly, Ingl. I'd bid 
for you, as I would buy. Han. I'd bid 
for you as I'd buy. Johns. Cap. Coll. ii. 
I bid for you, as I'd buy. Tyrwhitt, Var. 
'78 et cet. / bid (welcome) to you as I'd 
be done by. Herr. 

45. falne in this offence] For instances of 'in' used for into, see ABBOTT, 


53. I should woo hard, but be] ABBOTT ( 126): There is here, perhaps, 

a confusion between 'if I could not be your groom otherwise' and 'but in any case 
I would be your groom.' [Is there not here an absorption of to in the final t of 
'but? That is, 'I should woo hard but ' [to] be your groom in all honesty.' 

53, 54. Groome in honesty: I bid for you, as I do buy] TYRWHITT: 
I think the passage might be better read thus: 'but be your groom. In honesty, 
I bid for you, as I'd buy.' That is, 'I should woo hard, but I would be your bride- 
groom. (And when I say that I should woo hard, be assured that) in honesty 
I bid for you only at the rate at which I would purchase you.' M. MASON (p. 331): 
Hanmer's [Johnson's. ED.] amendment is absolutely necessary: 'I'd bid for you 
as I'd buy.' That is, 'I would bid for you as if I were determined to be the pur- 
chaser.' And ' in honesty ' means in plain truth. ' I bid for you,' in the indicative 
mood, is undoubtedly wrong; for Guiderius does not bid for him, or express a desire 
for bidding for him, except on a supposition that he was a woman; and accordingly 
Arviragus in reply to him says : ' he is thoroughly satisfied to find him a man and 
will love him as a brother.' COLLIER (ed. ii.): The whole sentence is evidently 
conditional, and it is just as necessary to amend the first part of the sentence as 
the last. Guiderius is stating figuratively what he would give, if it happened that 
'Imogen was a woman. STAUNTON: We are not satisfied that the present emen- 

ACT in, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 271 

And. He make't my Comfort 55 

He is a man, He loue him as my Brother : 
And fuch a welcome as I'd giue to him 
(After long ab fence) fuch is yours. Moft welcome : 58 

55. Comfort] Ff, Rowe,+, Dyce, Sta. Warb. Glo. Cam. Wh. ii. brother, 
Sing. Ktly, Coll. iii, Glo. Cam. comfort, Johns, brother; Coll. Wh. i. brother: 
Cap. et cet. Han. et cet. 

56. man,] Ff, Rowe, Cap. man; 58. fuch is] such as Var. '03, '21, 
Pope et cet. Dyce i. (misprint?) 

Brother:] Ff, Rowe, Pope, Theob. 

dation, which is Tyrwhitt's, gives us what the author wrote, but have none better 
to offer. INGLEBY: The letters of 'I do buy' spell bid yon. The sense then would 
be 'For that you are a man, I bid for your friendship, as I bid you' i. e., as offer- 
ing favours, not suing for them. 'Bid' is equivalent to invite. No tolerable 
sense has ever been made of 'I do buy' by tinkering the second word. IBID. 
(ed. ii, H. INGLEBY): To say the least, it is a somewhat lame speech. Arviragus 
[sic] could hardly speak in the present time, knowing or believing Imogen to be a 
boy. Perhaps it would make better sense if the second 'I' were treated as Ay, 
it being ordinarily so spelt; and then if we take Steevens's reading in line [53], we 
might paraphrase the passage thus: 'Were you a woman, youth, I should woo 
hard to be your groom in right good faith, ay, bid for you with the intention of 
getting you.' DOWDEN: Of proposed emendations the best is that in the text 
above [Tyrwhitt's] or Hanmer's. But the first 'I' is perhaps an error, caught 
from the preceding line, and I venture to propose 'Bid for you as I'd buy,' the force 
of 'I should' running on to the word 'Bid'; the meaning would be 'I should offer 
myself to you in honourable love, even as I would obtain you.' My suggestion, 
if adopted, would improve the time metrically. The text of the Folio may mean 
'What I promise I will pay.' THISELTON: In other words, 'Here's my hand; if 
you were a woman I should offer it as for a "Hand fastynge" in token that I fer- 
vently desired to be betrothed to you in all good faith; since, however, you are a 
man, I offer it, after the manner of binding a bargain, to show that I mean the 
welcome I bid you in exchange for your friendship.' . . . 'Your Groome' is prob- 
ably an exact equivalent to 'your young man. ' [I can see no excellent good reason 
for deserting the punctuation of the Folio. It is of far more importance, is it not, 
to be 'honest' in your wooing than in dealing with your grocer? albeit apparently 
those who, with Tyrwhitt, transfer 'honesty' to the tradesmen, might not agree 
with me. Is there any insuperable objection to regarding 'I bid' as the present 
tense denoting custom: 'I am now bidding for you as I always do when I buy.' 
Whether or not the bargaining words, 'bid' and 'buy,' are such as should enter the 
ears of love (if a woman) or a friendship (if a man) rests with Guiderius or, rather, 
with the same intrusive paddling hands that mar 'the Dirge' with 'golden boys 
and girls.' ED.] 

55-58. He make't my Comfort . . . such is yours] BR. NICHOLSON (N. 
& Q., VII, i, 425, 1886): The words, 'I'll make't my comfort He is a man, 
I'll love him as my brother,' are spoken partly soliloquy-wise, partly generally; 
then turning to Imogen, he addresses her with 'And such a welcome ... is 
yours,' and in agreement therewith embraces her, saying after the embrace, 'Most 
welcome!' There is no necessity for a full stop after 'brother'; indeed, so long a 

2/2 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, sc. vii. 

Be fprightly, for you fall 'mongft Friends. 

Imo. ' Mongft Friends ? 60 

If Brothers : would it had bin fo, that they 
Had bin my Fathers Sonnes, then had my prize 
Bin leffe, and fo more equall ballafting 63 

59. [Embracing her. Ingl. Dowden. friends! If brothers? Cap. 

60. [Aside. Rovve. et cet. 

60, 61. Friends'? If Brothers:} friends. 61, 62, 63. bin] been F 4 . 

// Brothers: Ff. friends, If brothers: 62. Sonnes,] sons! Theob. et seq. 

Rowe, Theob. Warb. Eel. friends? prize] price Han. Warb. Cap. 

// brothers, Pope, Johns, friends, If Coll. ii, iii. poize Theob. conj. (Nichols 

brothers Han. friends! If br oilier s, ii, 630). peize Vaun. 

Var. '73. friends, If brothers. Dyce, 63. ballajling] balancing Han. Warb. 

Wh. Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. friends, If Cap. 
brothers, Sta. friends, If brothers! 

pause would not be natural, but there is need of a dash to show that there is a 
change of address a change of direct address to Imogen. VAUGHAN (p. 468) 
somewhat modifies Nicholson's ingenious arrangement by not including so much 
in the Aside, and by changing 'He love' into I love. Thus: ' Arv. [aside] I'll mak't 
my comfort He is a man. [To Imogen] I love him as my brother, And such a 
welcome, as I'd give him After long absence, such is yours.' 'He' in line 50 is 
the disguised Imogen; 'him' in the same line is Guiderius, pointed at by Arvira- 
gus. So is 'him' in the next line. 'I'll love' is a most natural depravation of 
/ love, being in pronunciation identical. [Of the two interpretations, Vaughan's 
seems to me the better / love and /'// love are almost indistinguishable in pro- 
nunciation, and by making the direct address to Imogen begin with these words, a 
certain awkwardness in beginning it with 'And' (as Nicholson begins it) is avoided. 
Inasmuch as both Vaughan's and Nicholson's suggestion appeared in the same 
year, no priority can be claimed for either. ED.] 

60, 61. 'Mongst Friends? If Brothers:] To both A. E. THISELTON and 
PERCY SIMPSON we are all much indebted for their vindication, in very many 
instances, of the much calumniated punctuation of the Folio. Of the present 
Italic interrogation mark after 'Friends' I can find no explanation in either of 
them. In general, the compositors affixed an interrogation to any sentence which 
contained a How, or a What, or a Who, etc., where we should now place an ex- 
clamation. In the present instance there is no such cause: the interrogation must, 
therefore, have a meaning of its own, and derived from the copy; it is rather beyond 
the intelligence of a compositor to have supplied it of his own motion. Should 
it not, therefore, be retained? Is it not conceivable that Imogen, still doubting, 
repeats Arviragus's last words questioningly, 'Mong'st Friends?' and then seeing 
the adoration of the boys written in their faces, adds with a smile of assent: 'If 
Brothers.' There is no need of adding 'Yes,' or 'Indeed,' a smile would answer 
everything. For this dramatic reason I think the interrogation should be re- 
tained. ED. 

62, 63. my prize Bin lesse . . . ballasting] HEATH (p. 483): The sense 
is, Then had the prize thou hast mastered in me been less, and not have sunk thee, 
as I have done, by overloading thee. JOHNSON: That is, Had I been a less prize, 
I should not have been too heavy for Posthumus. DOWDEN: Imogen means 

ACT III, SC. vii.] 



To thee Pofthumus. 

Bel. He wrings at fome diftreffe. 

GUI. Would I could free't. 

Anil. Or I, what ere it be, 
What paine it coft, what danger : Gods ! 

Bel. Hearke Boyes. 

Imo. Great men 

That had a Court no bigger then this Caue, 
That did attend themfelues, and had the vertue 
Which their owne Confcience feal'd them : laying by 
That nothing-guift of differing Multitudes 



68. danger:] danger, Theob. Warb. 
Ingl. danger. Johns. Coll. Glo. 
danger! Cap. et cet. 

Gods!] Aside, and given to Imo- 
gen Elze. 

69. [Whispering. Rovve. Talks with 
them apart. Cap. 

70-77. [Aside. Cap. 
73, 74. them: lay ing. ..Multitudes] Ff, 
Rowe. them; laying.. .multitudes, Pope, 

Theob. Warb. them, laying. ..multitudes, 
Han. Johns. Ktly. them, (laying... 
multitudes) Cap. et cet. (subs.) 

74. nothing-guift] Ff, nothing-gift 
Rowe,-f, Cap. (in Errata), Dyce ii, iii, 
Sta. Wh. Glo. Cam. Coll. iii. nothing 
gift Var. '73, et cet. 

differing] defering Theob. Han. 
Warb. deafening Bailey (ii, 132). 

Multitudes] multitude Spence. 

that if she had been a rustic girl, her price or value would have been less (or she 
would have been less of a prize), and it being a more even weight to that of Post- 
humus, the ship of their fortunes would have run more smoothly. 

65. He wrings at some distresse] Both SCHMIDT (Lex.) and WHITNEY 
(Cent. Diet.) define to 'wring' by to writhe in pain or torture. This implies phys- 
ical contortion and can hardly be applicable either here or in Much Ado, "Tis 
all men's office to speak patience To these that wring under the load of sorrow.'- 
V, i, 28. I think the word means here that Imogen's whole demeanour signified 
suffering, deep-seated and sharp. ED. 

72. attend themselues] That is, wait on themselves. 

74. That nothing-guift of differing Multitudes] THEOBALD: The only 
idea that 'differing' can here convey is variable changing, as in the Prologue to 
2 Hen. IV: 'The still -discordant wavering multitude,' line 19. But then what is 
the ' nothing-gift ' which they are supposed to bestow? The Poet must mean that 
court, that obsequious adoration, which the shifting vulgar pay to the great, is a 
tribute of no price or value. [Having thus showed that he has exactly understood 
the word 'differing,' and illustrated it from Shakespeare himself, Theobald, by one 
of the oddest of freaks, asserts that he is 'persuaded, therefore, [Italics mine] that 
our Poet coined it from the French verb deferer to be obsequious, to pay defer- 
ence.' And in his text he actually changed 'differing' into defering, and Warbur- 
ton said that he had rightly so spelled it ! ED.] HEATH (p. 483) : The ' nothing- 
gift' which the multitude are supposed to bestow is glory, reputation, which is a 
present of little value from their hands, as they are neither unanimous in giving it, 
nor constant in continuing it. JOHNSON: I do not see why 'differing' may not be 
a general epithet, and the expression equivalent to the many-headed rabble. M. 
MASON (p. 332): 'Differing multitudes' means unsteady multitudes, who are con- 

274 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT HI, sc. vii. 

Could not out-peere thefe twaine. Pardon me Gods, 75 

I'ld change my fexe to be Companion with them, 

Since Leonatus falfe. 77 

75. out-peere] oul-peece F 2 . out-piece ii,+, Cap. Leonatus false Var. '73, 
F 3 F 4 , Rowe. '78, '85, Ran. Leonatus' false. Walker, 

76. them,] them. Var. '85. Sing. Dyce, Sta. Glo. Cam. Leonate is 

77. Leonatus falfe.] Leonatus' s false. Cap. conj. 
Rowe i, Ingl. Leonatus is false. Rowe 

tinually changing their opinion, and condemn to-day what they yesterday ap- 
plauded. COLLIER (ed. ii.): This means merely differing in respect of rank from 
the persons upon whom those multitudes bestow the 'nothing-gift' of reputation. 
The poet is contrasting, in a manner, the givers with the person to whom the gift 
is made. DYCE (Remarks, p. 257): When Monck Mason [Theobald. ED.] cited 
the line from the Induction to 2 Hen. IV. he pointed out the true meaning of 'differ- 
ing' in the present speech. STAUNTON: 'Differing multitudes' is a very dubious 
expression. Imogen is struck with the generous courtesy and spirit of the young 
mountaineers, and she reflects that even princes or noblemen placed as they are 
(setting aside the worthless consideration of different ranks) could not outshine these 
peasant youths. Does it not appear, then, more than probable that Shakespeare 
wrote 'differing altitudes '? THISELTON (p. 35): The force of 'nothing-gift' de- 
pends upon the legal rule that 'a gift without delivery is ineffectual to pass any 
property unless the gift be by Deed.' (Warton's Law Lexicon.) 'The virtue which 
their owne Conscience seal'd them' is clearly contemplated as theirs by Deed; 
whereas the gift of the ' differing multitudes ' is merely verbal, and therefore value- 
less, as not having the seal of Conscience. DOWDEN: That is, disregarding ap- 
plause from crowds which differ one from another, and all, at various times, from 
themselves, a gift which is an airy nothing. 

75. out-peere] The CAM. EDD. note that F 4 lacks the hyphen. One of my 
copies of F 4 agrees with the note of the Cam. Edd. ; the other two have a hyphen 
thus affording a needless warning against trusting too much to the old texts. ED. 

76. I'ld change my sexe, etc.] GERVINUS (p. 644): As the royal blood in 
these brothers longed with the might of natural desire to escape out of lowliness 
and solitude into the life of the world, so Imogen's woman's blood, on the contrary, 
as naturally longed to escape out of the intrigues of the world, so well known to her, 
into retirement and peace. 

77. Since Leonatus false] CAPELL (p. 113): This sentence shows with what 
religion Shakespeare kept to his accent; since rather than violate it by using Post- 
humus there, he chose to violate harmony by that hissing collision that is now in 
this line, if is be admitted as necessary, as all the moderns [i. e., Rowe, Pope, Theo- 
bald, Hanmer, Warburton] have thought it, and as it must be in truth. There is 
a method of soft'ning this line, and retaining is too, which the editor can see no 
objection to; and that is by supposing that 'Leonatus' singly is a mistake of the 
printer's for ' Leonate is' ; a contraction exactly similar ('Desdemone' for Desdemona) 
is thrice met with at the latter end of Othello. [STEEVENS adds the instances of 
' Prosper ' for Prosper o, ' Enobarbe ' for Enobarbus.] M ALONE : As Shakespeare has 
used ' thy mistress' ear' and 'Menelaus' tent' for 'thy mistresses ear' and ' Mene- 
lauses tent' so, with still greater license, he used 'Leonatus false ' for 'since Leonatus 

ACT in, sc. vii.] CYMBELINE 2 ?$ 

Bel. It fhall be fo : 78 

Boyes wee'l go dreffe our Hunt. Faire youth come in ; 
Difcourfe is heauy, faftmg : when we haue fupp'd 80 

Wee'l mannerly demand thee of thy Story, 
So farre as thou wilt fpeake it. 

GUI. Pray draw neere. 

Ami. The Night to'th'Owle, 
And Morne to th'Larke leffe welcome. 85 

I mo. Thankes Sir. 

Ami. I pray draw neere. Exeunt . 87 

79. Faire youth] Faire you F 2 . Fair, 83. Pray] I pray Pope,+. 

you F 3 F 4 , Rowe. 84, 85. One line Pope et seq. 

So. -we haue] we've Pope,+, Dyce ii, to'th'] Ingl. to th' Ff, Rowe, 

iii. +, Dyce ii, iii. to the Cap. et cet. 

82. it.] Om. Pope, Theob. Han. 86, 87. Om. Pope, Han. 

is false.' STEEVENS: Of such a license, I believe, there is no example either in the 
works of Shakespeare or any other author. [A rash assertion, which I think 
Steevens would not have made before his quarrel with Malone. If he refer to the 
absorption of the substantive verb in a preceding s, an example occurs in this 
very play. As lachimo resumes his position in the trunk, he says, 'Though this 
a heavenly angel,' etc., where is is absorbed in 'this.' Similar examples are 
numerous in Shakespeare; many of them are gathered by WALKER, Vers.. p. 98. 

81. demand thee of thy Story] This idiom is common. See 'I shall de- 
sire you of more acquaintance.' Mid. N. D., Ill, 5, 188. ABBOTT ( 174) has 
gathered many examples wherein he explains the use of 'of ' as meaning concerning 
or about. This, however, will not always apply; within six or seven lines of the 
foregoing quotation from Mid. N. D., Bottom says (in the Ff), 'I shall desire of you 
more acquaintance,' repeating the identical words, yet changing the construction, 
whereby ABBOTT'S observation will hardly apply. Perhaps it would be better, 
in cases like the present, to regard, with DEIGHTON, 'of thy story' as a partitive 
genitive. ED. 

2/6 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT in, so. viii. 

Scena Offiaua. 

Enter two Roman Senators , and Tribunes. 2 

l.Sen. This is the tenor of the Emperors Writ ; 
That fince the common men are now in Action 
'Gainft the Pannonians, and Dalmatians, 5 

And that the Legions now in Gallia, are 
Full weake to vndertake our Warres againft 
The falne-off Britaines, that we do incite 8 

1. Scena Oclaua.] Warb. Johns. Cap. tain... Cap. 

Ingl. Scene v. Rowe. Scene changes to 4. That fince] Since that Vaun. 

Rome. Theob. In margin, and sub- 7. Warres} War Pope, Theob. Han. 

stituting iv, in, in the text as Scene vm, Warb. 

and closing the Act. Pope, Han. Scene 8. falne-ojf ] falVn of Pope, Theob. i, 

vii. Var. '73 et cet. Han. 

Rome. Rowe. Rome. The Senate- Britaines] Britaine F 2 . Britains 

House. Cap. A public Place. Dyce. F 3 F 4 , Rowe, Pope, Theob. i, Cap. 

2. Enter two Roman....] Enter cer- Britons Theob. ii. et cet. 

i . Scena Octaua] This scene is transposed by ECCLES to follow II, iv, with the fol- 
lowing note: 'Great absurdities and inconsistencies respecting the time and order of 
events must be the consequence of permitting this scene to retain its former situation. 
According to the present scheme, intelligence may be transmitted to the Roman 
State relative to the success of Lucius's embassy at the British Court while lachimo 
is posting back to Rome, and he arrives at the house of Philario, after his return, 
before the Senators deliver the Emperor's orders to the Tribunes in consequence 
of that intelligence. The time may be imagined a part of the same day with the 
preceding. [That is, the day when lachimo won the wager from Posthumus.] 
CAPELL (p. 114): This whole scene is discarded and thrown to the bottom by 
[Pope and Hanmer], and another scene stuck in place of it, the third of next 
act, which they make the concluding one of this. No reason is given for this ex- 
traordinary liberty, nor no good one could be given; on the contrary, there are many 
against it, which it were too long to enumerate, tedious to the uncritical reader, and 
needless to those who read with attention. DANIEL (Sh, Soc. Trans., 1877-79, P- 
246) : We learn that Lucius is appointed general of the Army to be employed in the 
war in Britain. This scene is evidently out of place. In any time-scheme it must 
come much earlier in the drama. ... I rather think it may be supposed to occupy 
part of the interval I have marked as 'Time for Posthumus's letters from Rome to 
arrive in Britain.' THISELTON: The insertion here of this scene, if somewhat out of 
the actual order of time, is justified by its marking the turning-point of the action, 
gently foreshadowing, as it does, the reappearance of the 'false Italian' along 
with Posthumus in Britain, which is so essential to the complete vindication of 

7. Our Warres] VAUGHAN (p. 472): 'Wars' is a singular noun substantive in 
sense here, being equivalent to 'war.' So in North's Plutarch: 'And they say that 

ACT in, sc. viii.] CYMBELINE 277 

The Gentry to this bufmeffe. He creates 

Lucius Pro-Confull : and to you the Tribunes IO 

For this immediate Leuy, he commands 

His abfolute Commiffion. Long liue Cczfar. 

Tri. Is Lucius Generall of the Forces ? 

2. Sen. I. 

Tri. Remaining now in Gallia ? 1 5 

i .Sen. With thofe Legions 
Which I haue fpoke of, whereunto your leuie 
Mud be fuppliant : the words of your Commiffion 
Will tye you to the numbers, and the time 
Of their difpatch. 20 

Tri. We will difcharge our duty. Exeunt. 

ii. commands] commends Warb. Cam. 

Theob. Sing. Dyce, Coll. ii, iii, Sta. 18. fuppliant] Ff, Rowe, + , Coll. 

Glo. Cam. Sing. Wh. i, Ktly. supplyant Cap. et 

13, 15, 21. Tri.] First Tri. Dyce, Glo. cet. 

there died in that wars . . . about the number,' etc. So again in Rick. II: 'Wars 
[Qq, Ff] hath not. wasted it, for warr'd he hath not.' II, i, 252. 

11,12. he commands His absolute Commission] THEOBALD: 'Commands his 
commission' is such a strange phrase as Shakespeare would hardly have used. I 
have by Mr Warburton's advice ventured to substitute commends, i. e., he recom- 
mends the care of making this levy to you; and gives you an absolute commission 
for so doing. CAPELL: Is commends a fit word to be joined with 'absolute com- 
mission '? or for an Emperor to use, and to ' tribunes'? The Poet thought otherwise, 
and made choice of 'commands,' a direct gallicism. JOHNSON: He 'commands' 
the commission to be given to you. So we say I ordered the materials to the 
workman. SINGER: Commend was the old formula. We have it again in Lear: 
'I did commend your highness' letters to them.' II, iv, 28; All's Well: 'Com- 
mend the paper to his gracious hand.' V, i, 31. [DYCE quotes this with ap- 
proval.] HALLIWELL: Commends may be almost said to be the correct technical 
term which ought to be here employed. 

18. suppliant] See 'supplement,' III, iv, 203. 

2/8 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT iv, sc. i. 

Adlus Quartus. Scena Prima. 

Enter Clot ten alone. 2 

Clot I am neere to'th'place where they fhould meet, 
if Pifanio haue mapp'd it truely. How fit his Garments 
ferue me? Why fhould his Miftris who was made by him 5 

that made the Taylor, not be fit too ? The rather ( failing 
reu erence of the Word ) for 'tis faide a Womans fitneffe 
co mes by fits : therein I muft play the Workman, I dare 

The Forest. Rowe. The Forest in 5. me?] me! Rowe et seq. 

Wales. Theob. Country near the Cave. 7. for] because Pope,-}-. 

Cap. 8. fits:] Ff, Rowe, Cap. fits. Pope 

2. Clotten] Cloten F 3 F 4 , Rowe et et cet. 

seq. Workman,] Ff, Rowe, Pope. 

3. to'th'] F 2 , Ingl. to th' F 3 F 4 . Rowe, workman; Theob. Han. Warb. work- 
+ , Cap. to the Var. '73 et cet. man. Johns, et cet. 

i. Scena Prima] ECCLES: I am inclined to suppose that more than two nights and 
a day have intervened since the concluding scene of the foregoing act [which, accord- 
ing to Eccles's arrangement, is III, vii.], that is, that the present scene opens with a 
part of the morning of the second day from the evening wherein Imogen first arrived 
at the cave of Belarius. By this supposition, the strong affection which the two 
young men appear to have conceived for her in her assumed character, before 
she sickens and apparently dies, will be rendered more probable, and time be 
allowed for all the parties concerned to reach the neighborhood of Milford, while 
it must, nevertheless, be acknowledged that the distance they have to travel 
is a point entirely undetermined, and that Pisanio, in III, iv, which has been 
represented as passing on the morning of the same day, in which she happened upon 
the retreat where she now abides, had said, ' the Ambassador. Lucius the Roman, 
comes to Milford-Haven Tomorrow,' line 162. But there is no occasion for imag- 
ining his intelligence to have been so perfectly exact. DANIEL (New Sh. Soc. 
Trans., 1877-79, p. 246): DAY 9. Wales. Enter Cloten dressed as Posthumus. 

4. if Pisanio haue mapp'd it truely] PORTER-CLARKE: This helps out de- 
ficiencies by the implication that Pisanio had added special instructions. These 
may be imagined to take Cloten out of his way, on the supposition that Imogen 
had gone straight on in hers to Milford-Haven. But she stopped in the cave, on 
which, of course, Pisanio did not count. 

7. for 'tis saide] See ABBOTT ( 151) for many other examples of the common 
use of 'for' in the sense of because. 

7, 8. a Womans fitnesse comes by fits] BRADLEY (N. E. D., s. v. Fit, sb z , 4. f.) : 
A violent access or outburst of laughter, tears, rage, [or of any emotions; inasmuch 
as Cloten apologises for the word 'fitness,' he probably uses it in an objectionable 
sense. ED.]. 

8. play the Workman] Not his outer garments, but his own personal attrac- 
tions must here be the agent. This leads him to rehearse his personal advantages, 

ACT iv, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 279 

fpeake it .to my felfe, for it is not Vainglorie for a man, 
and his Glaffe, to confer in his ovvne Chamber; I meane, 10 
the Lines of my body are as well drawne as his ; no leffe 
young, more ftrong, not beneath him in Fortunes, . be- 
yond him in the aduantage of the time, aboue him in 13 

9, 10. felfe, for...GlaJJe, to confer... ...chamber 7 Glo. Cam. self, for... glass 

Chamber; I meane,] Ff, Rowe, Pope, to confer... chamber. I mean, Ingl. self, 

Han. self, (for. to confer... chain- (for. to confer;. ..chamber, I mean) 

ber;) I mean Theob. Warb. Knt, Coll. Johns, et cet. (subs.), 

i, iii, Dyce i, Sta. (subs.), self, (for... 9. not] Om. Rowe ii, Pope, wo Han. 

glass to confer ;... chamber;) I mean, Var. Vainglorie] F 2 . Vain-glory F 3 F 4 . 

'21, Sing. Ktly. self for. to confer 10. 7 meane] I ween Vaun. 

9, 10. selfe, for ... Glasse, to confer . . . Chamber ; I meane] I 
found it well nigh impossible to collate this passage, wherein the difference of the 
readings lies solely in the punctuation, without separating it into such a number 
of items, each consisting of only two or three words, that the student would find 
it hard to obtain from the collation any intelligible idea. I decided, therefore, to 
record mainly the limits of the parenthesis, and disregard minute accuracy in the 
intermediate punctuation. I infer that the CAM. EDO. found the same difficulty; 
their only note records the reading of 'Capell,' which I have attributed to Johnson, 
whose edition, I incline to think, preceded Capell's. ED. 

10. Chamber; I meane] COLLIER (ed. ii.): It has been invariable to make 
the parenthesis end at 'chamber,' [as in Coll. i. and iii. ED.], but it is a decided 
error. [I cannot quite agree with Collier that it is a 'decided error' to end the 
parenthesis at 'chamber'; many excellent editors have so ended it, videlicet Collier 
himself. To-day I think it is better to include the explanatory 'I mean.' To- 
morrow I may think differently. Ophelia's wits were not wandering, but she was 
highly sane when she said 'Lord, we know what we are, but know not what we 
shall be.' And Emerson speaks of 'The fool's word: consistency.' ED.] 

12. not beneath him in Fortunes] What are the 'fortune?' wherein 
Cloten was on an equality with Posthumus? And wherefore does Shakespeare so 
very frequently use the plural? Is it to make a distinction between mere wealth, 
fortune, and the many blessings or advantages which are independent of wealth? 
Nerissa says to Portia, 'If your miseries were in the same abundance as your good 
fortunes are,' etc. Orlando says to Oliver, 'I will go buy my fortunes.' Lysander, 
in Mid. N. Dream, asserts, 'My fortunes every way as fairly ranked as his.' May 
we not discern running through these examples, and including Cloten's words, a 
strain of thought which suggests opportunities or chances of future good luck? 
Orlando with his patrimony could buy opportunities to make his fortune. 
Lysander's chances in life ranked Demetrius's. Portia's miseries were not as 
abundant in the present as her opportunities of happiness in the future; and 
although Posthumus was exiled and in disgrace, his chances of a turn of the 
tide were as fair as any one's, and Cloten was not beneath him in it. I have 
nowhere found any explanation of this plural, 'fortunes.' SCHMIDT (Lex.) merely 
states it as a fact that Shakespeare frequently uses the plural, and the N. E. D. 
does not, I think, mention it at all. ED. 

13. aduantage of the time] That is, a better reputation in the world wherein 
we live, in the society about us. Macbeth says, ' Away and mock the time with fair- 

2 8o THE TRACE DIE OF [ACT iv, sc. i. 

Birth, alike conuerfant in generall feruices, and more re- 14 
markeable in Tingle oppofitions ; yet this imperfeuerant 
Thing loues him in my defpight. What Mortalitie is? 16 

15. imperfeuerant]ill-perseverant'H.a,n. errant Coll. MS. im per clever ant Coll. iii. 
Johns, ill perseverant Warb. imper- 16. Thing] Things Rowe ii. 

ceiverant Dyce, Glo. Cam. perverse, is?] is! Rowe et seq. 

est show.' And Hamlet says, ' show the very age and body of the time his form and 
pressure'; and in many another passage. En. 

14. generall seruices] ECCLES: That is, those perfornied on the field of battle. 

15. single oppositions] CAPELL (p. 114): Opposition of man to man, 
duels; see i Hen. IV: 'In single opposition, hand to hand.' I, iii, 99. SCHMIDT 
(Lex., s. v. Opposition): That is, when compared as to single accomplishments. 
According to the usual interpretation, equivalent to single combats. [With 
CapelPs quotation from i Hen. IV. before us, this interpretation seems to be the 
only one. ED.] 

15, 1 6. this imperseuerant Thing] HANMER'S emendation, ill- per sever ant, 
was adopted by JOHNSON without comment, further than to note his authority 
for it. What meaning he attached to the words in the present context it is difficult 
to divine; in his Dictionary he defines 'perseverant' as 'persisting; constant.' 
Either meaning, with 'ill' prefixed, ill-persisting or ill-constant, is hardly con- 
sistent with Cloten's denunciation of Imogen ; they indicate the very quality which 
alone could give him hope. This unsatisfactory emendation, however, died out 
with Warburton. CAPELL next, in his Glossary (vol. i, p. 34), pronounced the word 
a 'mistake of the Speaker [i. e., Cloten] for perseverant, a French word, signifying 
persevering, unshaken, not to be shaken.' STEEVENS followed with a suggestion 
which sufficed all editors and editions down to and including Knight. '"Imper- 
severant" may mean,' said Steevens, 'no more than perseverant, like /wbosomed, 
zwpassioned, im-masked,' implying, therefore, I suppose, that these words meant 
no more than bosomed, passioned, and masked; of these, however, im-masked is 
the only one used by Shakespeare. Yet Steevens builded better than he knew. 
COLLIER (ed. i.) agreed with him; 'unless,' he says, 'we suppose Cloten to mean 
imperceptive or unperceiving as regards his advantages over Posthumus.' Whether 
or not DYCE took a hint from this note by Collier we cannot know, but in the fol- 
lowing year in his Remarks, etc. (p. 258), after quoting Collier, he continues, 
'The right reading (according to modern orthography) is undoubtedly "this 
imper ceiverant thing," i. e., "this thing without the power of perceiving my supe- 
riority to Posthumus." A passage in The Widow (by Jonson, Fletcher, and 
Middleton) stands as follows in the old copy: "methinks the words Themselves 
should make him do't, had he but the perseverance of a cock sparrow, that will 
come as Philip, And can nor write, nor read, poor fool!" Ill, ii; where, of course, 
"perseverance" is, with our present spelling, perceiverance, i. e., power of per- 
ceiving.' The next contribution to the discussion came, nine years after Dyce's 
Remarks, from W. R. ARROWSMITH (N. & Q., I, vii, 400, 23 April, 1853), who ob- 
serves that the only other example of ' imperseverant ' besides this in Cymbeline 
which he found occurs 'in Bishop Andrewes's Sermon preached before Queen 
Elizabeth at Hampton Court, in 1594, in the sense of unenduring: "For the Sodom- 
ites are an example of impenitent wilful sinners; and Lot's wife of imperseverant and 
relapsing righteous persons." Library of Ang. Cath. Theology, vol. ii, p. 62. Per- 

ACT iv, sc. i.] CYMBELINE 28 1 

[15, 16. this imperseuerant Thing] 

sever ant, discerning, and persevers, discerns, occur respectively, at pp. 43 and 92 
of Hawes's Pastime of Pleasure (Percy Soc. ed.). The noun substantive, per- 
severance - = discernment, is as common a word as any of the like length in the 
English language. To omit the examples that might be cited out of Hawes's 
Pastime of Pleasure, I will adduce a dozen other instances; and if these should 
not be enough to justify my assertion, I will undertake to heap together two dozen 
more. Mr Dyce, in his [Remarks], rightly explains the meaning of the word in 
Cymbeline.'' Hereupon Arrowsmith sets forth the 'promised dozen' examples; 
it is needless, I think, to repeat them here; especially as they are not of the adjec- 
tive, but of the noun 'perseverance,' whereof he might have found two more ex- 
amples in Shakespeare, one in Tro. 6 s Cress., Ill, iii, 150, and another in Macbeth, 
IV, iii, 93. When Arrowsmith says that he had found a second instance of the use 
of 'imperseverant' in Andrewes's Sermon he did not emphasize the fact that it 
did not bear the same meaning that Dyce attributes to the word Cloten uses. 
Cloten means, so says Dyce, tin-discerning; whereas Andrewes means unenduring; 
wherefore 'imperseverant' in Cloten's mouth still remains unparalleld. Dyce's 
spelling, impcrceiverant, with its meaning of undiscerning, has been adopted by 
The Globe Ed., the Cam. Ed., and by the N. E. D., the last gives 'imperseverant,' 
but refers for its definition to impcrceiverant. To the instances of perseverance 
already given, P. A. DANIEL (New Sh. Soc. Trans., 1887-92, p. 212) contributes: 
' There is not one amonge the very brute bestes that hath not perseuerance of suche 
good as is done vnto him.' Fol. 8 verso. 'Som other receiue a plesour offered 
so carelessly that he that gaue it maye in maner stande in doute whether he that 
receiued it hadde any perserueaunce that he was plesoured or no,' 1569. Nicolas 
Ha ward, The Line of Liberalise, etc., Fol. 73 recto. Daniel adds: 'It has already 
been proved up to the hilt by Dyce and others that he was right in modernising the 
word to imperceiverant; the above is an additional proof. But see Schmidt.' It 
has been intimated above that Steevens was nearer right than he was aware, 
for this reason: Shakespeare uses 'persever,' according to Schmidt (Lex.}, ten times 
in the sense of persevere, to insist, to be constant, whereof the participial adjective, 
perseverant, would bear the same meaning; and 'imperseverant,' if we regard the int 
as of negative force, would mean unpersevering, that is, inconstant, uninsistent, 
fickle, which clearly cannot be Cloten's meaning when he applies the word to 
Imogen. But are we obliged to take im- as of negative force? Why may we not 
accept it as of an intensive force? We find it frequently thus used by Shakespeare, 
for example: '[they] rather choose to hide them in a net Than amply to imbar 
their crooked titles.' Hen. V: I, ii, 94; where the excellent editor, Walter George 
Stone, proves, I think, that 'imbar' is used intensively, meaning to bar, or obstruct 
amply, thoroughly. Again, 'And never yet did insurrection want Such water 
colors to impaint his cause.' i Hen. IV: V, i, 80; 'trick'd With blood of fathers, 
mothers, daughters, sons, Baked and impasted with the parching street.' Hamlet, 
II, ii, 481; 'this trunk which you Shall bear along impawn'd.' Wint. Tale, I, ii, 
436; 'I am too sore enpearced with his shaft.' (impearced or im pierced, F 2 F 3 F 4 ) 
Rom. 6 Jul., I, iv, 19; 'these talent of their hair With twisted metal amorously 
impleached.' Lov. Comp., 205; 'If that the Turkish fleet Be not enshelter'd and 
embay'd. ' Oth., II, i, 18; ' that sweet breath Which was embounded in this beauteous 
clay.' King John, IV, iii, 137; 'Nips youth i' the head and follies doth emmeiv.'- 
Meas. for Meas., Ill, i, 91 ; ' How much an ill word may empoison liking.' Much Ado, 

282 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT iv, sc. i. 

PoflhuinuS) thy head (which now is growing vppon thy 17 
fhoulders) fhall within this houre be off, thy Miftris in- 
forced, thy Garments cut to peeces before thy face : and 19 

17. now is] is now Rowe ii,+, Varr. 18, 19. inforced] enforced Rowe et seq. 
Ran. 19. thy face:] her face; Warb. Han. 

18. of} of; Cap. et seq. Johns. Dyce ii, iii. 

Ill, i, 86. These words are, of course, compounded of a verb and the prefix in- 
changed into im- before b, m, and p. All the examples with the prefix im-, which 
have been just quoted, belong, I think, to the Fourth Class according to MURRAY 
(N. E. D. s. v. In-); where the in- or im- is, so Murray says, 'of Teutonic origin, 
prefixed to Old English and Middle English adjectives [and verbs also, in times much 
more recent, I venture to think] with an intensive force. In origin akin to [the 
Latin in-] with the sense "only," "intimately," "thoroughly"; and hence "ex- 
ceedingly," "very." It is to this intensive class, therefore, that I think 'im- 
perseverant' belongs, and that Cloten, in effect, calls Imogen 'this most constant, 
this immoveably persistent thing.' Any change in spelling is, I fear, of more than 
doubtful propriety. SCHMIDT'S unhappy definition, to be discarded needs but to 
be seen: 'giddy headed, flighty, thoughtless.' Since writing the foregoing, I find 
that the Rev. JOHN HUNTER has the judicious note on ' imperseverant ' : 'That is, 
persisting, stubborn. The prefix im- is not here the negative one,' which is in 
accord with what I have just said. ED. 

19. thy Garments cut to peeces before thy face] WARBURTON: Post- 
humus was to have his head struck off, and then his garments cut to pieces before 
his face; we should read 'her face,' i, e., that is Imogen's, done to despite her, who 
had said she esteem'd Posthumus's garment above the person of Cloten. 
M ALONE: Shakespeare, who in The Winter's Tale, makes a Clown say, 'If thou'lt 
see a thing to talk on after thou art dead,' would not scruple to give the expression 
in the text to so fantastic a character as Cloten. The garments of Posthumus 
might indeed be cut to pieces before his face, though his head were cut off; no one, 
however, but Cloten would consider this circumstance as any aggravation of the 
insult. DYCE (ed. ii.), after styling this note of Malone 'preposterous,' remarks 
that 'Cloten could have no possible object in cutting to pieces the garments of 
Posthumus before his face, even if Posthumus had been alive to witness the dis- 
section. Cloten wishes to cut them to pieces before the face of Imogen as a sort 
of revenge [for what she had said to him]. Cloten is certainly not the downright 
idiot that Capell and Malone would make him out to be.' KNIGHT agrees with 
Malone: 'Cloten in his brutal way, thinks it a satisfaction that, after he has cut 
off his rival's head, the face will still be present at the destruction of the garments.' 

-PORTER-CLARKE explain 'thy face' by supposing that 'Cloten is, in fancy, 
taunting Imogen,' and they may be right; albeit, that after using 'thy' three times 
in addressing Posthumus, the transition in the fourth ' thy ' to Imogen is somewhat 
abrupt. It seems to me, however, that too much attention has been given to the 
'face' and not enough to the 'garments.' In the prospective duel there can be but 
two suits of garments; one on each of the combatants. Unhappily both suits 
belong to Posthumus. To which one, therefore, does Cloten refer? He could 
hardly refer to the suit he himself wore. His return to the Palace in rags (which 
would not have been improved by his acrobatic 'spurning' of Imogen, while on 
horse-back) did not exactly comport with his royal rank. He must, therefore, 

ACT IV, SC. ii.] 



all this done, fpurnc her home to her Father, who may 20 
(happily) be a little angry for my fo rough vfage: but my 
Mother hauing power of his teftineffe, fhall turne all in- 
to my commendations. My Horfe is tyed vp fafe , out 
Sword, and to a fore purpofe : Fortune put them into my 
hand : This is the very defcription of their meeting place 25 
and the Fellow dares not deceiue me. Exit. 

Scena Secuuda. 

Enter Belarins , Guiderius , Annragiis , and 2 

Imogen from the Cane. 

Bel. You are not well : Remaine heere in the Caue, 
Wee'l come to you after Hunting. 5 

Ami. Brother, ftay heere : 
Are we not Brothers ? 

Ivw. So man and man fhould be, 
But Clay and Clay, differs in dignitie, 
Whofe duft is both alike. I am very ficke, 10 

20. fpurne] I'll spurn Han. 
Father,] father; Cap. et seq. 

21. happily] haply Johns, et seq. 
(except happely Wh. i.). 

2 3- fafe,] safe, Johns, safe: Pope et 

24. purpofe:] purpose. Cap. Coll. ii, 
iii. purpose! Pope et cet. 

24, 25. Fortune. ..hand:] fortune... 
hand! Han. Fortune, ...hand! Johns, 
et cet. 

25. meeting place] Ff, Rowe, Theob. 

Warb. Johns, meeting-place Han. et 

i. Scene continued. Rowe. 

Scene changes to the Front of the 
Cave. Theob. 

4. [To Imo. Cap. 

Caue,] cave; Theob. Warb. et seq. 

5. to you] t'you Pope,+. 

6. [To Imo. Theob. 

8. be,] be; Theob. Warb et seq. 
10, 16. / am] I'm Pope,+, Dyce ii, 

have in mind the suit worn by Posthumus. May we not then picture the fight, as 
it outlined itself in the conceited brain of the braggart, where his every stroke 
cut and slashed his victim's fine garments, while that victim was still alive, and, 
in the havoc of his clothes, receive a foretaste of his own doom, before Cloten gave 
him his coup de grace? If this picture be true, the Folio text needs no change. 

10. Whose dust is both alike] DEIGHTON takes 'dust' here as a reference 
to the ashes of death, and he may be right; but I had always supposed the sen- 
tence to mean that clay and clay are different in outward show, although both are 
composed of the same dust, where 'dust' is used in its Biblical sense: 'dust thou 
art and unto dust shall thou return.' ED. PORTER-CLARKE suggest that these 
words were elicited by 'an embrace from the loving and sympathetic Arviragus, 
from which, although not in itself objectionable, Imogen had instinctivly recoiled.' 

284 THE TRACED IE OF [ACT iv, sc. ii. 

Gui. Go you to Hunting, He abide with him. 1 1 

Imo. So ficke I am not, yet I am not well : 
But not fo Citizen a wanton, as 

To feeme to dye, ere ficke : So pleafe you, leaue me, 
Sticke to your lournall courfe : the breach of Cuftome, 15 

Is breach of all. I am ill, but your being by me 
Cannot amend me. Society, is no comfort 
To one not fociable : I am not very ficke , 
Since I can reafon of it : pray you truft me heere, 
He rob none but my felfe, and let me dye 20 

Stealing fo poorely. 

Gui. I loue thee : I haue fpoke it, 22 

11. Hunting,] hunting; Coll. Dyce, 17. Society,] Society Rowe et seq. 
Sta. Glo. Cam. hunting. Sing. 18. / am] I'm Pope,+, Steev. Var. 

12. not,] Ff. Rowe,+, Coll. Dyce, '03, '13, Dyce ii, iii. 
Sta. Glo. Cam. not; Cap. et cet. ficke,] feck. F 2 . 

well:] well, Rowe, Pope, Han. 19. of it:] Ff, Coll. oft Han. of it. 

13. Citizen] sickening Perring. Rowe et cet. 

14. me,] me; Cap. et seq. heere,} here: Cap. et seq. 

15. Cuflome,] custom Cap. et seq. 20. felfe} Ff, Rowe,+, Coll. self; 

15. 16. Cuflome, Is] custom is The Cap. et cet. 

Sta. conj. (Athenaeum, 14 June, 1873). dye] dye, Cap. et seq. 

1 6. ill,] ill; Cap. et seq. 22. fpoke it,] spoke it; Theob. et 

17. me.] me: Cap. et seq. seq. 

13. not so Citizen a wanton] NARES (Gloss., s-. v. Citizen. As an adjec- 
tive): Town bred; delicate. HUDSON: I suspect this is an instance of transposi- 
tion, and that 'wanton' is to be taken as an adjective, 'so wanton a citizen,' or 
'a citizen so wanton.' SCHMIDT (Lex.} supplies many an instance of 'wanton' used 
as a noun. None, however, can be better than the following, which DOWDEN 
supplies from Roper's Life of Sir Thomas More (Lumbys ed. of Utopia, xlii.) , where 
Sir Thomas says: 'For me thinketh God maketh me a wanton, and setteth me 
on his lapp and dandleth me.' MURRAY (N. E. D., s. i\ Citizen, 4. adjective): 
Citizenish, city-bred, nonce-use. [The present line the sole quotation.] 

15. your lournall course] JOHNSON: Keep your daily course uninterrupted; 
if the stated plan of life is once broken, nothing follows but confusion. 

19. Since I can reason of it: pray you trust me] WALKER (Crit., i, 77) 
devotes a chapter to examples where, as he says, ' 'Pray you, 'beseech you, are fre- 
quent in Shakespeare. I remember also 'crave you (in Macb.), and the substitution, 
in printing, of the longer form for the shorter has destroyed the metre of numerous 
passages in our old dramatists.' Among the examples is the present line, which 
Walker would accordingly read: 'Since I can reason of 't. Pray trust me here.' 
So again in IV, ii, 323, 324, below. 

20. He rob none but my selfe] DOWDEN: Does Imogen give her words 
point for herself by a hidden reference to the womanly